Abstract

We demonstrate 100G SWDM4 transmission over 250 m OM5 and left-tilt OM4 multimode fibers. The OM5 fibers are compliant to TIA-492AAAE and the left-tilt OM4 fibers are compliant only to TIA-492AAAD and have a bandwidth peak at a wavelength longer than 850 nm. The “left-tilt” descriptor refers to the leftward leaning slope of the differential mode delay peaks. This is an indication that the peak bandwidth is at a wavelength longer than the measurement wavelength. To measure the margin to the forward error correction limit, 24 250 m channels were constructed from two links of 100 m and 150 m using either left-tilt OM4 or OM5 fiber. Error-free performance was achieved with each of the 24 OM5 channels. None of the 24 left-tilt OM4 channels achieved error-free performance. To further characterize performance, the effective modal bandwidth was measured for 6 left-tilt OM4 fibers and 12 OM5 fibers from the same spools as the fibers used in the margin measurements. The OM4 fibers all have a left tilt at 850 nm and the OM5 fibers have either a left or right tilt. Bit error ratio (BER) versus received power was then measured over 250 m of these fibers. With the OM4 fibers, the long wavelength channels limited the system performance due to low modal bandwidth at longer wavelengths despite the left tilt at 850 nm. We demonstrate the relationship between effective modal bandwidth at 953 nm and BER performance at 910 and 940 nm.

© 2018 IEEE

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  1. Detail Specification for 50-μm Core Diameter/125-μm Cladding Diameter Class 1a Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers with Laser-Optimized Bandwidth Characteristics Specified for Wavelength Division Multiplexing, TIA-492AAAE,  2016.
  2. Optical Fibres – Part 2-10: Product Specifications – Sectional Specification for Category A1 Multimode Fibres, IEC 60793-2-10 Ed.6, 2017.
  3. I. Lyubomirskyet al., “100G SWDM4 transmission over 300 m wideband MMF,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Valencia, Spain, 2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7341778/
  4. R. Baca, P. Kolesar, J. Tatum, D. Gazula, E. Shaw, and T. Gray, “Advances in multimode fiber transmission for the data center,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7122005/
  5. F. Chang, “First demonstration of PAM4 transmissions for record reach and high-capacity SWDM links over MMF using 40G/100G PAM4 IC chipset with real-time DSP,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2017, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7937169/
  6. Y. Sunet al., “SWDM PAM4 transmission over next generation wide-band multimode optical fiber,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 690–697,  2017. doi: .
    [Crossref]
  7. 100G-SWDM4 MSA Technical Specifications Rev 2, SWDM Multisource agreement,  2017.
  8. Differential Mode Delay Measurement of Multimode Fiber in the Time Domain, TIA-455-220-A, 2003.
  9. Optical Fibres - Part 1-49: Measurement Methods and Test Procedures - Differential Mode Delay, IEC 60793-1-49 Ed. 2.0, 2006.
  10. P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, F. Gooijer, and G. Kuyt, “On the design of wide bandwidth window multimode fibers,” in Proc. 54th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2005, pp. 332–337. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2005-b-1.1625427/t-002-1.1625844/f-011-1.1625951/a-072-1.1625952/10-5-1.1625953
  11. R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and J. Castro, “Wavelength dependence of effective modal bandwidth in OM3 and OM4 fiber and optimizing multimode fiber for multi-wavelength transmission,” in Proc. 63rd Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2014, pp. 349–354. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56324iwcs-event-b-1.1577158/11-11-14-1.1577689/ses-7-1.1704793/7-3-1.1704810/7-3-1.1704811
  12. J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, A. Novick, and B. Lane, “Spectral dependence of multimode fiber modal bandwidth,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-W3C.4
  13. A. Gholami, D. Molin, and P. Sillard, “Compensation of chromatic dispersion by modal dispersion in MMF- and VCSEL-based gigabit ethernet transmission,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 645–647,  2009. doi: .
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Pimpinella, J. Castro, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Dispersion compensated multimode fiber,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2011, pp. 410–418. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2011-b-1.1829889/t-001-1.1830351/f-013-1.1830362/12-1-1.1830375/12-1-1.1830376
  15. J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Investigation of the interaction of modal and chromatic dispersion in VCSEL-MMF channels,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 2532–2541,  2012. doi: .
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Mode partition noise and modal-chromatic dispersion interaction effects on random jitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2629–2638,  2013. doi: .
    [Crossref]
  17. S. K. Pavan, J. Lavrencik, and S. E. Ralph, “Experimental demonstration of 51.56 Gbit/s PAM-4 at 905 nm and impact of level dependent RIN,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6964164/
  18. S. E. Ralph, “Requirements and results for practical VCSEL transmission using PAM-4 over MMF,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2016, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7537544/
  19. E. Parsons, M. Lanier, R. Patterson, and G. Irwin, “100G SWDM transmission over 250 m OM5 and OM4+ multimode fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-M3F.5
  20. A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

