Abstract

We experimentally investigate the generation of high-order modes (HOMs) at the wavelength band of 1.95 µm from a passively mode-locked, ultrashort pulse, Tm/Ho-co-doped fiber laser based on a mode-selective coupler (MSC). The mode-locked fiber laser outputs dissipative soliton pulses operating at wavelength of 1932.1 nm with spectrum width of 10.4 nm and pulse duration of 1.84 ps with repetition rate of 15.4 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the generation of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) from mode-locked fiber laser in the mid-infrared wavelength band that features all-fiber configuration, ultrashort pulse, and high-purity CVB generation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (8)

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers,” Science 358, 94–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wan, H. Li, C. Wang, B. Sun, Z. Zhang, W. Wei, and L. Zhang, “An injection-locked single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser with cylindrical vector beam emission,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7100608 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, F. Shi, T. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Method of generating femtosecond cylindrical vector beams using broadband mode converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked thulium fiber laser with 200  nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wan, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Cai, B. Sun, and L. Zhang, “High efficiency mode-locked, cylindrical vector beam fiber laser based on a mode selective coupler,” Opt. Express 25, 11444–11451 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lægsgaard, “Efficient simulation of multimodal nonlinear propagation in step-index fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, 2266–2273 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Yan, J. Lin, Y. Zhou, C. Gu, L. Xu, A. Wang, P. Yao, and Q. Zhan, “Bi2Te3 based passively Q-switched fiber laser with cylindrical vector beam emission,” Appl. Opt. 55, 3026–3029 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Y. L. Xiao, Y. G. Liu, W. Zhi, Z. Wang, and X. Q. Liu, “Design and experimental study of mode selective all-fiber fused mode coupler based on few mode fiber,” Acta Phys. Sinica 64, 204207 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Sun, A. Wang, C. Gu, G. Chen, L. Xu, D. Chung, and Q. Zhan, “Mode-locked all-fiber laser producing radially polarized rectangular pulses,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1691–1694 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 128–130 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Generation of cylindrical vector beams with few-mode fibers excited by Laguerre–Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 237, 89–95 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203, 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55  µm and 1.81  µm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76–79 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500  fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abdulfattah, A.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonhoff, T.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55  µm and 1.81  µm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76–79 (1998).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

Brezinski, M. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55  µm and 1.81  µm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76–79 (1998).
[Crossref]

Browell, E. V.

Bruce, S.

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1927  nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatologic Surg. 38, 199–206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Chai, L.

Chen, G.

Chen, K. P.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, M. Li, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber ultrafast thulium-doped fiber ring laser with dissipative soliton and noise-like output in normal dispersion by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noise like modes,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3750–3752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, M. Li, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber ultrafast thulium-doped fiber ring laser with dissipative soliton and noise-like output in normal dispersion by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noise like modes,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3750–3752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

Christensen, L. E.

Christodoulides, D. N.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers,” Science 358, 94–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chung, D.

Courjon, D.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203, 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

D’Ambrosio, V.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Donegan, J. F.

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
[Crossref]

Eftekhar, M. A.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, T.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Flahaut, E.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55  µm and 1.81  µm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76–79 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gehlich, N.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Grosjean, T.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203, 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

Hasan, T.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500  fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[Crossref]

Haus, J. W.

Haxsen, F.

He, Y.

Heberle, A. P.

Hegarty, J.

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hu, G.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, M.

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500  fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ismaeel, R.

Jacob, J.

Jhon, Y. M.

Jian, S.

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, B.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, W.

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55  µm and 1.81  µm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76–79 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jung, M.

Jung, Y.

Kadwani, P.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kieu, K.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 128–130 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koo, J.

Kracht, D.

Lægsgaard, J.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Lee, T.

Li, G.

Li, H.

H. Wan, H. Li, C. Wang, B. Sun, Z. Zhang, W. Wei, and L. Zhang, “An injection-locked single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser with cylindrical vector beam emission,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7100608 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, M.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, M. Li, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber ultrafast thulium-doped fiber ring laser with dissipative soliton and noise-like output in normal dispersion by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

Li, X.

Li, Y.

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked thulium fiber laser with 200  nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

Liang, X.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, R.

Lin, D.

Lin, J.

Lin, S.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

Liu, X. Q.

Y. L. Xiao, Y. G. Liu, W. Zhi, Z. Wang, and X. Q. Liu, “Design and experimental study of mode selective all-fiber fused mode coupler based on few mode fiber,” Acta Phys. Sinica 64, 204207 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. G.

