Abstract

Mode-dependent loss and gain (MDL and MDG) of multimode components are fundamental impairments that reduce the capacity of mode-division-multiplexed (MDM) systems. MDL of components is commonly quantified either in terms of the root mean square (rms) or peak-to-peak (P-P) gain and loss variations. It is incorrect to specify only the P-PMDL of components if they are to be used in an MDM system with nonnegligible mode coupling, because the system's overall coupled gains are random variables whose statistics cannot be determined from the P-P MDL values. On the other hand, measurements of the rms MDL of components are sufficient to determine the rms value of the system's overall coupled MDL, regardless of whether the system has weak or strong coupling. We propose novel algorithms based on convex optimization, which can efficiently measure all modal gains of any multimode component using low-cost direct-detection hardware. In particular, we propose an efficient algorithm that produces accurate measurements of all modal gains by estimating a high-dimensional MDL ellipse using a sequence of power measurements.

© 2018 IEEE

PDF Article

References

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Citation lists with outbound citation links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription

Cited By

You do not have subscription access to this journal. Cited by links are available to subscribers only. You may subscribe either as an OSA member, or as an authorized user of your institution.

Contact your librarian or system administrator
or
Login to access OSA Member Subscription