Abstract

Black phosphorus (BP), a relatively new plasmonic two-dimensional material, offers unique photonic and electronic properties. In this work, we propose a new tunable and broadband ultrathin coherent perfect absorber (CPA) device operating in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. It is based on a bifacial metasurface made of BP patch periodic arrays separated by a thin dielectric layer. Broadband CPA bandwidth is realized due to the ultrathin thickness of the proposed device and the extraordinary properties of BP. In addition, a substantial modulation between CPA and complete transparency is achieved by adjusting the phase difference between the two counterpropagating incident waves. The CPA performance can be tuned by dynamically changing the electron doping level of BP. The CPA response under normal and oblique transverse magnetic and electric polarized incident waves is investigated. It is derived that CPA can be achieved under both incident polarizations and across a broad range of incident angles. The presented CPA device can be used in the design of tunable planar THz modulators, all-optical switches, detectors, and signal processors.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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2019 (4)

T. Guo, B. Jin, and C. Argyropoulos, “Hybrid graphene-plasmonic gratings to achieve enhanced nonlinear effects at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11, 024050 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Fan, N. Shen, F. Zhang, Q. Zhao, H. Wu, Q. Fu, Z. Wei, H. Li, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for 2D optics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7, 1800537 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Feng, J. Zhu, C. Li, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, Z. Liang, and Q. H. Liu, “Near-unity anisotropic infrared absorption in monolayer black phosphorus with/without subwavelength patterning design,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 25, 1–7 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhu, B. Tang, and C. Jiang, “Tunable ultra-broadband anisotropic absorbers based on multi-layer black phosphorus ribbons,” Appl. Phys. Express 12, 032009 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (7)

X. Wang, Q. Ma, L. Wu, J. Guo, S. Lu, X. Dai, and Y. Xiang, “Tunable terahertz/infrared coherent perfect absorption in a monolayer black phosphorus,” Opt. Express 26, 5488–5496 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Correas-Serrano, A. Alù, and J. S. Gomez-Diaz, “Magnetic-free nonreciprocal photonic platform based on time-modulated graphene capacitors,” Phys. Rev. B 98, 165428 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guo, L. Zhu, P.-Y. Chen, and C. Argyropoulos, “Tunable terahertz amplification based on photoexcited active graphene hyperbolic metamaterials [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 3941–3952 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Debu, S. J. Bauman, D. French, H. O. H. Churchill, and J. B. Herzog, “Tuning infrared plasmon resonance of black phosphorene nanoribbon with a dielectric interface,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3224 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. A. Wells, S. Butun, E. Palacios, M. C. Hersam, and K. Aydin, “Extrinsic polarization-controlled optical anisotropy in plasmon-black phosphorus coupled system,” Nanotechnology 29, 285202 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and C. Argyropoulos, “Tunable nonlinear coherent perfect absorption with epsilon-near-zero plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1806–1809 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Na and H. Noh, “Investigation of a broadband coherent perfect absorber in a multi-layer structure by using the transfer matrix method,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 72, 66–70 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (10)

C. Chen, N. Youngblood, R. Peng, D. Yoo, D. A. Mohr, T. W. Johnson, S.-H. Oh, and M. Li, “Three-dimensional integration of black phosphorus photodetector with silicon photonics and nanoplasmonics,” Nano Lett. 17, 985–991 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. A. Valagiannopoulos, M. Mattheakis, S. N. Shirodkar, and E. Kaxiras, “Manipulating polarized light with a planar slab of black phosphorus,” J. Phys. Commun. 1, 045003 (2017).
[Crossref]

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, M. Farhat, and J. S. Gomez-Diaz, “Flatland plasmonics and nanophotonics based on graphene and beyond,” Nanophotonics 6, 1239–1262 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Tang, Z. Li, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Chiral-selective plasmonic metasurface absorbers operating at visible frequencies,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 295–298 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Jin, T. Guo, and C. Argyropoulos, “Enhanced third harmonic generation with graphene metasurfaces,” J. Opt. 19, 094005 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, Y. Jiang, and Z. Hu, “Dual-band and polarization-independent infrared absorber based on two-dimensional black phosphorus metamaterials,” Opt. Express 25, 22149–22157 (2017).
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2016 (12)

Z. J. Wong, Y.-L. Xu, J. Kim, K. O’Brien, Y. Wang, L. Feng, and X. Zhang, “Lasing and anti-lasing in a single cavity,” Nat. Photonics 10, 796–801 (2016).
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Z.-W. Bao, H.-W. Wu, and Y. Zhou, “Edge plasmons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241902 (2016).
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D. Correas-Serrano, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, A. A. Melcon, and A. Alù, “Black phosphorus plasmonics: anisotropic elliptical propagation and nonlocality-induced canalization,” J. Opt. 18, 104006 (2016).
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N. Kakenov, O. Balci, T. Takan, V. A. Ozkan, H. Altan, and C. Kocabas, “Observation of gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” ACS Photon. 3, 1531–1535 (2016).
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2015 (17)

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Y. Fan, N.-H. Shen, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Tunable terahertz meta-surface with graphene cut-wires,” ACS Photon. 2, 151–156 (2015).
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C. Argyropoulos, “Enhanced transmission modulation based on dielectric metasurfaces loaded with graphene,” Opt. Express 23, 23787–23797 (2015).
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P. Yasaei, B. Kumar, T. Foroozan, C. Wang, M. Asadi, D. Tuschel, J. E. Indacochea, R. F. Klie, and A. Salehi-Khojin, “High-quality black phosphorus atomic layers by liquid-phase exfoliation,” Adv. Mater. 27, 1887–1892 (2015).
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S. Li, J. Luo, S. Anwar, S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Hang, Y. Lai, B. Hou, M. Shen, and C. Wang, “Broadband perfect absorption of ultrathin conductive films with coherent illumination: superabsorption of microwave radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 220301 (2015).
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X. Huang, X. Zhang, Z. Hu, M. Aqeeli, and A. Alburaikan, “Design of broadband and tunable terahertz absorbers based on graphene metasurface: equivalent circuit model approach,” IET Microwave Antennas Propag. 9, 307–312 (2015).
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2014 (11)

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H. Wang, X. Wang, F. Xia, L. Wang, H. Jiang, Q. Xia, M. L. Chin, M. Dubey, and S. Han, “Black phosphorus radio-frequency transistors,” Nano Lett. 14, 6424–6429 (2014).
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2013 (6)

P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1528–1537 (2013).
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M. Kang, F. Liu, T.-F. Li, Q. Guo, J. Li, and J. Chen, “Polarization-independent coherent perfect absorption by a dipole-like metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3086–3088 (2013).
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C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic Brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 205112 (2013).
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2012 (7)

L. Huang, D. R. Chowdhury, S. Ramani, M. T. Reiten, S.-N. Luo, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, and H.-T. Chen, “Impact of resonator geometry and its coupling with ground plane on ultrathin metamaterial perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101102 (2012).
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S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 047401 (2012).
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M. Pu, Q. Feng, M. Wang, C. Hu, C. Huang, X. Ma, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, and X. Luo, “Ultrathin broadband nearly perfect absorber with symmetrical coherent illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 2246–2254 (2012).
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2011 (3)

T. Palacios, “Thinking outside the silicon box,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 464–465 (2011).
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D. Dai, Z. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultrashort broadband polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetrical directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2590–2592 (2011).
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2010 (3)

S. Longhi, “PT-symmetric laser absorber,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 031801 (2010).
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Y. D. Chong, L. Ge, H. Cao, and A. D. Stone, “Coherent perfect absorbers: time-reversed lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053901 (2010).
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2008 (4)

C. Lee, X. Wei, J. W. Kysar, and J. Hone, “Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene,” Science (80). 321, 385–388 (2008).
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T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
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2005 (2)

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2004 (1)

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
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1988 (1)

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Agarwal, G. S.

Alburaikan, A.

