We present here the main results for reach extension in passive optical network (PON) technologies. Both passive and active architectures integrating several multiplexing techniques are studied, and they provide promising results for the future generation of optical access networks. Extender boxes based on optical amplification and optical-electrical-optical (OEO) repeaters are evaluated over a standardized gigabit PON (GPON) system. With this architecture, the optical budget of a class B+ access network can be increased so as to achieve a total budget of 65 dB. Furthermore, using the technique of remotely pumped optical amplification on a wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) topology, the optical budget of a class C+ PON tree could be increased by an additional 22 dB amounting to a total budget of 55 dB. These results are promising since they should enable high flexibility on the optical budget to achieve more reach and splitting ratio, which are prerequisites needed for the migration to the next-generation access networks.
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