Abstract

The observations of Biltz that, under certain conditions, reciprocity failure occurs at low temperatures (e.g., −196°C) have been confirmed. The failure is only of the high-intensity type and is restricted to emulsion-developer combinations of relatively low sensitivity, in particular, to surface image development of nonchemically-sensitized emulsions. At −196°C, the effect is exhibited most readily by silver bromoiodide emulsions.

The effect represents an intensity-dependent recombination of electrons and positive holes released m a grain at low temperatures, thus modifying the number of electrons available for latent-image formation on warming up. The mechanism proposed for superlinear fluorescence adequately accounts for all observations and the connection between low-temperature reciprocity failure and fluorescence of the silver halides is established.

The description of the dependence of sensitivity on temperature is revised. It is now apparent that, with certain emulsion-developer combinations, the speed loss from the normal temperature optimum to a low temperature may contain a factor additional to the absorption and ordinary high-intensity-failure speed losses.

© 1957 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Photographic Sensitivity as a Function of Exposure Time and Temperature*

M. Biltz
J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42(12) 898-903 (1952)

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Figures (9)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Figure files are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Tables (2)

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Article tables are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription