Abstract

Theoretical computations of modulation transfer functions (MTF’s) of the optical system of the human eye have shown that irregular aberration consisting of a small circular segment with refractive power slightly different from the surround introduces at higher spatial frequencies (>20 cpd) an enhancement of the retinal image contrast on flanks of the optimum-focus plane. When the pupil size is larger than 3 mm, enhancement is substantial; as a result, multiple foci appear at the affected, higher spatial frequencies and generate a greater depth of focus. The contrast enhancement also produces troughs on either flank of the optimum-focus plane. With slight coincident defocus (±0.5 diopter) of the retinal image of a sine-wave grating, notches in the MTF curves, with a contrast reduction in the intermediate frequency range of a factor of 2 to 3 and a low cutoff spatial frequency of ~3 cycles/deg, are produced. In our theoretical study, multiple foci, monocular polyplopia, and increased depth of focus are implicated in the generation of contrast sensitivity function (CSF) notches. It is demonstrated that CSF notches of optical origin can extend to lower spatial frequencies (<10 cycles/deg). As a result, before the presence of a CSF notch can be attributed to neurological abnormality, optical factors, including irregular aberrations, must be eliminated.

© 1994 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Apodization by the Stiles–Crawford effect moderates the visual impact of retinal image defocus

Xiaoxiao Zhang, Ming Ye, Arthur Bradley, and Larry Thibos
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(4) 812-820 (1999)

Predicting the effects of optical defocus on human contrast sensitivity

David A. Atchison, Russell L. Woods, and Arthur Bradley
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(9) 2536-2544 (1998)

Modulation transfer functions and contrast sensitivity through low vision telescopes

Milton Katz, Dean Yager, Alan Lewis, Karl Citek, Nivian Sanchez, and Aries Arditi
Appl. Opt. 28(6) 1103-1109 (1989)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (3)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (1)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Equations (9)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Equations are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Metrics

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article level metrics are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription