Abstract

We have demonstrated a low temperature-dependent silica-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer-like optical filter on a pure silica substrate at 1.55 μm. 8GeO2-xB2O3-(92-x)SiO2 (x = 1, 2, 4 and 5 in mol.%) films have been deposited by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition as the waveguide-core. Incorporation of the B2O3 into the waveguide-core has resulted in a lower temperature-dependent Mach-Zehnder interferometer-like optical filter wavelength from 9.4 to 8.1 pm/°C at 1.55 μm. Furthermore, with a partial substitution of SiO2 by B2O3, the ultraviolet photosensitivity of the waveguide has significantly been improved. A low-propagation-loss of 0.11 dB/cm at 1.55 μm has been achieved by using actual Mach-Zehnder interferometer devices.

©2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill , Y. Fujii , D. C. Johnson , and B. S. Kawasaki , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   32 , 647 – 649 ( 1978 ).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. O. Hill , B. Malo , F. Biodeau , and D. C. Johnson , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber ,” Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci.   23 , 125 – 157 ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi , “ Observations of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1743 – 1744 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Kokubun , S. Yoneda , and H. Tanaka , “ Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3μm wavelength by an athermal waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1998 – 2000 ( 1996 ).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. X. Bi , M. Bryan , E. Euvrard , and T. Jenks , “ Laser reactive deposition produces glasses for PLCs ,” WDM solutions   4 , 113 – 116 ( 2002 ).
  7. T. Hattori , S. Semura , and N. Akasaka , “ Inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 and GeO 2 -SiO 2 films for optical waveguides using tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylgermanium ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I   38 , 2775 – 2778 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. N. Nourshargh , E. M. Starr , and T. M. Ong , “ Integrated optic 1×4 splitter in SiO 2 /GeO 2 ,” Electron. Lett.   25 , 981 – 982 ( 1989 ).
    [Crossref]
  10. Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  11. Q. Y. Zhang , K. Pita , L. P. Zuo , and S. Takahashi , “ Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   368 , 183 – 188 ( 2003 ).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Kintaka , J. Nishii , Y. Kawamoto , A. Sakamoto , and P.G. Kazansky , “ Temperature sensitivity of Ge-B-SiO 2 waveguide Bragg gratings on a crystallized glass substrate ,” Opt. Lett.   27 , 1394 – 1397 ( 2002 ).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. N. Trukhin , H. J. Fitting , T. Barfels , and A. V. Czarnowski , “ Cathodoluminescence and IR absorption of oxygen deficient silica-influence of hydrogen treatment ,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids   260 , 132 – 140 ( 1999 ).
    [Crossref]

2003 (1)

Q. Y. Zhang , K. Pita , L. P. Zuo , and S. Takahashi , “ Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   368 , 183 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

T. Hattori , S. Semura , and N. Akasaka , “ Inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 and GeO 2 -SiO 2 films for optical waveguides using tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylgermanium ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I   38 , 2775 – 2778 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

A. N. Trukhin , H. J. Fitting , T. Barfels , and A. V. Czarnowski , “ Cathodoluminescence and IR absorption of oxygen deficient silica-influence of hydrogen treatment ,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids   260 , 132 – 140 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. Kokubun , S. Yoneda , and H. Tanaka , “ Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3μm wavelength by an athermal waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1998 – 2000 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

K. O. Hill , B. Malo , F. Biodeau , and D. C. Johnson , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber ,” Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci.   23 , 125 – 157 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi , “ Observations of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1743 – 1744 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

N. Nourshargh , E. M. Starr , and T. M. Ong , “ Integrated optic 1×4 splitter in SiO 2 /GeO 2 ,” Electron. Lett.   25 , 981 – 982 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill , Y. Fujii , D. C. Johnson , and B. S. Kawasaki , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   32 , 647 – 649 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akasaka, N.

T. Hattori , S. Semura , and N. Akasaka , “ Inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 and GeO 2 -SiO 2 films for optical waveguides using tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylgermanium ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I   38 , 2775 – 2778 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi , “ Observations of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1743 – 1744 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Barfels, T.

A. N. Trukhin , H. J. Fitting , T. Barfels , and A. V. Czarnowski , “ Cathodoluminescence and IR absorption of oxygen deficient silica-influence of hydrogen treatment ,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids   260 , 132 – 140 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Benoit, V.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bi, X. X.

X. X. Bi , M. Bryan , E. Euvrard , and T. Jenks , “ Laser reactive deposition produces glasses for PLCs ,” WDM solutions   4 , 113 – 116 ( 2002 ).

