Abstract

The apertures of single long focal length lenses were restricted in various ways to obtain large zonal patterns which could be readily observed and photographed. These zonal patterns were photographed in planes normal to the lens axis at different distances from the lens so that their changes in form with distance from the lens could be seen. Photographs were made for lenses of different designs to show how the design influenced these patterns. The zones of light transmitted by these lenses were either circular or rectangular in shape. Some very interesting geometrical figures can be obtained in this way. The third-order methods of L. Seidel were then used to calculate the forms of these zonal patterns in the paraxial image plane and a comparison made between the calculated and photographed patterns. To calculate the forms of these patterns in planes other than the paraxial image plane, a modification of Finsterwalder’s ray equations was used. The zonal patterns in the paraxial image plane were then projected into other planes normal to the lens axis and displaced from the paraxial image plane. Again a comparison was made between the calculated and photographed patterns. These zonal patterns were also observed with a white light source and were projected on a screen before the meeting of the Society.

© 1953 Optical Society of America

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