Y. L. Xiao, Y. G. Liu, W. Zhi, Z. Wang, and X. Q. Liu, “Design and experimental study of mode selective all-fiber fused mode coupler based on few mode fiber,” Acta Phys. Sinica 64, 204207 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, M. Li, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber ultrafast thulium-doped fiber ring laser with dissipative soliton and noise-like output in normal dispersion by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

Lushnikov, P. M.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

MacCraith, B. D.

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mao, D.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mazé, G.

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
[Crossref]

McAleavey, F. J.

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked thulium fiber laser with 200  nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref]

Menzies, R. T.

Ming, H.

Mingareev, I.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

Nelson, L. E.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55  µm and 1.81  µm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76–79 (1998).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500  fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[Crossref]

Neumann, J.

Nicolosi, V.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

O’Gorman, J.

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
[Crossref]

Oduro, B.

Ouyang, D.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pang, F.

F. Wang, F. Shi, T. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Method of generating femtosecond cylindrical vector beams using broadband mode converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

Petrov, D.

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Generation of cylindrical vector beams with few-mode fibers excited by Laguerre–Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 237, 89–95 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phillips, M. W.

Piccirillo, B.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Polder, K. D.

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1927  nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatologic Surg. 38, 199–206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Powers, P. E.

Privitera, G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, Y.

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richardson, M.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ruan, S.

H. Wan, J. Wang, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, S. Ruan, and L. Zhang, “Passively mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser with cylindrical vector beam generation based on mode selective coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 3403–3407 (2018).
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J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Santamato, E.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shah, L.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shi, F.

F. Wang, F. Shi, T. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Method of generating femtosecond cylindrical vector beams using broadband mode converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, H.

Sincore, A. M.

I. Mingareev, N. Gehlich, T. Bonhoff, A. Abdulfattah, A. M. Sincore, P. Kadwani, L. Shah, and M. Richardson, “Principles and applications of trans-wafer processing using a 2-µm thulium fiber laser,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 84, 2567–2578 (2016).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Song, Y. W.

Spajer, M.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203, 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

Spiers, G. D.

Sun, B.

Sun, Z.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Li, Z. Yan, Z. Sun, H. Luo, Y. He, Z. Li, Y. Liu, and L. Zhang, “Thulium-doped all-fiber mode-locked laser based on NPR and 45°-tilted fiber grating,” Opt. Express 22, 31020–31028 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tan, P.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma, L. E. Nelson, G. J. Tearney, D. J. Jones, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomographic imaging of human tissue at 1.55  µm and 1.81  µm using Er- and Tm-doped fiber sources,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 76–79 (1998).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

Volpe, G.

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Generation of cylindrical vector beams with few-mode fibers excited by Laguerre–Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 237, 89–95 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wan, H.

Wandt, D.

Wang, A.

Wang, C.

H. Wan, H. Li, C. Wang, B. Sun, Z. Zhang, W. Wei, and L. Zhang, “An injection-locked single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser with cylindrical vector beam emission,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7100608 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, F. Shi, T. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Method of generating femtosecond cylindrical vector beams using broadband mode converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked thulium fiber laser with 200  nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, P.

Wang, Q.

Wang, T.

F. Wang, F. Shi, T. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Method of generating femtosecond cylindrical vector beams using broadband mode converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, F. Shi, T. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Method of generating femtosecond cylindrical vector beams using broadband mode converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Y. L. Xiao, Y. G. Liu, W. Zhi, Z. Wang, and X. Q. Liu, “Design and experimental study of mode selective all-fiber fused mode coupler based on few mode fiber,” Acta Phys. Sinica 64, 204207 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, W.

H. Wan, H. Li, C. Wang, B. Sun, Z. Zhang, W. Wei, and L. Zhang, “An injection-locked single-longitudinal-mode fiber ring laser with cylindrical vector beam emission,” IEEE Photon. J. 9, 7100608 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wienke, A.

Wise, F. W.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers,” Science 358, 94–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 21, 128–130 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wright, L. G.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Spatiotemporal mode-locking in multimode fiber lasers,” Science 358, 94–97 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xia, K.

Xiao, Y. L.

Y. L. Xiao, Y. G. Liu, W. Zhi, Z. Wang, and X. Q. Liu, “Design and experimental study of mode selective all-fiber fused mode coupler based on few mode fiber,” Acta Phys. Sinica 64, 204207 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Xu, Y.

Y. Meng, Y. Li, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Carbon nanotube mode-locked thulium fiber laser with 200  nm tuning range,” Sci. Rep. 7, 45109 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, K.

Yan, P.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z.

Yang, Y.

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yao, P.

Yao, S.

