Abstract

We introduce a new metasurface structure for controlling the polarization of light by leveraging a well-harmonized combination of graphene and dielectric. The proposed metasurface is composed of an array of rectangular pillars laterally sandwiched by ribbons of graphene. Being able to dynamically change the polarization state of the reflected wave, the proposed structure is employed to realize a switchable polarization converter, which is able to act as a reflector (co-polarizer)/right-hand circular (RHC) quarter-wave plate or RHC/cross/left-hand circular (LHC) polarizer based on its design configuration. The reflected amplitude in all states of functionality is remarkably high. It is also shown that, for some states, the proposed polarization converter demonstrates broad working bandwidth both spatially and spectrally. Therefore, it could find applications in terahertz imaging, sensing, and communication and also could be easily used to realize other beam-shaping functionalities such as lensing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  4. X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205428 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  12. T. Guo and C. Argyropoulos, “Broadband polarizers based on graphene metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5592–5595 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  14. F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. M. Esquius-Morote, J. S. Gómez-D, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Sinusoidally modulated graphene leaky-wave antenna for electronic beamscanning at THz,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 116–122 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Rahmani, A. Bagheri, A. Khavasi, and K. Mehrany, “Effective medium theory for graphene-covered metallic gratings,” J. Opt. 18, 105005 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Bagheri, B. Rahmani, and A. Khavasi, “Effect of graphene on the absorption and extraordinary transmission of light in 1-d metallic gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53, 1–8 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. E. Collett, W. Bellingham, and E. Collett, “The Stokes polarization parameters,” in Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (2005), pp. 33–66.

2017 (2)

M. R. Tavakol, A. Saba, A. Jafargholi, and A. Khavasi, “Terahertz spectrum splitting by a graphene-covered array of rectangular grooves,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4808–4811 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bagheri, B. Rahmani, and A. Khavasi, “Effect of graphene on the absorption and extraordinary transmission of light in 1-d metallic gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (3)

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23, 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Cheng, D. Ansari-Oghol-Beig, and H. Mosallaei, “Wave manipulation with designer dielectric metasurfaces,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6285–6288 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Esquius-Morote, J. S. Gómez-D, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Sinusoidally modulated graphene leaky-wave antenna for electronic beamscanning at THz,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 116–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ansari-Oghol-Beig, D.

Argyropoulos, C.

Bagheri, A.

A. Bagheri, B. Rahmani, and A. Khavasi, “Effect of graphene on the absorption and extraordinary transmission of light in 1-d metallic gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Rahmani, A. Bagheri, A. Khavasi, and K. Mehrany, “Effective medium theory for graphene-covered metallic gratings,” J. Opt. 18, 105005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belle, B.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bellingham, W.

E. Collett, W. Bellingham, and E. Collett, “The Stokes polarization parameters,” in Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (2005), pp. 33–66.

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Britnell, L.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

Collett, E.

E. Collett, W. Bellingham, and E. Collett, “The Stokes polarization parameters,” in Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (2005), pp. 33–66.

E. Collett, W. Bellingham, and E. Collett, “The Stokes polarization parameters,” in Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (2005), pp. 33–66.

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cong, L.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eaves, L.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Esquius-Morote, M.

M. Esquius-Morote, J. S. Gómez-D, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Sinusoidally modulated graphene leaky-wave antenna for electronic beamscanning at THz,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 116–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fal, V.

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geim, A. K.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gellert, P.

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Georgiou, T.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gómez-D, J. S.

M. Esquius-Morote, J. S. Gómez-D, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Sinusoidally modulated graphene leaky-wave antenna for electronic beamscanning at THz,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 116–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gorbachev, R.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guo, G.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, T.

Han, J.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hong, M.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ishii, S.

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jafargholi, A.

Jalil, R.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jian, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Juan, T.-K.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Katsnelson, M.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khavasi, A.

M. R. Tavakol, A. Saba, A. Jafargholi, and A. Khavasi, “Terahertz spectrum splitting by a graphene-covered array of rectangular grooves,” Opt. Lett. 42, 4808–4811 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Bagheri, B. Rahmani, and A. Khavasi, “Effect of graphene on the absorption and extraordinary transmission of light in 1-d metallic gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Rahmani, A. Bagheri, A. Khavasi, and K. Mehrany, “Effective medium theory for graphene-covered metallic gratings,” J. Opt. 18, 105005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kung, W.-T.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laman, N.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leist, J.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mehmood, M.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mehrany, K.

B. Rahmani, A. Bagheri, A. Khavasi, and K. Mehrany, “Effective medium theory for graphene-covered metallic gratings,” J. Opt. 18, 105005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, A.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mo, W.

Morozov, S.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mosallaei, H.

Ni, X.

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peres, N. M. R.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perruisseau-Carrier, J.

M. Esquius-Morote, J. S. Gómez-D, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Sinusoidally modulated graphene leaky-wave antenna for electronic beamscanning at THz,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 116–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ponomarenko, L. A.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiu, C.-W.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rahmani, B.

A. Bagheri, B. Rahmani, and A. Khavasi, “Effect of graphene on the absorption and extraordinary transmission of light in 1-d metallic gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Rahmani, A. Bagheri, A. Khavasi, and K. Mehrany, “Effective medium theory for graphene-covered metallic gratings,” J. Opt. 18, 105005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Saba, A.

Schedin, F.

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schwab, M.

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, A.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tavakol, M. R.

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Venkatesan, T.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-M.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Wei, X.

Xia, F.

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.-Y.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, K.

