Abstract

It is predicted that demand in future optical access networks will reach multigigabit/s per user. However, the limited performance of the direct detection receiver technology currently used in the optical network units at the customers’ premises restricts data rates per user. Therefore, the concept of coherent-enabled access networks has attracted attention in recent years, as this technology offers high receiver sensitivity, inherent frequency selectivity, and linear field detection enabling the full compensation of linear channel impairments. However, the complexity of conventional (dual-polarization digital) coherent receivers has so far prevented their introduction into access networks. Thus, to exploit the benefits of coherent technology in access networks, low complexity coherent receivers, suitable for implementation in ONUs, are needed. In this paper, the recently proposed low complexity coherent (i.e., polarization-independent Alamouti-coding heterodyne) receiver is, for the first time, compared in terms of its minimum receiver sensitivity with five previously reported receiver designs, including a detailed discussion on their advantages and limitations. It is shown that, of all the configurations considered, the Alamouti-coding based receiver approach allows the lowest number of photons per bit (PPB) transmitted (with a lower bound of 15.5 PPB in an ideal implementation of the system), while requiring the lowest optical receiver hardware complexity (in terms of the optical component count). It also exhibits comparable complexity to the currently deployed direct-detection receivers, which typically require over 1000 PPB. Finally, a comparison of experimentally achieved receiver sensitivities and transmission distances using these receivers is presented. The highest spectral efficiency and longest transmission distance at the highest bit rate (10 Gb/s) was reported using the Alamouti-coding receiver, which is also the only one, to date, to have been demonstrated in a full system bidirectional transmission.

