Abstract

Quantum analysis has been done for the traveling-wave (TW) electro-optic phase modulator in the presence of the phase noise of a radio frequency (RF) oscillator and a laser source, in which the Hamiltonian for an active section of the phase modulator system is derived. The effect of RF phase noise from the oscillator and a phase velocity mismatch (PVM) between optical photons and the RF field are included in the Hamiltonian. The time evolution of the field operator of the laser in the TW electro-optic phase modulator is derived by the Heisenberg equation of motion. The action of a TW electro-optic phase modulator in the presence of the two distinct weak noises—classical phase noise because of RF and quantum phase noise caused by a laser—has been evaluated and explained in terms of the second-order temporal correlation function and power spectrum. The power spectrum has been written as a function of the semiconductor laser linewidth, an enhancement factor in the laser linewidth, and the RF oscillator linewidth. The results are applied to analyze the basic model of a frequency-coded quantum key distribution (FC-QKD) system. The quantum bit error rate (QBER), the first-order optical intensity correlation function, and the spectrum of intensity fluctuation have been calculated for the partially coherent regime to evaluate the performance of the FC-QKD system.

© 2020 Optical Society of America

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