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable quarter-wave plate with graphene based metamaterial for broadband terahertz wave manipulation,” Opt. Express 23, 27230–27239 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051105 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Bagheri, B. Rahmani, and A. Khavasi, “Effect of graphene on the absorption and extraordinary transmission of light in 1-d metallic gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 53, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Esquius-Morote, J. S. Gómez-D, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Sinusoidally modulated graphene leaky-wave antenna for electronic beamscanning at THz,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 4, 116–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

B. Rahmani, A. Bagheri, A. Khavasi, and K. Mehrany, “Effective medium theory for graphene-covered metallic gratings,” J. Opt. 18, 105005 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

L. Cong, N. Xu, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

X. Ni, S. Ishii, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Ultra-thin, planar, Babinet-inverted plasmonic metalenses,” Light: Sci. Appl. 2, e72 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Wang, T.-K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W.-T. Kung, G.-Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12, 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13, 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

K. S. Novoselov, V. Fal, L. Colombo, P. Gellert, M. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490, 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Zhao and A. Alù, “Manipulating light polarization with ultrathin plasmonic metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 205428 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C.-W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, K. Yao, F. Xia, S. Shen, J. Tian, and Y. Liu, “Graphene plasmonic metasurfaces to steer infrared light,” Sci. Rep. 5, 12423 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339, 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. Gorbachev, R. Jalil, B. Belle, F. Schedin, A. Mishchenko, T. Georgiou, M. Katsnelson, L. Eaves, S. Morozov, N. M. R. Peres, J. Leist, A. K. Geim, K. S. Novoselov, and L. A. Ponomarenko, “Field-effect tunneling transistor based on vertical graphene heterostructures,” Science 335, 947–950 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. Collett, W. Bellingham, and E. Collett, “The Stokes polarization parameters,” in Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications (2005), pp. 33–66.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Periodic array of dielectric rectangular pillars in which the graphene ribbons are embedded. This array is placed atop Ag. The structure is illuminated normally by a TE plane wave (Ez=0) whose electric field makes a 45° angle with = x and y axis, i.e., ϕ=45° and θ=0°. (b) The unit cell of the structure together with the biasing mechanism is realized by applying the voltage to graphene ribbons separated by an ultrathin layer of SiO2.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Reflection amplitudes, (b) phase retardance, and (c) ellipticity for the proposed architecture of two-state polarizer versus the Fermi level of graphene EF, which is depicted in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Reflection coefficient amplitude of y-polarized electric field, phase retardance, and ellipticity of reflected waves in (a) State 1 and (b) State 2 of the proposed two-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 1 for three different graphene relaxation times. For the relaxation time values, the blue, purple, and red curves correspond to 1, 0.5, and 0.25 ps, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Ellipticity of the reflected waves under various oblique incidence angles ϕ and θ for (a) EF=43  meV and (b) EF=610  meV in the proposed two-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 1.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the effective guide index versus the Fermi level for the graphene-embedded periodic array of dielectric rectangular pillars.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Amplitude as well as ellipticity of the reflected waves corresponding to the two-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 1 for (a) EF=43  meV and (b) EF=610  meV as a function of frequency.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Real and imaginary parts of effective guide index of the graphene-based layer with the thickness of h corresponding to the two-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 1 for (a) EF=43  meV and (b) EF=610  meV as a function of frequency.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Periodic array of graphene-dielectric structure placed atop Ag. The structure is illuminated normally by a TE plane wave (Ez=0) whose electric field makes a 45° angle with x and y axis, i.e., ϕ=45° and θ=0°. (b) The unit cell of the structure together with the biasing mechanism realized by applying the voltage to the polysilicon pad.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Amplitude reflections, (b) phase retardance, and (c) ellipticity for the proposed architecture of three-state polarizer versus the Fermi level of graphene EF, which is depicted in Fig. 8.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Real and (b) imaginary parts of the effective guide index versus the Fermi level for the periodic array of graphene-dielectric structure.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Reflection coefficient amplitude of the y-polarized electric field, phase retardance, and ellipticity of reflected waves in (a) State 1, (b) State 2, and (c) State 3 of the proposed three-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 8 for three different graphene relaxation times. For the relaxation time values, the blue, purple, and red curves correspond to 1, 0.5, and 0.25 ps, respectively.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Ellipticity of the reflected waves under various oblique incidence angles ϕ and θ for (a) EF=104  meV, (b) EF=176  meV, and (c) EF=430  meV in the proposed three-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 8.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Amplitude as well as ellipticity of the reflected waves corresponding to the three-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 8 for (a) EF=104  meV, (b) EF=176  meV, and (c) EF=430  meV as a function of frequency.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Real and imaginary parts of effective guide index of the graphene-based layer with the thickness of h corresponding to the three-state polarizer depicted in Fig. 8 for (a) EF=104  meV, (b) EF=176  meV, and (c) EF=430  meV as a function of frequency.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Required Electric Field Biases for Architecture 1

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Table 2. Required Electric Field Biases for Architecture 2

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σg=2e2kBTπ2jjτ1ωln[2cosh(EF2kBT)]je24πln[2EF(ωjτ1)2EF+(ωjτ1)],
S0=|r˜y|2+|r˜x|2,
S1=|r˜y|2|r˜x|2,
S2=2|r˜y||r˜x|cos(ϕdiff),
S3=2|r˜y||r˜x|sin(ϕdiff),
ns=2π2vf20ε[f0(εEF)f0(ε+EF)]dε,
Eb=ensε0εrdc,
Vb=ensCg,

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