© 2018 CCBY

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Miguelez, “What applications are driving higher capacity in access?,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper M2B.1.
  2. N. Nielsen, Nielsen's Law of Internet Bandwidth, 1998. [Online]. Available: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/law-of-bandwidth/, Accessed on: 16, 2018.
  3. The EU Explained: Digital Agenda for Europe, Eur. Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 2017.
  4. Huawei, Next-Generation PON Evolution, 2013. [Online]. Available: www.huawei.com/ilink/en/download/HW_077443, Accessed on: 16, 2017.
  5. D. Nesset, “PON roadmap [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. A71–A76, 2017.
  6. ITU-T Recommendation G.989 40-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (NG-PON2): General Requirements, Int. Telecommun. Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.989.1/e, Accessed on: 16, 2017.
  7. J.-I. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1290–1297,  2010.
  8. S. Pachnickeet al., “Tunable WDM-PON system with centralized wavelength control,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 812–818,  2016.
  9. ITU-T Recommendation G.987 10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Network (XG-PON) Systems, Int. Telecommun. Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.987.3/en, Accessed on: 16, 2017.
  10. IEEE P802.3av10 Gb/s Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), Inst. Elect. Electron. Eng., Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/, Accessed on: 16, 2017.
  11. C. Bharet al., “A novel hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using cascaded AWGs and tunable components,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1708–1716,  2014.
  12. K. Grobe, M. H. Eiselt, S. Pachnicke, and J.-P. Elbers, “Access networks based on tunable lasers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2815–2815,  2014.
  13. M. Luoet al., “Demonstration of 10-Gb/s, 5-GHz spaced coherent UDWDM-PON with digital signal processing in real-time,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper M2B.1.
  14. R. M. Ferreira, A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, and A. L. Teixeira, “Coherent UDWDM-PON with dual-polarization transceivers in real-time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 909–912,  2017.
  15. S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Pousti, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, post-deadline Paper PDPD4.
  16. H. Rohdeet al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052,  2014.
  17. A. Shahpariet al., “Coherent access: A review,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1050–1058,  2017.
  18. D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical access network,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693,  2007.
  19. J. B. Jensen, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433,  2014.
  20. B. Schrenk and F. Karinou, “Worlds first TO-can coherent transceiver,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper Th1A.4.
  21. J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2008.
  22. M. S. Erkılınçet al., “Polarization-insensitive single balanced photodiode coherent receiver for passive optical networks,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.3.
  23. B. Glance, “Polarization independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 274–276,  1987.
  24. I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Flexible D(Q)PSK 1.25–5 Gb/s UDWDM-PON with directly modulated DFBs and centralized polarization scrambling,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.7.
  25. I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization independent single-PD coherent ONU receiver with centralized scrambling in udWDM-PONs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2014, Paper P.7.12.
  26. E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent receivers for low-cost coherent OOK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 548–551,  2014.
  27. J. Tabares, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization-independent heterodyne DPSK receiver based on 3 × 3 coupler for cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th1K.3.
  28. G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2005.
  29. I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic, 2008.
  30. X. Liuet al., “M-ary pulse-position modulation and frequency-shift keying with additional polarization/phase modulation for high-sensitivity optical transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B868–B881, 2011.
  31. A. Ludwiget al., “Stacked modulation formats enabling highest-sensitivity optical free-space links,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 17, pp. 21942–21957, 2015.
  32. E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126,  2009.
  33. D. Lavery, C. Behrens, and S. J. Savory, “A comparison of modulation formats for passive optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B836–B841, 2011.
  34. W. Shieh, “Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 234–255, 2008.
  35. M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.
  36. Md. S. Faruk, H. Louchet, M. S. Erkılınç, and S. J. Savory, “DSP algorithms for recovering single-carrier Alamouti coded signals for PON applications,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 24083–24091, 2017.
  37. I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2014, Paper W4G.2.
  38. I. N. Cano, J. C. Velasquez, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “10 Gbit/s phase time diversity directly modulated DFB with single-PD intradyne receiver for coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper W.4.P1.SC7.74.
  39. J. A. Altabaset al., “Real-time 10Gbps polarization independent quasicoherent receiver for NG-PON2 access networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper Th1A.3.
  40. J. Zhou and N. Caponio, “Operative characteristics and application aspects of synchronous intra-bit polarization spreading for polarization independent heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 295–298,  1994.
  41. C. Xieet al., “Colorless coherent receiver using 3 × 3 coupler hybrids and single-ended detection,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2011, Paper Th.13.B.2.
  42. P. Bakopoulos, S. Dris, B. Schrenk, I. Lazarou, and H. Avramopoulos, “Bandpass sampling in heterodyne receivers for coherent optical access networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 28, pp. 29404–29412, 2012.
  43. M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.
  44. M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .
  45. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2010.
  46. K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1817–1822,  2008.
  47. B. Zhang, C. Malouin, and T. J. Schmidt, “Design of coherent receiver optical front end for unamplified applications,” Opt. Express, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 3225–3234, 2012.
  48. D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.
  49. M. Presiet al., “Field-trial of a high-budget, filterless, $\lambda$-to-the-user, UDWDM-PON enabled by an innovative class of low-cost coherent transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 23, pp. 5250–5259,  2017.
  50. M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.
  51. M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.
  52. M. Rannello, M. Artiglia, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “10 Gb/s long-reach PON system based on directly modulated transmitters and simple polarization independent coherent receiver,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 17841–17846, 2017.
  53. I. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 973–975,  2014.

2017 (7)

D. Nesset, “PON roadmap [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. A71–A76, 2017.

R. M. Ferreira, A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, and A. L. Teixeira, “Coherent UDWDM-PON with dual-polarization transceivers in real-time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 909–912,  2017.

A. Shahpariet al., “Coherent access: A review,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1050–1058,  2017.

Md. S. Faruk, H. Louchet, M. S. Erkılınç, and S. J. Savory, “DSP algorithms for recovering single-carrier Alamouti coded signals for PON applications,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 24083–24091, 2017.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

M. Presiet al., “Field-trial of a high-budget, filterless, $\lambda$-to-the-user, UDWDM-PON enabled by an innovative class of low-cost coherent transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 23, pp. 5250–5259,  2017.

M. Rannello, M. Artiglia, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “10 Gb/s long-reach PON system based on directly modulated transmitters and simple polarization independent coherent receiver,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 17841–17846, 2017.

2016 (3)

M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

S. Pachnickeet al., “Tunable WDM-PON system with centralized wavelength control,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 812–818,  2016.

2015 (2)

A. Ludwiget al., “Stacked modulation formats enabling highest-sensitivity optical free-space links,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 17, pp. 21942–21957, 2015.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

2014 (6)

I. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 973–975,  2014.

J. B. Jensen, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433,  2014.

E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent receivers for low-cost coherent OOK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 548–551,  2014.