X. Huang, X. Zhang, Z. Hu, M. Aqeeli, and A. Alburaikan, “Design of broadband and tunable terahertz absorbers based on graphene metasurface: equivalent circuit model approach,” IET Microwave Antennas Propag. 9, 307–312 (2015).
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N. Kakenov, O. Balci, T. Takan, V. A. Ozkan, H. Altan, and C. Kocabas, “Observation of gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” ACS Photon. 3, 1531–1535 (2016).
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P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1528–1537 (2013).
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D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
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D. Correas-Serrano, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, A. A. Melcon, and A. Alù, “Black phosphorus plasmonics: anisotropic elliptical propagation and nonlocality-induced canalization,” J. Opt. 18, 104006 (2016).
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C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic Brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 205112 (2013).
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S. Li, J. Luo, S. Anwar, S. Li, W. Lu, Z. H. Hang, Y. Lai, B. Hou, M. Shen, and C. Wang, “Broadband perfect absorption of ultrathin conductive films with coherent illumination: superabsorption of microwave radiation,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 220301 (2015).
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X. Huang, X. Zhang, Z. Hu, M. Aqeeli, and A. Alburaikan, “Design of broadband and tunable terahertz absorbers based on graphene metasurface: equivalent circuit model approach,” IET Microwave Antennas Propag. 9, 307–312 (2015).
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Argyropoulos, C.