W. Jin, Y. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. Jiang, Y. Wu, Y. Xu, S. Yao, and S. Jian, “Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating,” J. Opt. 19, 095702 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

F. Wang, F. Shi, T. Wang, F. Pang, T. Wang, and X. Zeng, “Method of generating femtosecond cylindrical vector beams using broadband mode converter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 747–750 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, B.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, M. Li, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber ultrafast thulium-doped fiber ring laser with dissipative soliton and noise-like output in normal dispersion by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, A. P. Heberle, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring oscillator operated at solitary and noise like modes,” Opt. Lett. 36, 3750–3752 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.

J. Wang, X. Liang, G. Hu, Z. Zheng, S. Lin, D. Ouyang, X. Wu, P. Yan, S. Ruan, Z. Sun, and T. Hasan, “152  fs nanotube-mode-locked thulium-doped all-fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 6, 28885 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhi, W.

Y. L. Xiao, Y. G. Liu, W. Zhi, Z. Wang, and X. Q. Liu, “Design and experimental study of mode selective all-fiber fused mode coupler based on few mode fiber,” Acta Phys. Sinica 64, 204207 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, R.

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, Z.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, Z. M.

L. G. Wright, Z. M. Ziegler, P. M. Lushnikov, Z. Zhu, M. A. Eftekhar, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, “Multimode nonlinear fiber optics: massively parallel numerical solver, tutorial, and outlook,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 1–16 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, P. Tan, D. Popa, E. Flahaut, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Bonaccorso, F. Wang, Z. Jiang, F. Torrisi, G. Privitera, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “Double-wall carbon nanotubes for wide-band, ultrafast pulse generation,” ACS Nano 8, 4836–4847 (2014).
[Crossref]

Acta Phys. Sinica (1)

Y. L. Xiao, Y. G. Liu, W. Zhi, Z. Wang, and X. Q. Liu, “Design and experimental study of mode selective all-fiber fused mode coupler based on few mode fiber,” Acta Phys. Sinica 64, 204207 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. Mao, T. Feng, W. Zhang, H. Lu, Y. Jiang, P. Li, B. Jiang, Z. Sun, and J. Zhao, “Ultrafast all-fiber based cylindrical-vector beam laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110, 021107 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Piccirillo, V. D’Ambrosio, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, and E. Santamato, “Photon spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion via an electrically tunable q-plate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 241104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, T. Chen, M. Li, B. Zhang, Y. Lu, and K. P. Chen, “All-fiber ultrafast thulium-doped fiber ring laser with dissipative soliton and noise-like output in normal dispersion by single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 011103 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. E. Nelson, E. P. Ippen, and H. A. Haus, “Broadly tunable sub-500  fs pulses from an additive-pulse mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 19–21 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dermatologic Surg. (1)

K. D. Polder and S. Bruce, “Treatment of melasma using a novel 1927  nm fractional thulium fiber laser: a pilot study,” Dermatologic Surg. 38, 199–206 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. J. McAleavey, J. O’Gorman, J. F. Donegan, B. D. MacCraith, J. Hegarty, and G. Mazé, “Narrow linewidth, tunable Tm3+-doped fluoride fiber laser for optical-based hydrocarbon has sensing,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1103–1111 (1997).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a)  ${\rm{LP}_{01}}$ mode in SMF-28e, (b)  ${\rm{LP}_{01}}$ mode, and (c)  ${\rm{LP}_{11}}$ mode in OFS four-mode fiber at the 2 µm wavelength band.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Mode effective indices versus cladding radius at the wavelength of 1.95 µm. (b) Mode intensity distribution and power exchange in the coupling.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Schematic setup of the mode-locked thulium-doped CVB fiber laser. WDM, wavelength-division multiplexing coupler; TH-512, Tm/Ho-co-doped fiber; OC, optical coupler; ISO, isolator; DCF, dispersion compensation fiber; CNT-SA, carbon nanotube saturable absorber; PC, polarization controller; MSC, mode-selective coupler; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; OSC, oscilloscope; CCD, charge-coupled device.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Output mode-locked (a) spectrum and (b) pulse train at pump power of 350 mW.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Autocorrelation trace of the mode-locked pulse.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) RF spectrum of the mode-locked Tm/Ho-co-doped fiber oscillator at a span of 1 GHz; (b) the fundamental peak located at the cavity repetition rate of 15.4 MHz with a resolution bandwidth of 1 Hz.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Intensity distributions of (a) radial polarization beam and (f) azimuthal polarization beam without a polarizer; (b)–(e) radial polarization beam after passing a liner polarizer; (g)–(j) azimuthal polarization beam after passing a liner polarizer. Arrow indicates the orientation of the linear polarizer.

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