Abstract

Metasurface holograms that can be dynamically controlled have attracted wide attention and been realized in many ways. In particular, the phase change materials (PCMs) that can be switched into amorphous and crystalline states at high speed by external thermal stimulation are one of the most promising candidates to break the limitations of material properties and fixed structures. Here we propose a metasurface hologram that aims to realize a dual display that can reconstruct different images by annealing thermal stimulation. The designed metasurface incorporates alternated chalcogenide PCMs cubes and sector columns that possess uniform amplitude and full ${2}\pi $ phase coverage. Simplicity and compactness make this metadevice able to be easily integrated into various applications such as memory storage, augmented reality, anti-counterfeiting, and so on.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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References

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2019 (8)

G. Ruffato, P. Capaldo, M. Massari, E. Mafakheri, and F. Romanato, “Total angular momentum sorting in the telecom infrared with silicon Pancharatnam-Berry transformation optics,” Opt. Express 27, 15750–15764 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Xiao, J. Liu, J. Han, and Y. Wang, “Design of achromatic surface microstructure for near-eye display with diffractive waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 452, 411–416 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, X. Li, R. Zhao, X. Song, Y. Wang, and L. Huang, “High-efficiency Bessel beam array generation by Huygens metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 8, 1079 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Cui, B. Bai, and H. B. Sun, “Tunable metasurfaces based on active materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29, 1806692 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Jiang, G. Jin, and L. Cao, “When metasurface meets hologram: principle and advances,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 11, 518–576 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. U. R. Khalid, J. Liu, Y. Han, N. Ullah, R. Zhao, and Y. Wang, “Multichannel polarization encoded reflective metahologram using VO2 spacer in visible regime,” Opt. Commun. 451, 211–215 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, L. Huang, R. Zhao, Q. Wei, T. Zentgraf, Y. Wang, and X. Li, “Dynamic control of mode modulation and spatial multiplexing using hybrid metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 27, 18740–18750 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Choi, S.-Y. Lee, S.-E. Mun, G.-Y. Lee, J. Sung, H. Yun, J.-H. Yang, H.-O. Kim, C.-Y. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Metasurface with nanostructured Ge2Sb2Te5 as a platform for broadband-operating wavefront switch,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900171 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (13)

X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, and A. K. Azad, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 061111 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid–infrared phase–change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10, 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. A. Bossard, J. P. Turpin, J. D. Musgraves, H. J. Shin, C. Rivero-Baleine, N. Podraza, K. A. Richardson, D. H. Werner, and T. S. Mayer, “Reconfigurable near-IR metasurface based on Ge2 Sb2 Te5 phase-change material,” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 2264–2275 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase–change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Han, L. Huang, and Y. Wang, “Illusion and cloaking using dielectric conformal metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 26, 31625–31635 (2018).
[Crossref]

G.-Y. Lee, J.-Y. Hong, S. Hwang, S. Moon, H. Kang, S. Jeon, H. Kim, J.-H. Jeong, and B. Lee, “Metasurface eyepiece for augmented reality,” Nat. Commun. 9, 4562 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, B. Sain, Q. Wei, C. Tang, X. Li, T. Weiss, L. Huang, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Multichannel vectorial holographic display and encryption,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 95 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. A. Butakov, M. W. Knight, T. Lewi, P. P. Iyer, D. Higgs, H. T. Chorsi, J. Trastoy, J. Del Valle Granda, I. Valmianski, C. Urban, Y. Kalcheim, P. Y. Wang, P. W. C. Hon, I. K. Schuller, and J. A. Schuller, “Broadband electrically tunable dielectric resonators using metal-insulator transitions,” ACS Photon. 5, 4056–4060 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Zeng, Z. Huang, A. Singh, Y. Yao, A. K. Azad, A. D. Mohite, A. J. Taylor, D. R. Smith, and H.-T. Chen, “Hybrid graphene metasurfaces for high-speed mid-infrared light modulation and single-pixel imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 51 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Kafaie Shirmanesh, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, and H. A. Atwater, “Dual-gated active metasurface at 1550 nm with wide (> 300°) phase tunability,” Nano Lett. 18, 2957–2963 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. C. Wei, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 856–861 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Choudhury, D. Wang, K. Chaudhuri, C. Devault, A. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Material platforms for optical metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 7, 959–987 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (11)

