Abstract

Optical waveguides in LiNbO3 crystals produced by Zn diffusion from the vapor phase have been characterized. Dark mode measurements have been used to determine the refractive-index profiles of the planar waveguides. The influence of the diffusion temperature and diffusion time on the waveguide depth and on the ordinary and extraordinary index changes has been investigated. The effect of the buffer pressure on the waveguide parameters has also been studied. Waveguide formation has been observed at temperatures as low as 550 °C, far from the Curie point and the Li out-diffusion temperature. Changes in refractive index higher than 2.5% have been obtained. The activation energy for the process was similar to that for diffusion of Zn from a ZnO source at a higher temperature. The results of the optical characterization are compared with those for the conventional Ti diffusion method, and some aspects of the diffusion process are discussed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Characterization of index profiles of Zn-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides

Rubén Nevado and Ginés Lifante
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(10) 2574-2580 (1999)

Diffusion Kinetics and Optical Waveguiding Properties of Outdiffused Layers in Lithium Niobate and Lithium Tantalate

J. R. Carruthers, I. P. Kaminow, and L. W. Stulz
Appl. Opt. 13(10) 2333-2342 (1974)

Optical waveguides in LiTaO3: silver lithium ion exchange

J. L. Jackel
Appl. Opt. 19(12) 1996-1999 (1980)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (6)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (1)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription