Abstract

The emission direction of ionized electrons from atoms and molecules is determined by the strong transient laser field at the moment of ionization. Thus, we can use circularly polarized laser pulses to record the emission direction of two electrons in strong-field double ionization. Mapping the relative emission angle between the two electrons onto their ionization time delay, we show relative emission time delay changes in nonsequential double ionization of a model benzene molecule with a classical ensemble model, within the range from 150 to 400 attoseconds, as the laser intensity decreases. Such emission time delay changes reflect the double ionization mechanism changes from dominant direct impact double ionization to dominant recollision-induced excitation with a subsequent field-ionization mechanism.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, X. Liu, and W. Becker, “Electron-electron dynamics in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 043405 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Li, and Q. Liao, “Transition from strong-field sequential to nonsequential double ionization at near-infrared wavelengths and low intensities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 364 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133002 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Liu, J. Tan, M. He, H. Xie, Y. Qin, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferences from multiple returning in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Opt. Quantum Electron 51, 145 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. Ma, Y. Zhou, N. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 1825–1837 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Tong, Q. Li, X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Internal collision induced strong-field nonsequential double ionization in molecules,” Opt. Express 27, 6415–6425 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion-assisted double ionization from doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  20. L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-space-trajectory perspective on high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 193901 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. B. Fu, G. G. Xin, D. F. Ye, and J. Liu, “Recollision dynamics and phase diagram for nonsequential double ionization with circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103601 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Xu, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Multiple recollisions in nonsequential double ionization by counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 26, 1645–1654 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Nonadiabatic theory of strongfield atomic effects under elliptical polarization,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A542 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. F. Wang, K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Reconstruction of laser envelopes by infrared field dressed single photoionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 7–11 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. Ben, P. Guo, K. Song, T. Xu, W. Yu, and X. Liu, “Nonsequential double ionization of Mg from a doubly excited complex driven by circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 25, 1288–1295 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  36. X. Wang, J. Tian, and J. H. Eberly, “Angular correlation in strong-field double ionization under circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073001 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  38. Q. Liao, Y. Li, M. Qin, and P. Lu, “Attosecond interference in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063408 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  39. T. Xu, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Classical trajectory analysis of Mg in a circularly polarized laser field,” J. Phys. B 50, 105401 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  40. Y. Zhao, Y. Zhou, J. Liang, Z. Zeng, Q. Ke, Y. Liu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Frustrated tunneling ionization in the elliptically polarized strong laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 21689–21700 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  41. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  42. M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  43. Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023405 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  44. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2019 (8)

Y. Liu, J. Tan, M. He, H. Xie, Y. Qin, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferences from multiple returning in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Opt. Quantum Electron 51, 145 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, N. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 1825–1837 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Tong, Q. Li, X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Internal collision induced strong-field nonsequential double ionization in molecules,” Opt. Express 27, 6415–6425 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-space-trajectory perspective on high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 193901 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Reconstruction of laser envelopes by infrared field dressed single photoionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 7–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhou, J. Liang, Z. Zeng, Q. Ke, Y. Liu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Frustrated tunneling ionization in the elliptically polarized strong laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 21689–21700 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

T. Xu, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Multiple recollisions in nonsequential double ionization by counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 26, 1645–1654 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Li, and Q. Liao, “Transition from strong-field sequential to nonsequential double ionization at near-infrared wavelengths and low intensities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 364 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion-assisted double ionization from doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Ben, P. Guo, K. Song, T. Xu, W. Yu, and X. Liu, “Nonsequential double ionization of Mg from a doubly excited complex driven by circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 25, 1288–1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, Y. Li, M. Qin, and P. Lu, “Attosecond interference in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063408 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Classical trajectory analysis of Mg in a circularly polarized laser field,” J. Phys. B 50, 105401 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

X. Wang, J. Tian, and J. H. Eberly, “Angular correlation in strong-field double ionization under circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073001 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Nonadiabatic theory of strongfield atomic effects under elliptical polarization,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fu, G. G. Xin, D. F. Ye, and J. Liu, “Recollision dynamics and phase diagram for nonsequential double ionization with circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103601 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Emmanouilidou, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023405 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133002 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, X. Liu, and W. Becker, “Electron-electron dynamics in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 043405 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, P.