P. Genevet, F. Capasso, F. Aieta, M. Khorasaninejad, and R. Devlin, “Recent advances in planar optics: from plasmonic to dielectric metasurfaces,” Optica 4, 139–152 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, X. Li, L. Chen, M. Pu, J. Jin, M. Hong, and X. Luo, “Orbital angular momentum multiplexing and demultiplexing by a single metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1600502 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Wei, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Broadband multiplane holography based on plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700434 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, M. V. Rybin, A. A. Kuchmizhak, S. Juodkazis, and Y. Kivshar, “Light–induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700108 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Kruk and Y. Kivshar, “Functional meta-optics and nanophotonics governed by Mie resonances,” ACS Photon. 4, 2638–2649 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Lu, R. Sokhoyan, W.-H. Cheng, G. K. Shirmanesh, A. R. Davoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, and H. A. Atwater, “Dynamically controlled Purcell enhancement of visible spontaneous emission in a gated plasmonic heterostructure,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1631 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, and T. Taubner, “Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications,” Nat. Photonics 11, 465–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Komar, Z. Fang, J. Bohn, J. Sautter, M. Decker, A. Miroshnichenko, T. Pertsch, I. Brener, Y. S. Kivshar, and I. Staude, “Electrically tunable all-dielectric optical metasurfaces based on liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 071109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Ji, H. Tong, H. Qian, N. Liu, M. Xu, and X.-S. Miao, “Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate,” AIP Adv. 7, 125024 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, T. Steinle, L. Huang, T. Taubner, M. Wuttig, T. Zentgraf, and H. Giessen, “Beam switching and bifocal zoom lensing using active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17016 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (8)

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y. H. Chen, H. C. Wang, T. Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, and G. Sun, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase–change medium,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, and S. Ramanathan, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16, 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. De Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16173 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, and A. Faraon, “Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 1002–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Tian and Z.-Y. Li, “Visible-near infrared ultra-broadband polarization-independent metamaterial perfect absorber involving phase-change materials,” Photon. Res. 4, 146–152 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic wave with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 076401 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15, 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Li, Y. Sonnefraud, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, X. Luo, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Engineering the phase front of light with phase-change material based planar lenses,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8660 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photon. 2, 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A.-K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13, 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Q. Wei, L. Huang, X. Li, J. Liu, and Y. Wang, “Broadband multiplane holography based on plasmonic metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5, 1700434 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. C.

T. C. Wei, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 856–861 (2018).
[Crossref]

Weiss, S. M.

P. Markov, R. E. Marvel, H. J. Conley, K. J. Miller, R. F. Haglund, and S. M. Weiss, “Optically monitored electrical switching in VO2,” ACS Photon. 2, 1175–1182 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

R. Zhao, B. Sain, Q. Wei, C. Tang, X. Li, T. Weiss, L. Huang, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Multichannel vectorial holographic display and encryption,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 95 (2018).
[Crossref]

Werner, D. H.

Withayachumnankul, W.

P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wright, C. D.

C. R. de Galarreta, A. M. Alexeev, Y. Y. Au, M. Lopez-Garcia, M. Klemm, M. Cryan, J. Bertolotti, and C. D. Wright, “Nonvolatile reconfigurable phase–change metadevices for beam steering in the near infrared,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28, 1704993 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. J.

C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y. H. Chen, H. C. Wang, T. Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, and G. Sun, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase–change medium,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

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C. H. Chu, M. L. Tseng, J. Chen, P. C. Wu, Y. H. Chen, H. C. Wang, T. Y. Chen, W. T. Hsieh, H. J. Wu, and G. Sun, “Active dielectric metasurface based on phase–change medium,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 986–994 (2016).
[Crossref]

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M. Wuttig, H. Bhaskaran, and T. Taubner, “Phase-change materials for non-volatile photonic applications,” Nat. Photonics 11, 465–476 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, T. Steinle, L. Huang, T. Taubner, M. Wuttig, T. Zentgraf, and H. Giessen, “Beam switching and bifocal zoom lensing using active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17016 (2017).
[Crossref]

A.-K. U. Michel, D. N. Chigrin, T. W. Maß, K. Schönauer, M. Salinga, M. Wuttig, and T. Taubner, “Using low-loss phase-change materials for mid-infrared antenna resonance tuning,” Nano Lett. 13, 3470–3475 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. R. Sittner, K. S. Siegert, P. Jost, C. Schlockermann, F. R. L. Lange, and M. Wuttig, “(GeTe)x–(Sb2Te3)1-x phase–change thin films as potential thermoelectric materials,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210, 147–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.

