Abstract

In recent years, visible light communication (VLC), considered as a compelling technology to solve the spectrum problem of traditional radio frequency (RF) communication, has attracted attention in scientific and industrial communities. However, for a variety of reasons, the design of the VLC uplink scheme has become a significantly challenging problem. In this paper, in order to address the preceding problem, we propose a novel decoupled TCP extension protocol for a VLC hybrid network. Different from regular TCP protocol, decoupling operation to TCP transmission in our new protocol can break through TCP’s limitation to a unidirectional link and allow users to fully utilize network resources in a VLC hybrid network consisting of a VLC downlink and a complementary uplink. Furthermore, today most hosts are equipped with several interfaces, so we combine decoupled TCP (DETCP) with multipath TCP (MPTCP) and extend DETCP to a multipath communication situation. Using several links simultaneously ensures more efficient and reliable data transmission in a VLC network. Based on our implementation of the Linux kernel, our experimental results show that our protocol can effectively accomplish the decouple work and achieve high throughput. In addition, several factors that influence the performance are analyzed based on our measurement results.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Indoor visible communication utilizing plural white LEDs as lighting,” in 12th IEEE Int. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2001.
  2. M. Kavehrad, “Optical wireless applications: a solution to ease the wireless airwaves spectrum crunch,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8645, p. 86450G, 2013.
    [Crossref]
  3. J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  85, pp. 265–298, 1997.
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Wu, H. Wang, and C.-H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: From fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw., vol.  28, pp. 41–45, 2014.
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
    [Crossref]
  7. X. Bao, X. Zhu, T. Song, and Y. Ou, “Protocol design and capacity analysis in hybrid network of visible light communication and OFDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  63, pp. 1770–1778, 2014.
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Fahs, A. J. Chowdhury, and M. M. Hella, “A 12-m 2.5-Gb/s lighting compatible integrated receiver for OOK visible light communication links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  34, pp. 3768–3775, 2016.
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  18, pp. 1719–1722, 2014.
    [Crossref]
  10. F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.
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    [Crossref]
  14. R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “On the performance of different OFDM based optical wireless communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, pp. 620–628, 2011.
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
    [Crossref]
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  17. K.-D. Langer and J. Grubor, “Recent developments in optical wireless communications using infrared and visible light,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON’07), 2007, pp. 146–151.
  18. R. Perez-Jimenez, J. Rufo, C. Quintana, J. Rabadan, and F. Lopez-Hernandez, “Visible light communication systems for passenger in-flight data networking,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011, pp. 445–446.
  19. T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional visible-light communication using corner cube modulator,” IEIC Tech. Rep., vol.  102, pp. 41–46, 2003.
  20. A. Ford, C. Raiciu, M. Handley, and O. Bonaventure, “TCP extensions for multipath operation with multiple addresses,” , 2013.
  21. C. Paasch, G. Detal, F. Duchene, C. Raiciu, and O. Bonaventure, “Exploring mobile/WiFi handover with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Cellular Networks: Operations, Challenges, and Future Design, 2012, pp. 31–36.
  22. C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.
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2016 (2)

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

B. Fahs, A. J. Chowdhury, and M. M. Hella, “A 12-m 2.5-Gb/s lighting compatible integrated receiver for OOK visible light communication links,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  34, pp. 3768–3775, 2016.
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (4)

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C.-H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: From fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw., vol.  28, pp. 41–45, 2014.
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  18, pp. 1719–1722, 2014.
[Crossref]

X. Bao, X. Zhu, T. Song, and Y. Ou, “Protocol design and capacity analysis in hybrid network of visible light communication and OFDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  63, pp. 1770–1778, 2014.
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

S. D. Dissanayake and J. Armstrong, “Comparison of ACO-OFDM, DCO-OFDM and ADO-OFDM in IM/DD systems,” J. Lightwave Technol., vol.  31, pp. 1063–1072, 2013.
[Crossref]

M. Kavehrad, “Optical wireless applications: a solution to ease the wireless airwaves spectrum crunch,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8645, p. 86450G, 2013.
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2003 (1)

T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional visible-light communication using corner cube modulator,” IEIC Tech. Rep., vol.  102, pp. 41–46, 2003.

1997 (1)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  85, pp. 265–298, 1997.
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

C. A. Sunshine and Y. K. Datal, “Connection management in transport protocols,” Comput. Netw. (1976), vol.  2, pp. 454–473, 1978.
[Crossref]

Allman, M.

M. Allman, V. Paxson, and E. Blanton, “TCP congestion control,” , 2009.

Armstrong, J.

Ayyash, M.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, H.

H. Balakrishnan and V. N. Padmanabhan, “TCP performance implications of network path asymmetry,” , 2002.

Bao, X.