2017 (3)

Optical Fibres – Part 2-10: Product Specifications – Sectional Specification for Category A1 Multimode Fibres, IEC 60793-2-10 Ed.6, 2017.

Y. Sunet al., “SWDM PAM4 transmission over next generation wide-band multimode optical fiber,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 690–697,  2017. doi: .
[Crossref]

100G-SWDM4 MSA Technical Specifications Rev 2, SWDM Multisource agreement,  2017.

2016 (1)

Detail Specification for 50-μm Core Diameter/125-μm Cladding Diameter Class 1a Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers with Laser-Optimized Bandwidth Characteristics Specified for Wavelength Division Multiplexing, TIA-492AAAE,  2016.

2013 (1)

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Mode partition noise and modal-chromatic dispersion interaction effects on random jitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2629–2638,  2013. doi: .
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Investigation of the interaction of modal and chromatic dispersion in VCSEL-MMF channels,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 2532–2541,  2012. doi: .
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. Gholami, D. Molin, and P. Sillard, “Compensation of chromatic dispersion by modal dispersion in MMF- and VCSEL-based gigabit ethernet transmission,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 645–647,  2009. doi: .
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Optical Fibres - Part 1-49: Measurement Methods and Test Procedures - Differential Mode Delay, IEC 60793-1-49 Ed. 2.0, 2006.

2003 (1)

Differential Mode Delay Measurement of Multimode Fiber in the Time Domain, TIA-455-220-A, 2003.

Baca, R.

R. Baca, P. Kolesar, J. Tatum, D. Gazula, E. Shaw, and T. Gray, “Advances in multimode fiber transmission for the data center,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7122005/

Berian, A.

A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

Castro, J.

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Mode partition noise and modal-chromatic dispersion interaction effects on random jitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2629–2638,  2013. doi: .
[Crossref]

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Investigation of the interaction of modal and chromatic dispersion in VCSEL-MMF channels,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 2532–2541,  2012. doi: .
[Crossref]

R. Pimpinella, J. Castro, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Dispersion compensated multimode fiber,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2011, pp. 410–418. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2011-b-1.1829889/t-001-1.1830351/f-013-1.1830362/12-1-1.1830375/12-1-1.1830376

R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and J. Castro, “Wavelength dependence of effective modal bandwidth in OM3 and OM4 fiber and optimizing multimode fiber for multi-wavelength transmission,” in Proc. 63rd Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2014, pp. 349–354. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56324iwcs-event-b-1.1577158/11-11-14-1.1577689/ses-7-1.1704793/7-3-1.1704810/7-3-1.1704811

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, A. Novick, and B. Lane, “Spectral dependence of multimode fiber modal bandwidth,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-W3C.4

A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

Chang, F.

F. Chang, “First demonstration of PAM4 transmissions for record reach and high-capacity SWDM links over MMF using 40G/100G PAM4 IC chipset with real-time DSP,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2017, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7937169/

Gazula, D.

R. Baca, P. Kolesar, J. Tatum, D. Gazula, E. Shaw, and T. Gray, “Advances in multimode fiber transmission for the data center,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7122005/

Gholami, A.

