Abstract

Single crystals of bismuth silicon oxide (BSO) were Czochralski grown nonstoichiometrically from high-purity starting materials. Several series of three crystals were grown from nonstoichiometric melts starting with a bismuth oxide–rich melt. The intrinsic absorption shoulder of BSO was modified in amplitude with growth from nonstoichiometric melts. Two-beam coupling was used to determine photorefractive material parameters of the nonstoichiometric crystals. The data were analyzed with the two-beam coupling, two-carrier single multivalent ion model of the photorefractive effect. Parameters determined include the effective trap density, the hole–electron competition parameter, and the ratio of hole-to-electron absorption. Higher absorption correspond to a higher effective trap density and gain coefficient. The two-beam coupling gains, measured in the diffusion regime, are believed to be the largest reported for BSO, 0.70 cm−1, and are correlated to nonstoichiometric-growth-induced changes in the native defect concentrations.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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