T. Guo, B. Jin, and C. Argyropoulos, “Hybrid graphene-plasmonic gratings to achieve enhanced nonlinear effects at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11, 024050 (2019).
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Y. Li and C. Argyropoulos, “Tunable nonlinear coherent perfect absorption with epsilon-near-zero plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 43, 1806–1809 (2018).
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T. Guo, L. Zhu, P.-Y. Chen, and C. Argyropoulos, “Tunable terahertz amplification based on photoexcited active graphene hyperbolic metamaterials [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 8, 3941–3952 (2018).
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P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, M. Farhat, and J. S. Gomez-Diaz, “Flatland plasmonics and nanophotonics based on graphene and beyond,” Nanophotonics 6, 1239–1262 (2017).
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B. Jin, T. Guo, and C. Argyropoulos, “Enhanced third harmonic generation with graphene metasurfaces,” J. Opt. 19, 094005 (2017).
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T. Guo and C. Argyropoulos, “Broadband polarizers based on graphene metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5592–5595 (2016).
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C. Argyropoulos, “Enhanced transmission modulation based on dielectric metasurfaces loaded with graphene,” Opt. Express 23, 23787–23797 (2015).
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P.-Y. Chen, C. Argyropoulos, and A. Alu, “Terahertz antenna phase shifters using integrally-gated graphene transmission-lines,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 61, 1528–1537 (2013).
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C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic Brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87, 205112 (2013).
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T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 106802 (2014).
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M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging,” Nano Lett. 14, 6414–6417 (2014).
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Z. Liu, S. A. Wells, S. Butun, E. Palacios, M. C. Hersam, and K. Aydin, “Extrinsic polarization-controlled optical anisotropy in plasmon-black phosphorus coupled system,” Nanotechnology 29, 285202 (2018).
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B. Tang, Z. Li, E. Palacios, Z. Liu, S. Butun, and K. Aydin, “Chiral-selective plasmonic metasurface absorbers operating at visible frequencies,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 295–298 (2017).
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P.-Y. Chen, M. Farhat, and H. Bağcı, “Graphene metascreen for designing compact infrared absorbers with enhanced bandwidth,” Nanotechnology 26, 164002 (2015).
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M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Bağcı, “An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29938–29948 (2013).
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N. Kakenov, O. Balci, T. Takan, V. A. Ozkan, H. Altan, and C. Kocabas, “Observation of gate-tunable coherent perfect absorption of terahertz radiation in graphene,” ACS Photon. 3, 1531–1535 (2016).
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Z.-W. Bao, H.-W. Wu, and Y. Zhou, “Edge plasmons in monolayer black phosphorus,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 241902 (2016).
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D. G. Baranov, A. Krasnok, T. Shegai, A. Alù, and Y. Chong, “Coherent perfect absorbers: linear control of light with light,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2, 17064 (2017).
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W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
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K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, T. J. Booth, V. V. Khotkevich, S. V. Morozov, and A. K. Geim, “Two-dimensional atomic crystals,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 102, 10451–10453 (2005).
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T. V. Teperik, F. J. García de Abajo, A. G. Borisov, M. Abdelsalam, P. N. Bartlett, Y. Sugawara, and J. J. Baumberg, “Omnidirectional absorption in nanostructured metal surfaces,” Nat. Photonics 2, 299–301 (2008).
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Butun, S.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the BP-based CPA device consisting of two metasurfaces made of BP patches separated by a thin dielectric spacer layer. ${I_\pm}$ and ${O_\pm}$ denote the input and output waves, respectively, from each side. ${\theta_+}$ and ${\theta_-}$ are the incident angles of the forward and backward incident waves. (b) Unit cell of the proposed device. ${L_x}$ and ${L_y}$ are the lengths of each BP patch in the $x$ and $y$ directions, respectively. $P$ and $d$ are, respectively, the period of the BP patch array and the thickness of the dielectric layer. The lattice structure of monolayer BP can also be seen in this figure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Equivalent circuit model of the proposed BP-based CPA device under a TM-polarized incident excitation. (b) The reflection, transmission, and absorption coefficients spectra under a single TM-polarized wave illumination. (c) Output coefficient $\Theta$ as a function of the phase difference between the two incident counterpropagating beams at four different frequencies.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Transmission, reflection, and absorption coefficients, and the phase difference between the transmission and reflection coefficients, as a function of frequency for a single TM-polarized wave normally incident upon the CPA device with electron doping level of ${4}\times {{10}^{13}}\,\,{{\rm cm}^{-2}}$ . (b) Real, imaginary, and absolute values of effective surface conductivity $\sigma_\parallel^e$ of the proposed BP-based CPA device normalized to the free-space admittance.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Contour plot of the output coefficient $\Theta$ as a function of frequency $f$ and phase difference $\Delta\varphi$ between the two counterpropagating incident waves. (b) Output coefficient $\Theta$ as a function of the phase difference at four different frequencies. Perfect CPA is obtained at 8.4 THz for $\Delta\varphi=2n\pi$ .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Contour plot of the computed output coefficient $\Theta$ as a function of the frequency $f$ of the TM-polarized incident waves and (a) the thickness of the dielectric spacer layer or (b) the BP electron doping level ${n_s}$ . The two counterpropagating incident beams have a fixed phase difference equal to $\Delta\varphi=2n\pi$ .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Transmission, reflection, and absorption coefficients, and the phase difference between the transmission and reflection coefficients, as a function of frequency for a single TE-polarized wave normally incident upon the CPA device with electron doping level of ${9}\times {{10}^{13}}\,\,{{\rm cm}^{-2}}$ . (b) Contour plot of the computed output coefficient $\Theta$ as a function of the frequency $f$ and the electron doping level ${n_s}$ . The two counterpropagating TE-polarized incident waves have a fixed phase difference equal to $\Delta\varphi=2n\pi$ .
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Transmission, reflection, and absorption coefficients, and the phase difference between the transmission and reflection coefficients, as a function of frequency $f$ for a single TM-polarized incident wave upon the CPA device with an angle of 60°. (b) Contour plot of the computed output coefficient $\Theta$ as a function of frequency $f$ and incident angle in the case of two counterpropagating incident waves with a fixed phase difference $\Delta\varphi=2n\pi$ .
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Output coefficient $\Theta$ as a function of the frequency $f$ under two incident counterpropagating TM-polarized waves with the same intensity and phase for the BP-based (red line) and graphene-based (black line) CPA devices.

Equations (5)

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[ O + O ] = S [ I + I ] = [ r + t t + r ] [ I + I ] ,
Θ = | O + | 2 + | O | 2 | I + | 2 + | I | 2 = | r + t e i Δ φ | 2 + | t + r e i Δ φ | 2 2 ,
Z s j = [ P L j σ j i π ω ε 0 ( ε d + 1 ) P ln { csc ( π ( P L j ) / 2 P ) } ] L j L i ,
Z s j = ( η / ) π P L i D j + i [ ω π P L i D j 1 ω C j ] ,
C j = ( L j / L i ) ( 1 / π ) ε 0 ( ε d + 1 ) P ln { csc ( π ( P L j ) / 2 P ) } .

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