X. Bao, X. Zhu, T. Song, and Y. Ou, “Protocol design and capacity analysis in hybrid network of visible light communication and OFDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  63, pp. 1770–1778, 2014.
[Crossref]

Barre, S.

C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.

Barry, J. R.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  85, pp. 265–298, 1997.
[Crossref]

Blanton, E.

M. Allman, V. Paxson, and E. Blanton, “TCP congestion control,” , 2009.

Bonaventure, O.

C. Paasch, G. Detal, F. Duchene, C. Raiciu, and O. Bonaventure, “Exploring mobile/WiFi handover with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Cellular Networks: Operations, Challenges, and Future Design, 2012, pp. 31–36.

A. Ford, C. Raiciu, M. Handley, and O. Bonaventure, “TCP extensions for multipath operation with multiple addresses,” , 2013.

Chen, C.-W.

F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.

Chen, Z.-Y.

F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.

Chi, N.

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  18, pp. 1719–1722, 2014.
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, A. J.

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Datal, Y. K.

C. A. Sunshine and Y. K. Datal, “Connection management in transport protocols,” Comput. Netw. (1976), vol.  2, pp. 454–473, 1978.
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Detal, G.

C. Paasch, G. Detal, F. Duchene, C. Raiciu, and O. Bonaventure, “Exploring mobile/WiFi handover with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Cellular Networks: Operations, Challenges, and Future Design, 2012, pp. 31–36.

Dissanayake, S. D.

Duchene, F.

C. Paasch, G. Detal, F. Duchene, C. Raiciu, and O. Bonaventure, “Exploring mobile/WiFi handover with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Cellular Networks: Operations, Challenges, and Future Design, 2012, pp. 31–36.

Elgala, H.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “On the performance of different OFDM based optical wireless communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, pp. 620–628, 2011.
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Practical considerations for indoor wireless optical system implementation using OFDM,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications (ConTEL), 2009, pp. 25–29.

Fahs, B.

Faulkner, G.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Ford, A.

A. Ford, C. Raiciu, M. Handley, and O. Bonaventure, “TCP extensions for multipath operation with multiple addresses,” , 2013.

Freund, R.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Greenhalgh, A.

C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.

Grubor, J.

K.-D. Langer and J. Grubor, “Recent developments in optical wireless communications using infrared and visible light,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON’07), 2007, pp. 146–151.

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “On the performance of different OFDM based optical wireless communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, pp. 620–628, 2011.
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Practical considerations for indoor wireless optical system implementation using OFDM,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications (ConTEL), 2009, pp. 25–29.

I. Stefan and H. Haas, “Hybrid visible light and radio frequency communication systems,” in IEEE 80th Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC Fall), 2014, pp. 1–5.

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Handley, M.

C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.

A. Ford, C. Raiciu, M. Handley, and O. Bonaventure, “TCP extensions for multipath operation with multiple addresses,” , 2013.

Haruyama, S.

T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional visible-light communication using corner cube modulator,” IEIC Tech. Rep., vol.  102, pp. 41–46, 2003.

Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Indoor visible communication utilizing plural white LEDs as lighting,” in 12th IEEE Int. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2001.

Hella, M. M.

Hilt, J.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.

Jungnickel, V.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Kahn, J. M.

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  85, pp. 265–298, 1997.
[Crossref]

Kavehrad, M.

M. Kavehrad, “Optical wireless applications: a solution to ease the wireless airwaves spectrum crunch,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8645, p. 86450G, 2013.
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Khreishah, A.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Komine, T.

T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional visible-light communication using corner cube modulator,” IEIC Tech. Rep., vol.  102, pp. 41–46, 2003.

Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Indoor visible communication utilizing plural white LEDs as lighting,” in 12th IEEE Int. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2001.

Langer, K.-D.

K.-D. Langer and J. Grubor, “Recent developments in optical wireless communications using infrared and visible light,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON’07), 2007, pp. 146–151.

Lin, C.-T.

F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.

Little, T.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Lopez-Hernandez, F.

R. Perez-Jimenez, J. Rufo, C. Quintana, J. Rabadan, and F. Lopez-Hernandez, “Visible light communication systems for passenger in-flight data networking,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011, pp. 445–446.

McKendry, J. J.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Mesleh, R.

R. Mesleh, H. Elgala, and H. Haas, “On the performance of different OFDM based optical wireless communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  3, pp. 620–628, 2011.
[Crossref]

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Practical considerations for indoor wireless optical system implementation using OFDM,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications (ConTEL), 2009, pp. 25–29.

Nakagawa, M.

T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional visible-light communication using corner cube modulator,” IEIC Tech. Rep., vol.  102, pp. 41–46, 2003.

Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Indoor visible communication utilizing plural white LEDs as lighting,” in 12th IEEE Int. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2001.

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Ou, Y.

X. Bao, X. Zhu, T. Song, and Y. Ou, “Protocol design and capacity analysis in hybrid network of visible light communication and OFDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  63, pp. 1770–1778, 2014.
[Crossref]

Paasch, C.

C. Paasch, G. Detal, F. Duchene, C. Raiciu, and O. Bonaventure, “Exploring mobile/WiFi handover with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Cellular Networks: Operations, Challenges, and Future Design, 2012, pp. 31–36.

Padmanabhan, V. N.

H. Balakrishnan and V. N. Padmanabhan, “TCP performance implications of network path asymmetry,” , 2002.

Paxson, V.

M. Allman, V. Paxson, and E. Blanton, “TCP congestion control,” , 2009.

Perez-Jimenez, R.

R. Perez-Jimenez, J. Rufo, C. Quintana, J. Rabadan, and F. Lopez-Hernandez, “Visible light communication systems for passenger in-flight data networking,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011, pp. 445–446.

Pluntke, C.

C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.

Postel, J.

J. Postel, “Transmission control protocol,” , 1981.

Quintana, C.

R. Perez-Jimenez, J. Rufo, C. Quintana, J. Rabadan, and F. Lopez-Hernandez, “Visible light communication systems for passenger in-flight data networking,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011, pp. 445–446.

Rabadan, J.

R. Perez-Jimenez, J. Rufo, C. Quintana, J. Rabadan, and F. Lopez-Hernandez, “Visible light communication systems for passenger in-flight data networking,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011, pp. 445–446.

Rahaim, M. B.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Raiciu, C.

A. Ford, C. Raiciu, M. Handley, and O. Bonaventure, “TCP extensions for multipath operation with multiple addresses,” , 2013.

C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.

C. Paasch, G. Detal, F. Duchene, C. Raiciu, and O. Bonaventure, “Exploring mobile/WiFi handover with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Cellular Networks: Operations, Challenges, and Future Design, 2012, pp. 31–36.

Rajbhandari, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Rufo, J.

R. Perez-Jimenez, J. Rufo, C. Quintana, J. Rabadan, and F. Lopez-Hernandez, “Visible light communication systems for passenger in-flight data networking,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011, pp. 445–446.

Schulz, D.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Shao, S.

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Design and analysis of a visible-light-communication enhanced WiFi system,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.  7, pp. 960–973, 2015.
[Crossref]

Song, T.

X. Bao, X. Zhu, T. Song, and Y. Ou, “Protocol design and capacity analysis in hybrid network of visible light communication and OFDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  63, pp. 1770–1778, 2014.
[Crossref]

Stefan, I.

I. Stefan and H. Haas, “Hybrid visible light and radio frequency communication systems,” in IEEE 80th Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC Fall), 2014, pp. 1–5.

Sunshine, C. A.

C. A. Sunshine and Y. K. Datal, “Connection management in transport protocols,” Comput. Netw. (1976), vol.  2, pp. 454–473, 1978.
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Indoor visible communication utilizing plural white LEDs as lighting,” in 12th IEEE Int. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2001.

Tao, L.

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  18, pp. 1719–1722, 2014.
[Crossref]

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C.-H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: From fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw., vol.  28, pp. 41–45, 2014.
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  18, pp. 1719–1722, 2014.
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  18, pp. 1719–1722, 2014.
[Crossref]

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

Wei, C.-C.

F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.

Wischik, D.

C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.

Wu, F.-M.

F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.

Wu, S.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C.-H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: From fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw., vol.  28, pp. 41–45, 2014.
[Crossref]

Youn, C.-H.

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C.-H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: From fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw., vol.  28, pp. 41–45, 2014.
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Bao, X. Zhu, T. Song, and Y. Ou, “Protocol design and capacity analysis in hybrid network of visible light communication and OFDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  63, pp. 1770–1778, 2014.
[Crossref]

Comput. Netw. (1976) (1)

C. A. Sunshine and Y. K. Datal, “Connection management in transport protocols,” Comput. Netw. (1976), vol.  2, pp. 454–473, 1978.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett., vol.  18, pp. 1719–1722, 2014.
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

S. Shao, A. Khreishah, M. Ayyash, M. B. Rahaim, H. Elgala, V. Jungnickel, D. Schulz, T. Little, J. Hilt, and R. Freund, “Coexistence of WiFi and LiFi toward 5G: Concepts, opportunities, and challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.  54, no. 2, pp. 64–71, 2016.
[Crossref]

IEEE Netw. (1)

S. Wu, H. Wang, and C.-H. Youn, “Visible light communications for 5G wireless networking systems: From fixed to mobile communications,” IEEE Netw., vol.  28, pp. 41–45, 2014.
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.  26, pp. 637–640, 2014.
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (1)

X. Bao, X. Zhu, T. Song, and Y. Ou, “Protocol design and capacity analysis in hybrid network of visible light communication and OFDMA systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol.  63, pp. 1770–1778, 2014.
[Crossref]

IEIC Tech. Rep. (1)

T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional visible-light communication using corner cube modulator,” IEIC Tech. Rep., vol.  102, pp. 41–46, 2003.

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. M. Kahn and J. R. Barry, “Wireless infrared communications,” Proc. IEEE, vol.  85, pp. 265–298, 1997.
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Kavehrad, “Optical wireless applications: a solution to ease the wireless airwaves spectrum crunch,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8645, p. 86450G, 2013.
[Crossref]

Other (12)

Y. Tanaka, T. Komine, S. Haruyama, and M. Nakagawa, “Indoor visible communication utilizing plural white LEDs as lighting,” in 12th IEEE Int. Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 2001.

F.-M. Wu, C.-T. Lin, C.-C. Wei, C.-W. Chen, Z.-Y. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM visible light communication of a single RGB LED employing carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conf., 2013, paper OTh1G.4.

H. Elgala, R. Mesleh, and H. Haas, “Practical considerations for indoor wireless optical system implementation using OFDM,” in 10th Int. Conf. on Telecommunications (ConTEL), 2009, pp. 25–29.

I. Stefan and H. Haas, “Hybrid visible light and radio frequency communication systems,” in IEEE 80th Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC Fall), 2014, pp. 1–5.

K.-D. Langer and J. Grubor, “Recent developments in optical wireless communications using infrared and visible light,” in 9th Int. Conf. on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON’07), 2007, pp. 146–151.

R. Perez-Jimenez, J. Rufo, C. Quintana, J. Rabadan, and F. Lopez-Hernandez, “Visible light communication systems for passenger in-flight data networking,” in IEEE Int. Conf. on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), 2011, pp. 445–446.

H. Balakrishnan and V. N. Padmanabhan, “TCP performance implications of network path asymmetry,” , 2002.

M. Allman, V. Paxson, and E. Blanton, “TCP congestion control,” , 2009.

A. Ford, C. Raiciu, M. Handley, and O. Bonaventure, “TCP extensions for multipath operation with multiple addresses,” , 2013.

C. Paasch, G. Detal, F. Duchene, C. Raiciu, and O. Bonaventure, “Exploring mobile/WiFi handover with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Cellular Networks: Operations, Challenges, and Future Design, 2012, pp. 31–36.

C. Raiciu, S. Barre, C. Pluntke, A. Greenhalgh, D. Wischik, and M. Handley, “Improving datacenter performance and robustness with multipath TCP,” in ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 2011, pp. 266–277.

J. Postel, “Transmission control protocol,” , 1981.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. DETCP link architecture consisting of original link and complementary link. Left half is the link architecture of regular TCP. SIP, source IP address; OSIP, original source IP address; CSIP, complementary source IP address; DIP, destination IP address; ODIP, original destination IP address; CDIP, complementary destination IP address.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Three-way handshake directed by six-tuple in connection initiation phase.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. State diagram of DETCP. Left half uses the complementary link to send packets; right half uses the original link to send packets.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. DETCP connection establishment with three-way handshake.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. DETCP connection close with four-way handshake.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. MP-DETCP link architecture consisting of a masterflow and two subflows. Dotted lines represent that data transmission in this direction is blocked due to the link’s unidirectional characteristic.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. MP-DETCP connection establishment with three-way handshake.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. MP-DETCP subflow establishment with four-way handshake when link’s direction is “Out” or “Two-Way” for client.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. MP-DETCP subflow establishment with four-way handshake when link’s direction is “In” for client.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Our transmission system in practical experiments.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Network topology for DETCP experiments. Upper link is the complementary uplink; lower link is the VLC downlink.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Network topology for MP-DETCP experiments. Link A and Link D comprise VLC downlink, and Link B together with Link E comprise the complementary uplink. Besides, Link C and Link F compose the Ethernet subflow.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Average throughputs under different uplink packet loss ratios.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Average throughputs under different downlink packet loss ratios.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Average throughputs under different downlink delay.
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Average throughput comparison under different downlink packet reorder situations.
Fig. 17.
Fig. 17. Average throughput comparison between DETCP and MP-DETCP under different downlink packet loss ratios.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

TABLE I Local Addresses Information

Tables Icon

TABLE II Remote Addresses Informationa

Tables Icon

TABLE III Direction Mapping Relationship