J. Xiao, J. Liu, J. Han, and Y. Wang, “Design of achromatic surface microstructure for near-eye display with diffractive waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 452, 411–416 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

H.-K. Ji, H. Tong, H. Qian, N. Liu, M. Xu, and X.-S. Miao, “Color printing enabled by phase change materials on paper substrate,” AIP Adv. 7, 125024 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

X. Chen, S. Ghosh, Q. Xu, C. Ouyang, Y. Li, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, L. Liu, and A. K. Azad, “Active control of polarization-dependent near-field coupling in hybrid metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 061111 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-H.

C. Choi, S.-Y. Lee, S.-E. Mun, G.-Y. Lee, J. Sung, H. Yun, J.-H. Yang, H.-O. Kim, C.-Y. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Metasurface with nanostructured Ge2Sb2Te5 as a platform for broadband-operating wavefront switch,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900171 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

B. Zeng, Z. Huang, A. Singh, Y. Yao, A. K. Azad, A. D. Mohite, A. J. Taylor, D. R. Smith, and H.-T. Chen, “Hybrid graphene metasurfaces for high-speed mid-infrared light modulation and single-pixel imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 51 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, T. Steinle, L. Huang, T. Taubner, M. Wuttig, T. Zentgraf, and H. Giessen, “Beam switching and bifocal zoom lensing using active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17016 (2017).
[Crossref]

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G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10, 4237–4245 (2018).
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H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, and N. Yu, “A review of metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 79, 076401 (2016).
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Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
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[Crossref]

G.-Y. Lee, G. Yoon, S.-Y. Lee, H. Yun, J. Cho, K. Lee, H. Kim, J. Rho, and B. Lee, “Complete amplitude and phase control of light using broadband holographic metasurfaces,” Nanoscale 10, 4237–4245 (2018).
[Crossref]

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O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. De Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16173 (2016).
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B. Zeng, Z. Huang, A. Singh, Y. Yao, A. K. Azad, A. D. Mohite, A. J. Taylor, D. R. Smith, and H.-T. Chen, “Hybrid graphene metasurfaces for high-speed mid-infrared light modulation and single-pixel imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 51 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Z. Lin, L. Huang, R. Zhao, Q. Wei, T. Zentgraf, Y. Wang, and X. Li, “Dynamic control of mode modulation and spatial multiplexing using hybrid metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 27, 18740–18750 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Zhao, B. Sain, Q. Wei, C. Tang, X. Li, T. Weiss, L. Huang, Y. Wang, and T. Zentgraf, “Multichannel vectorial holographic display and encryption,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 95 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Yin, T. Steinle, L. Huang, T. Taubner, M. Wuttig, T. Zentgraf, and H. Giessen, “Beam switching and bifocal zoom lensing using active plasmonic metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e17016 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic wave with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 818–833 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. Jiang, C.-W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic reprogrammable coding-metasurface holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8, 197 (2017).
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J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, and S. Ramanathan, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16, 1050–1055 (2016).
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[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

Z. Lin, L. Huang, R. Zhao, Q. Wei, T. Zentgraf, Y. Wang, and X. Li, “Dynamic control of mode modulation and spatial multiplexing using hybrid metasurfaces,” Opt. Express 27, 18740–18750 (2019).
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Z. Lin, X. Li, R. Zhao, X. Song, Y. Wang, and L. Huang, “High-efficiency Bessel beam array generation by Huygens metasurfaces,” Nanophotonics 8, 1079 (2019).
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Q. Wang, E. T. Rogers, B. Gholipour, C.-M. Wang, G. Yuan, J. Teng, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optically reconfigurable metasurfaces and photonic devices based on phase change materials,” Nat. Photonics 10, 60–65 (2016).
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W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid–infrared phase–change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
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J. Rensberg, S. Zhang, Y. Zhou, A. S. McLeod, C. Schwarz, M. Goldflam, M. Liu, J. Kerbusch, R. Nawrodt, and S. Ramanathan, “Active optical metasurfaces based on defect-engineered phase-transition materials,” Nano Lett. 16, 1050–1055 (2016).
[Crossref]

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T. C. Wei, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13, 856–861 (2018).
[Crossref]