A. Gholami, D. Molin, and P. Sillard, “Compensation of chromatic dispersion by modal dispersion in MMF- and VCSEL-based gigabit ethernet transmission,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 645–647,  2009. doi: .
[Crossref]

Gooijer, F.

P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, F. Gooijer, and G. Kuyt, “On the design of wide bandwidth window multimode fibers,” in Proc. 54th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2005, pp. 332–337. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2005-b-1.1625427/t-002-1.1625844/f-011-1.1625951/a-072-1.1625952/10-5-1.1625953

Gray, T.

R. Baca, P. Kolesar, J. Tatum, D. Gazula, E. Shaw, and T. Gray, “Advances in multimode fiber transmission for the data center,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7122005/

Huang, Y.

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, A. Novick, and B. Lane, “Spectral dependence of multimode fiber modal bandwidth,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-W3C.4

Irwin, G.

E. Parsons, M. Lanier, R. Patterson, and G. Irwin, “100G SWDM transmission over 250 m OM5 and OM4+ multimode fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-M3F.5

Juang, P.

A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

Kolesar, P.

R. Baca, P. Kolesar, J. Tatum, D. Gazula, E. Shaw, and T. Gray, “Advances in multimode fiber transmission for the data center,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7122005/

Kose, B.

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Mode partition noise and modal-chromatic dispersion interaction effects on random jitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2629–2638,  2013. doi: .
[Crossref]

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Investigation of the interaction of modal and chromatic dispersion in VCSEL-MMF channels,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 2532–2541,  2012. doi: .
[Crossref]

R. Pimpinella, J. Castro, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Dispersion compensated multimode fiber,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2011, pp. 410–418. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2011-b-1.1829889/t-001-1.1830351/f-013-1.1830362/12-1-1.1830375/12-1-1.1830376

R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and J. Castro, “Wavelength dependence of effective modal bandwidth in OM3 and OM4 fiber and optimizing multimode fiber for multi-wavelength transmission,” in Proc. 63rd Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2014, pp. 349–354. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56324iwcs-event-b-1.1577158/11-11-14-1.1577689/ses-7-1.1704793/7-3-1.1704810/7-3-1.1704811

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, A. Novick, and B. Lane, “Spectral dependence of multimode fiber modal bandwidth,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-W3C.4

A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

Kuyt, G.

P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, F. Gooijer, and G. Kuyt, “On the design of wide bandwidth window multimode fibers,” in Proc. 54th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2005, pp. 332–337. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2005-b-1.1625427/t-002-1.1625844/f-011-1.1625951/a-072-1.1625952/10-5-1.1625953

Lane, B.

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Mode partition noise and modal-chromatic dispersion interaction effects on random jitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2629–2638,  2013. doi: .
[Crossref]

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Investigation of the interaction of modal and chromatic dispersion in VCSEL-MMF channels,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 2532–2541,  2012. doi: .
[Crossref]

R. Pimpinella, J. Castro, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Dispersion compensated multimode fiber,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2011, pp. 410–418. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2011-b-1.1829889/t-001-1.1830351/f-013-1.1830362/12-1-1.1830375/12-1-1.1830376

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, A. Novick, and B. Lane, “Spectral dependence of multimode fiber modal bandwidth,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-W3C.4

A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

Lanier, M.

E. Parsons, M. Lanier, R. Patterson, and G. Irwin, “100G SWDM transmission over 250 m OM5 and OM4+ multimode fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-M3F.5

Lavrencik, J.

S. K. Pavan, J. Lavrencik, and S. E. Ralph, “Experimental demonstration of 51.56 Gbit/s PAM-4 at 905 nm and impact of level dependent RIN,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6964164/

Lyubomirsky, I.

I. Lyubomirskyet al., “100G SWDM4 transmission over 300 m wideband MMF,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Valencia, Spain, 2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7341778/

Matthijsse, P.

P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, F. Gooijer, and G. Kuyt, “On the design of wide bandwidth window multimode fibers,” in Proc. 54th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2005, pp. 332–337. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2005-b-1.1625427/t-002-1.1625844/f-011-1.1625951/a-072-1.1625952/10-5-1.1625953

Molin, D.