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion-assisted double ionization from doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

Basnayake, G.

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Becker, A.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Becker, W.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, X. Liu, and W. Becker, “Electron-electron dynamics in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 043405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ben, S.

T. Xu, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Multiple recollisions in nonsequential double ionization by counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 26, 1645–1654 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ben, P. Guo, K. Song, T. Xu, W. Yu, and X. Liu, “Nonsequential double ionization of Mg from a doubly excited complex driven by circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 25, 1288–1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Classical trajectory analysis of Mg in a circularly polarized laser field,” J. Phys. B 50, 105401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blaga, C. I.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

Budil, K. S.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437 (1993).
[Crossref]

Burnett, N. H.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chandre, C.

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Cirelli, C.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deipenwisch, J.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dietrich, P.

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[Crossref]

DiMauro, L. F.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133002 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ditmire, T.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437 (1993).
[Crossref]

Doherty, B. J. S.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dorner, R.

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Du, B.

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

X. Wang, J. Tian, and J. H. Eberly, “Angular correlation in strong-field double ionization under circular polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073001 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang and J. H. Eberly, “Nonadiabatic theory of strongfield atomic effects under elliptical polarization,” J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A542 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eckle, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Emmanouilidou, A.

A. Emmanouilidou, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 023403 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ergler, T.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, X. Liu, and W. Becker, “Electron-electron dynamics in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 043405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fu, L. B.

L. B. Fu, G. G. Xin, D. F. Ye, and J. Liu, “Recollision dynamics and phase diagram for nonsequential double ionization with circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103601 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, P.

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

He, M.

Y. Liu, J. Tan, M. He, H. Xie, Y. Qin, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferences from multiple returning in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Opt. Quantum Electron 51, 145 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ho, P. J.

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Höhr, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, T.

L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-space-trajectory perspective on high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 193901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, I.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Dietrich, N. H. Burnett, M. Ivanov, and P. B. Corkum, “High-harmonic generation and correlated two-electron multiphoton ionization with elliptically polarized light,” Phys. Rev. A 50, R3585 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jagutzki, O.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kammer, S.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Karim, A.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaushal, J.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ke, Q.

Keller, U.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kheifets, A.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K. C. Kulander, “Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref]

L’Huillier, A.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lan, P.

L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-space-trajectory perspective on high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 193901 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Reconstruction of laser envelopes by infrared field dressed single photoionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 7–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. K.

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion-assisted double ionization from doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lein, M.

L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-space-trajectory perspective on high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 193901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-space-trajectory perspective on high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 193901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, M.

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. Tan, M. He, H. Xie, Y. Qin, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferences from multiple returning in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Opt. Quantum Electron 51, 145 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, N. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 1825–1837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhou, J. Liang, Z. Zeng, Q. Ke, Y. Liu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Frustrated tunneling ionization in the elliptically polarized strong laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 21689–21700 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

Li, Q.

A. Tong, Q. Li, X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Internal collision induced strong-field nonsequential double ionization in molecules,” Opt. Express 27, 6415–6425 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Li, and Q. Liao, “Transition from strong-field sequential to nonsequential double ionization at near-infrared wavelengths and low intensities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion-assisted double ionization from doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, Y. Li, M. Qin, and P. Lu, “Attosecond interference in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063408 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liang, J.

Liao, Q.

F. Wang, K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Reconstruction of laser envelopes by infrared field dressed single photoionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 7–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Li, and Q. Liao, “Transition from strong-field sequential to nonsequential double ionization at near-infrared wavelengths and low intensities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion-assisted double ionization from doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, Y. Li, M. Qin, and P. Lu, “Attosecond interference in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063408 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. F.