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P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. V. Makarov, A. S. Zalogina, M. Tajik, D. A. Zuev, M. V. Rybin, A. A. Kuchmizhak, S. Juodkazis, and Y. Kivshar, “Light–induced tuning and reconfiguration of nanophotonic structures,” Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1700108 (2017).
[Crossref]

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P. Gutruf, C. Zou, W. Withayachumnankul, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Mechanically tunable dielectric resonator metasurfaces at visible frequencies,” ACS Nano 10, 133–141 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (5)

W. Dong, Y. Qiu, X. Zhou, A. Banas, K. Banas, M. B. Breese, T. Cao, and R. E. Simpson, “Tunable mid–infrared phase–change metasurface,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6, 1701346 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Choi, S.-Y. Lee, S.-E. Mun, G.-Y. Lee, J. Sung, H. Yun, J.-H. Yang, H.-O. Kim, C.-Y. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Metasurface with nanostructured Ge2Sb2Te5 as a platform for broadband-operating wavefront switch,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1900171 (2019).
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L. Zhang, S. Mei, K. Huang, and C.-W. Qiu, “Advances in full control of electromagnetic wave with metasurfaces,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4, 818–833 (2016).
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O. L. Muskens, L. Bergamini, Y. Wang, J. M. Gaskell, N. Zabala, C. De Groot, D. W. Sheel, and J. Aizpurua, “Antenna-assisted picosecond control of nanoscale phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Light Sci. Appl. 5, e16173 (2016).
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B. Zeng, Z. Huang, A. Singh, Y. Yao, A. K. Azad, A. D. Mohite, A. J. Taylor, D. R. Smith, and H.-T. Chen, “Hybrid graphene metasurfaces for high-speed mid-infrared light modulation and single-pixel imaging,” Light Sci. Appl. 7, 51 (2018).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of a reconfigurable metasurface for dynamic control. Dual display can be achieved within a single metasurface for two phase states when illuminated with $x$-polarized incident light. (a) Reconstruction process for the first image for amorphous GST (yellow). (b) Reconstruction process for the second image for crystalline GST (red).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Design principle for realizing dynamic control of metasurface holograms. (a) and (b) We sampled the odd columns of the hologram from the first image, sampled the even columns of the hologram of the second image, and integrated the obtained phase distribution into a single hybrid hologram according to these original positions. (c) Arrangement orders of the sector columns and the cubes are respectively determined by the odd columns’ and the even columns’ phase distributions of the hybrid hologram. (d) The designed function of the metasurface.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Numerical simulation of the reconstruction process in Matlab. (a) and (b) Original images. (c) and (d) Reconstruction images.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Design of the building block of the metasurface and the refractive indices of GST for both states. (a) GST sector column above the silicon substrate. $t$ is the thickness of the silicon substrate, which is 50 nm. $P = {800}\;{\rm nm}$ is the periodicity of the unit cell. $H = {2500}\;{\rm nm}$ is the height of the sector column. $\theta $ is the opening angle, and $R$ is the outer radius. (b) Geometry of the GST cube. $h$ is the height of the cube, which is 1700 nm. $x$ is the length, while $y$ is the width. (c) Real parts of the refractive indices of GST in the amorphous state and crystalline state are 3.5 and 6.5, respectively, and the imaginary part of the refractive indices of GST in the amorphous state and crystalline state are 0.001 and 0.06, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Simulation results of a parameter sweep of the GST cube and sector column. We choose the length and width of the cube ranging from 60 to 500 nm. The outer radius of the sector columns varies from 0.1 to 0.3 µm, while the opening angles range from 0° to 300°. (a) and (b) Corresponding to the phase and amplitude distribution of GST cube in crystalline state for the transmitted light with $x$-polarized incident waves, respectively. (c) and (d) Phase and amplitude distribution of the GST cube in the amorphous state, respectively. Similarly, the results for the sector column are shown in (e)–(h). Black hollow circles indicate the eight selected structures.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Parameters of the selected structures and their corresponding phase and amplitude. (a) and (c) Four sector columns and their corresponding phases and amplitudes in the amorphous and crystalline states, respectively. $R$ means the outer radius of the sector column, and $\theta $ is the opening angle. (b) and (d) Four cubes and their corresponding phases and amplitudes in the amorphous and crystalline states, respectively. $x$ and $y$ are the length and width of the GST cube, respectively.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. FDTD results of the metasurface hologram. (a) and (b) Phase distributions of the holograms in the amorphous state and the crystalline state; (c) and (d) the reconstructed images in the amorphous state and the crystalline state.

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