A. Gholami, D. Molin, and P. Sillard, “Compensation of chromatic dispersion by modal dispersion in MMF- and VCSEL-based gigabit ethernet transmission,” Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 645–647,  2009. doi: .
[Crossref]

P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, F. Gooijer, and G. Kuyt, “On the design of wide bandwidth window multimode fibers,” in Proc. 54th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2005, pp. 332–337. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2005-b-1.1625427/t-002-1.1625844/f-011-1.1625951/a-072-1.1625952/10-5-1.1625953

Novick, A.

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, A. Novick, and B. Lane, “Spectral dependence of multimode fiber modal bandwidth,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-W3C.4

A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

Parsons, E.

E. Parsons, M. Lanier, R. Patterson, and G. Irwin, “100G SWDM transmission over 250 m OM5 and OM4+ multimode fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-M3F.5

Patterson, R.

E. Parsons, M. Lanier, R. Patterson, and G. Irwin, “100G SWDM transmission over 250 m OM5 and OM4+ multimode fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-M3F.5

Pavan, S. K.

S. K. Pavan, J. Lavrencik, and S. E. Ralph, “Experimental demonstration of 51.56 Gbit/s PAM-4 at 905 nm and impact of level dependent RIN,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6964164/

Pimpinella, R.

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Mode partition noise and modal-chromatic dispersion interaction effects on random jitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 15, pp. 2629–2638,  2013. doi: .
[Crossref]

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Investigation of the interaction of modal and chromatic dispersion in VCSEL-MMF channels,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 2532–2541,  2012. doi: .
[Crossref]

R. Pimpinella, J. Castro, B. Kose, and B. Lane, “Dispersion compensated multimode fiber,” in Proc. Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2011, pp. 410–418. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56333-iwcs-2011-b-1.1829889/t-001-1.1830351/f-013-1.1830362/12-1-1.1830375/12-1-1.1830376

R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, and J. Castro, “Wavelength dependence of effective modal bandwidth in OM3 and OM4 fiber and optimizing multimode fiber for multi-wavelength transmission,” in Proc. 63rd Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2014, pp. 349–354. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/56324iwcs-event-b-1.1577158/11-11-14-1.1577689/ses-7-1.1704793/7-3-1.1704810/7-3-1.1704811

J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, B. Kose, Y. Huang, A. Novick, and B. Lane, “Spectral dependence of multimode fiber modal bandwidth,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-W3C.4

A. Novick, B. Kose, J. Castro, R. Pimpinella, P. Juang, A. Berian, and B. Lane, “Characterizing differential mode delay tilt and its relationship to the effective modal bandwidth of multimode fibers as a function of wavelength,” in Proc. 66th Int. Wire Cable Symp.,  2017, pp. 776–780. [Online]. Available: http://www.iwcs.org/64479iwcsorg-1.3896239/t003-1.3896713/f023-1.3896714/18-3-1.3896725/18-3-1.3896726

Ralph, S. E.

S. K. Pavan, J. Lavrencik, and S. E. Ralph, “Experimental demonstration of 51.56 Gbit/s PAM-4 at 905 nm and impact of level dependent RIN,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6964164/

S. E. Ralph, “Requirements and results for practical VCSEL transmission using PAM-4 over MMF,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2016, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7537544/

Shaw, E.

R. Baca, P. Kolesar, J. Tatum, D. Gazula, E. Shaw, and T. Gray, “Advances in multimode fiber transmission for the data center,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2015, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7122005/

Sillard, P.

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E. Parsons, M. Lanier, R. Patterson, and G. Irwin, “100G SWDM transmission over 250 m OM5 and OM4+ multimode fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2018, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?uri=OFC-2018-M3F.5

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F. Chang, “First demonstration of PAM4 transmissions for record reach and high-capacity SWDM links over MMF using 40G/100G PAM4 IC chipset with real-time DSP,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib.,  2017, pp. 1–3. [Online]. Available: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7937169/

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