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, P. Adhikari, and W. Li, “Coulomb-repulsion-assisted double ionization from doubly excited states of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 023401 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fu, G. G. Xin, D. F. Ye, and J. Liu, “Recollision dynamics and phase diagram for nonsequential double ionization with circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103601 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

F. Wang, K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Reconstruction of laser envelopes by infrared field dressed single photoionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 7–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Li, and Q. Liao, “Transition from strong-field sequential to nonsequential double ionization at near-infrared wavelengths and low intensities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

T. Xu, Q. Zhu, J. Chen, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Multiple recollisions in nonsequential double ionization by counter-rotating two-color circularly polarized laser fields,” Opt. Express 26, 1645–1654 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ben, P. Guo, K. Song, T. Xu, W. Yu, and X. Liu, “Nonsequential double ionization of Mg from a doubly excited complex driven by circularly polarized laser field,” Opt. Express 25, 1288–1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, J. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Classical trajectory analysis of Mg in a circularly polarized laser field,” J. Phys. B 50, 105401 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Xu, S. Ben, T. Wang, J. Zhang, J. Guo, and X. Liu, “Exploration of the nonsequential double-ionization process of a Mg atom with different delay time in few-cycle circularly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 92, 033405 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, X. Liu, and W. Becker, “Electron-electron dynamics in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 043405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Tan, M. He, H. Xie, Y. Qin, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferences from multiple returning in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Opt. Quantum Electron 51, 145 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhou, J. Liang, Z. Zeng, Q. Ke, Y. Liu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Frustrated tunneling ionization in the elliptically polarized strong laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 21689–21700 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, P.

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. Tan, M. He, H. Xie, Y. Qin, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferences from multiple returning in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Opt. Quantum Electron 51, 145 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Li, P. Lan, X. Zhu, T. Huang, Q. Zhang, M. Lein, and P. Lu, “Reciprocal-space-trajectory perspective on high harmonic generation in solids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 193901 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Y. Zhou, J. Liang, Z. Zeng, Q. Ke, Y. Liu, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Frustrated tunneling ionization in the elliptically polarized strong laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 21689–21700 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Reconstruction of laser envelopes by infrared field dressed single photoionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 7–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Tong, Q. Li, X. Ma, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Internal collision induced strong-field nonsequential double ionization in molecules,” Opt. Express 27, 6415–6425 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, Y. Zhou, N. Li, M. Li, and P. Lu, “Timing the release of the correlated electrons in strong-field nonsequential double ionization by circularly polarized two-color laser fields,” Opt. Express 27, 1825–1837 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, Y. Li, M. Qin, and P. Lu, “Attosecond interference in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063408 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Classical simulations including electron correlations for sequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 053004 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, C. Huang, and P. Lu, “Coulomb-tail effect of electron-electron interaction on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 023405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. Lu, “Asymmetric electron energy sharing in strong-field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 053402 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, S.

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Li, H. Xie, W. Cao, S. Luo, J. Tan, Y. Feng, B. Du, W. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, P. Lan, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferometry to probe the longitudinal momentum offset at the tunnel exit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 183202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

Mauger, F.

F. Mauger, C. Chandre, and T. Uzer, “Recollisions and correlated double ionization with circularly polarized light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 083002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meckel, M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mergel, V.

T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Morales, F.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Moshammer, R.

Y. Liu, L. Fu, D. Ye, J. Liu, M. Li, C. Wu, Q. Gong, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Strong-field double ionization through sequential release from double excitation with subsequent Coulomb scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 013003 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Muller, H. G.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Neumayer, P.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Panfili, R.

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[Crossref]

Parker, J. S.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Perry, M. D.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, A. N.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qin, M.

F. Wang, K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Liao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “Reconstruction of laser envelopes by infrared field dressed single photoionization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 36, 7–11 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, M. Qin, Q. Li, and Q. Liao, “Transition from strong-field sequential to nonsequential double ionization at near-infrared wavelengths and low intensities,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 50, 364 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Liao, Y. Li, M. Qin, and P. Lu, “Attosecond interference in strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 96, 063408 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Tan, M. He, H. Xie, Y. Qin, Y. Zhao, M. Li, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Photoelectron holographic interferences from multiple returning in strong-field tunneling ionization,” Opt. Quantum Electron 51, 145 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Qin, M. Li, Y. Li, M. He, S. Luo, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, and P. Lu, “Asymmetry of the photoelectron momentum distribution from molecular ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 99, 013431 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rayner, D. M.

