Abstract

A simple scanning holographic arrangement is described. Particular attention is addressed to the way in which the system images moving surfaces. Experimental and theoretical results are presented. It is shown that, owing to space–time variance of the arrangement, (a) an image modulation may be observed despite a spatially uniform scattered intensity across a surface and (b) surfaces having variations of height that are significantly less than the probing wavelength can be (clearly) imaged behind rough and delta-correlated random-phase plates. Further, the way in which the space–time-variant imaging process can interact with an image modulation because of variation of the scattered intensity is examined, and consideration is given to the focusing of the images. The speckle-averaged mean image is discussed in detail. The image speckle is also discussed, and it is argued that the arrangement’s space–time variance can influence the speckle statistics. For instance, a surface with a spatially homogeneous small-scale structure can result in spatially varying speckle, alternating between Gaussian and non-Gaussian forms. The arrangement was constructed to examine the feasibility of optical simulation of synthetic-aperture radar systems and to contribute to the understanding of ocean-surface-wave imaging by the radar.

© 1991 Optical Society of America

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