Biodeau, F.

K. O. Hill , B. Malo , F. Biodeau , and D. C. Johnson , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber ,” Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci.   23 , 125 – 157 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Bryan, M.

X. X. Bi , M. Bryan , E. Euvrard , and T. Jenks , “ Laser reactive deposition produces glasses for PLCs ,” WDM solutions   4 , 113 – 116 ( 2002 ).

Campbell, R. J.

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Coleman, P. G.

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J. M.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czarnowski, A. V.

A. N. Trukhin , H. J. Fitting , T. Barfels , and A. V. Czarnowski , “ Cathodoluminescence and IR absorption of oxygen deficient silica-influence of hydrogen treatment ,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids   260 , 132 – 140 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Euvrard, E.

X. X. Bi , M. Bryan , E. Euvrard , and T. Jenks , “ Laser reactive deposition produces glasses for PLCs ,” WDM solutions   4 , 113 – 116 ( 2002 ).

Fitting, H. J.

A. N. Trukhin , H. J. Fitting , T. Barfels , and A. V. Czarnowski , “ Cathodoluminescence and IR absorption of oxygen deficient silica-influence of hydrogen treatment ,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids   260 , 132 – 140 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill , Y. Fujii , D. C. Johnson , and B. S. Kawasaki , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   32 , 647 – 649 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Gu, J. S.

Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori , S. Semura , and N. Akasaka , “ Inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 and GeO 2 -SiO 2 films for optical waveguides using tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylgermanium ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I   38 , 2775 – 2778 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill , B. Malo , F. Biodeau , and D. C. Johnson , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber ,” Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci.   23 , 125 – 157 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill , Y. Fujii , D. C. Johnson , and B. S. Kawasaki , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   32 , 647 – 649 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Hughes, P. J.

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Jenks, T.

X. X. Bi , M. Bryan , E. Euvrard , and T. Jenks , “ Laser reactive deposition produces glasses for PLCs ,” WDM solutions   4 , 113 – 116 ( 2002 ).

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill , B. Malo , F. Biodeau , and D. C. Johnson , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber ,” Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci.   23 , 125 – 157 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

K. O. Hill , Y. Fujii , D. C. Johnson , and B. S. Kawasaki , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   32 , 647 – 649 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, Y.

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill , Y. Fujii , D. C. Johnson , and B. S. Kawasaki , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   32 , 647 – 649 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

Kawazoe, H.

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P.G.

Kinser, D. L.

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Kintaka, K.

Kniights, A. P.

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun , S. Yoneda , and H. Tanaka , “ Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3μm wavelength by an athermal waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1998 – 2000 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Kuna, S.

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Lai, Q.

Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill , B. Malo , F. Biodeau , and D. C. Johnson , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber ,” Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci.   23 , 125 – 157 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, G. D.

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Melchior, H.

Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi , “ Observations of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1743 – 1744 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Muta, K.

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

Nourshargh, N.

N. Nourshargh , E. M. Starr , and T. M. Ong , “ Integrated optic 1×4 splitter in SiO 2 /GeO 2 ,” Electron. Lett.   25 , 981 – 982 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

Ojha, S.

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Ong, T. M.

N. Nourshargh , E. M. Starr , and T. M. Ong , “ Integrated optic 1×4 splitter in SiO 2 /GeO 2 ,” Electron. Lett.   25 , 981 – 982 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

Pita, K.

Q. Y. Zhang , K. Pita , L. P. Zuo , and S. Takahashi , “ Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   368 , 183 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Ruano, J. M.

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, A.

Schmid, J.

Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Semura, S.

T. Hattori , S. Semura , and N. Akasaka , “ Inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 and GeO 2 -SiO 2 films for optical waveguides using tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylgermanium ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I   38 , 2775 – 2778 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Smit, M. K.

Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Starr, E. M.

N. Nourshargh , E. M. Starr , and T. M. Ong , “ Integrated optic 1×4 splitter in SiO 2 /GeO 2 ,” Electron. Lett.   25 , 981 – 982 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, S.

Q. Y. Zhang , K. Pita , L. P. Zuo , and S. Takahashi , “ Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   368 , 183 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

Y. Kokubun , S. Yoneda , and H. Tanaka , “ Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3μm wavelength by an athermal waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1998 – 2000 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Trukhin, A. N.

A. N. Trukhin , H. J. Fitting , T. Barfels , and A. V. Czarnowski , “ Cathodoluminescence and IR absorption of oxygen deficient silica-influence of hydrogen treatment ,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids   260 , 132 – 140 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Weeks, R. A.