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rottke, H.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rudenko, A.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ruiz, C.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salières, P.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sandner, W.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schlegel, H. B.

A. H. Winney, S. K. Lee, Y. F. Lin, Q. Liao, P. Adhikari, G. Basnayake, H. B. Schlegel, and W. Li, “Attosecond electron correlation dynamics in double ionization of benzene probed with two-electron angular streaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 123201 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schlup, P.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schöffler, M.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schomerus, H.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, H. Schomerus, X. Liu, and W. Becker, “Electron-electron dynamics in laser-induced nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 043405 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schössler, S.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, T. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schröter, C. D.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, T. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800  nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schultz, K. D.

J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133002 (2006).
[Crossref]

Scrinzi, A.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref]

Smirnova, O.

L. Torlina, F. Morales, J. Kaushal, I. Ivanov, A. Kheifets, A. Zielinski, A. Scrinzi, H. G. Muller, S. Sukiasyan, M. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “Interpreting attoclock measurements of tunnelling times,” Nat. Phys. 11, 503–508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Smolarski, M.

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Timing the release in sequential double ionization,” Nat. Phys. 7, 428–433 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Pfeiffer, C. Cirelli, M. Smolarski, X. Wang, J. H. Eberly, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Breakdown of the independent electron approximation in sequential double ionization,” New J. Phys. 13, 093008 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, T. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Weckenbrock, A. Becker, A. Staudte, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dorner, “Electron-electron momentum exchange in strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 123004 (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, K.

Spielberger, L.

T. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emission in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature (London) 405, 658–661 (2000).
[Crossref]

Staudte, A.

P. Eckle, M. Smolarski, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, A. Staudte, M. Schöffler, H. G. Muller, R. Dörner, and U. Keller, “Attosecond angular streaking,” Nat. Phys. 4, 565–570 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Angle-dependent double ionization (DI) yield of benzene. Here, the laser intensity is $ 2 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ . (b) Normalized counts of side-by-side events along the $z$ axis as a function of relative ejection angle in the $xy$ plane. (c), (d) Same as (b), but for the normalized counts of back-to-back events and the ratio of back-to-back events to side-by-side events. (e) Angle in (a)–(d) is defined as the relative ejection angle $ \theta $ between the two electrons in the plane of laser polarization.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Angle-dependent DI yield of benzene. The solid lines with the black diamonds, blue triangles, and red squares are the results with laser intensities of $ 4 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , $ 3 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , and $ 2 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Angle- and time-dependent DI yield of benzene for half optical period of laser pulse. The laser intensities are (a)  $ 4 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , (b)  $ 3 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , and (c)  $ 2 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ . The black dotted line is the time-dependent DI yield for 30 optical periods of laser pulse.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Temporal evolution of the distance R between each electron and the parent ion at the turning points for the laser intensity of $ 4 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ . (b), (c) Same as (a), but for laser intensities of $ 3 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ and $ 2 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , respectively. (d)–(f) Corresponding enlarged views.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Count of DI events as a function of the relative emission angles and relative emission time delays. The laser intensities are (a)  $ 4 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , (b)  $ 3 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ , and (c)  $ 2 \times {10^{14}}\;{\rm{W}}/{\rm{cm}^2} $ .

Equations (4)

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d 2 r i d t 2 = [ V n e ( r i ) + V e e ( r 1 , r 2 ) ] E ( t ) ,
E ( t ) = f ( t ) [ sin ( ω t ) x ^ + cos ( ω t ) y ^ ) ] ,
V n e ( r i ) = 2 r i + a 2 ,
V e e ( r 1 , r 2 ) = 1 ( r 1 r 2 ) 2 + b 2 ,

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