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Weiss, B. L.

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, R.

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Yoneda, S.

Y. Kokubun , S. Yoneda , and H. Tanaka , “ Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3μm wavelength by an athermal waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1998 – 2000 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Zhang , K. Pita , L. P. Zuo , and S. Takahashi , “ Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   368 , 183 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Zuo, L. P.

Q. Y. Zhang , K. Pita , L. P. Zuo , and S. Takahashi , “ Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   368 , 183 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. M. Ruano , V. Benoit , J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper , “ Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for the integration of optical and microfluidic devices ,” Anal. Chem.   72 , 1093 – 1097 ( 2000 ).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci. (1)

K. O. Hill , B. Malo , F. Biodeau , and D. C. Johnson , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber ,” Ann. Rew. Mater. Sci.   23 , 125 – 157 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. O. Hill , Y. Fujii , D. C. Johnson , and B. S. Kawasaki , “ Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   32 , 647 – 649 ( 1978 ).
[Crossref]

P. J. Hughes , A. P. Kniights , B. L. Weiss , S. Kuna , P. G. Coleman , and S. Ojha , “ High temperature proton implantation induced photosensitivity of Ge-doped SiO 2 planar waveguides ,” Appl. Phys. Lett.   74 , 3311 – 3313 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Y. Zhang , K. Pita , L. P. Zuo , and S. Takahashi , “ Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition ,” Chem. Phys. Lett.   368 , 183 – 188 ( 2003 ).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (4)

N. Nourshargh , E. M. Starr , and T. M. Ong , “ Integrated optic 1×4 splitter in SiO 2 /GeO 2 ,” Electron. Lett.   25 , 981 – 982 ( 1989 ).
[Crossref]

Q. Lai , J. S. Gu , M. K. Smit , J. Schmid , and H. Melchior , “ Simple technologies for fabrication of low-loss silica waveguides ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1000 – 1001 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

R. M. Atkins and V. Mizrahi , “ Observations of changes in UV absorption bands of single mode germanosilicate core optical fibers on writing and thermally erasing refractive index gratings ,” Electron. Lett.   28 , 1743 – 1744 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Y. Kokubun , S. Yoneda , and H. Tanaka , “ Temperature-independent narrowband optical filter at 1.3μm wavelength by an athermal waveguide ,” Electron. Lett.   32 , 1998 – 2000 ( 1996 ).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

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[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I (1)

T. Hattori , S. Semura , and N. Akasaka , “ Inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiO 2 and GeO 2 -SiO 2 films for optical waveguides using tetraethylorthosilicate and tetramethylgermanium ,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part I   38 , 2775 – 2778 ( 1999 ).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Hosono , Y. Abe , D. L. Kinser , R. A. Weeks , K. Muta , and H. Kawazoe , “ Nature and origin of the 5-eV band in SiO 2 :GeO 2 glasses ,” Phys. Rev. B   46 , 11445 – 11451 ( 1992 ).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. L. Williams , B. J. Ainslie , R. Kashyap , G. D. Maxwell , J. R. Armitage , R. J. Campbell , and R. Wyatt , “ Photosensitive index changes in germania doped silica glass fibers and waveguides ,” Proc. SPIE   2044 , 55 – 68 ( 1993 ).
[Crossref]

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X. X. Bi , M. Bryan , E. Euvrard , and T. Jenks , “ Laser reactive deposition produces glasses for PLCs ,” WDM solutions   4 , 113 – 116 ( 2002 ).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of ICP-CVD experimental setup.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. UV absorption spectra of 8G5B87S films as function of annealing temperature (a), and UV laser irradiation times (b).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) UV absorption spectra of as-deposited 8G1B91S (dot line) and 8G5B87S (solid line) films upon various UVLI durations. (b) UV absorption spectra of 1000 °C-annealed films unpon HL and UVLI.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The refractive index of 8G5B87S films as function of annealing temperature.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. RI of 8G5B87S films upon different treatments comprising annealing temperatures, HL and UVLI. The solid triangles correspond to the RI of the 1000 °C-annealed samples after HL and UVLI respectively.
Fig.6.
Fig.6. (a) Temperature-dependent MZI wavelengths. Inset shows the schematic structure of MZI optical filter. (b) Transmission response of 8G5B87S MZI thermally tuned from -20 to 80 °C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical properties of 8GeO2-xB2O3-(92-x)SiO2 (x = 1~5 mol.%) planar waveguides (1000 °C annealed) and the temperature-dependent MZI wavelength.

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