C. Bharet al., “A novel hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using cascaded AWGs and tunable components,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1708–1716,  2014.

K. Grobe, M. H. Eiselt, S. Pachnicke, and J.-P. Elbers, “Access networks based on tunable lasers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2815–2815,  2014.

H. Rohdeet al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052,  2014.

2013 (1)

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

J.-I. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1290–1297,  2010.

2009 (1)

E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126,  2009.

2008 (2)

W. Shieh, “Coherent optical OFDM: Has its time come?,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 234–255, 2008.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1817–1822,  2008.

2007 (1)

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical access network,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693,  2007.

1994 (1)

J. Zhou and N. Caponio, “Operative characteristics and application aspects of synchronous intra-bit polarization spreading for polarization independent heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 295–298,  1994.

1987 (1)

B. Glance, “Polarization independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 274–276,  1987.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2005.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2010.

Agrell, E.

E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126,  2009.

Altabas, J. A.

J. A. Altabaset al., “Real-time 10Gbps polarization independent quasicoherent receiver for NG-PON2 access networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper Th1A.3.

Artiglia, M.

M. Rannello, M. Artiglia, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “10 Gb/s long-reach PON system based on directly modulated transmitters and simple polarization independent coherent receiver,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 17841–17846, 2017.

M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

Avramopoulos, H.

Bakopoulos, P.

Bayvel, P.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.

Behrens, C.

Bhar, C.

C. Bharet al., “A novel hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using cascaded AWGs and tunable components,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1708–1716,  2014.

Bottoni, F.

M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

Cano, I.

I. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 973–975,  2014.

Cano, I. N.

I. N. Cano, J. C. Velasquez, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “10 Gbit/s phase time diversity directly modulated DFB with single-PD intradyne receiver for coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper W.4.P1.SC7.74.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Flexible D(Q)PSK 1.25–5 Gb/s UDWDM-PON with directly modulated DFBs and centralized polarization scrambling,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.7.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2014, Paper W4G.2.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization independent single-PD coherent ONU receiver with centralized scrambling in udWDM-PONs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2014, Paper P.7.12.

Caponio, N.

J. Zhou and N. Caponio, “Operative characteristics and application aspects of synchronous intra-bit polarization spreading for polarization independent heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 295–298,  1994.

Ciaramella, E.

M. Rannello, M. Artiglia, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “10 Gb/s long-reach PON system based on directly modulated transmitters and simple polarization independent coherent receiver,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 17841–17846, 2017.

M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent receivers for low-cost coherent OOK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 548–551,  2014.

Corsini, R.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

Cossu, G.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

Dris, S.

Eiselt, M. H.

K. Grobe, M. H. Eiselt, S. Pachnicke, and J.-P. Elbers, “Access networks based on tunable lasers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2815–2815,  2014.

Elbers, J.-P.

K. Grobe, M. H. Eiselt, S. Pachnicke, and J.-P. Elbers, “Access networks based on tunable lasers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2815–2815,  2014.

Erkilinç, M. S.

Md. S. Faruk, H. Louchet, M. S. Erkılınç, and S. J. Savory, “DSP algorithms for recovering single-carrier Alamouti coded signals for PON applications,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 24083–24091, 2017.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

M. S. Erkılınçet al., “Polarization-insensitive single balanced photodiode coherent receiver for passive optical networks,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.3.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.

Faruk, Md. S.

Ferreira, R. M.

R. M. Ferreira, A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, and A. L. Teixeira, “Coherent UDWDM-PON with dual-polarization transceivers in real-time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 909–912,  2017.

Glance, B.

B. Glance, “Polarization independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 274–276,  1987.

Gottwald, E.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Pousti, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, post-deadline Paper PDPD4.

Grobe, K.

K. Grobe, M. H. Eiselt, S. Pachnicke, and J.-P. Elbers, “Access networks based on tunable lasers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2815–2815,  2014.

Jensen, J. B.

J. B. Jensen, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433,  2014.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic, 2008.

Kani, J.-I.

J.-I. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1290–1297,  2010.

Karinou, F.

B. Schrenk and F. Karinou, “Worlds first TO-can coherent transceiver,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper Th1A.4.

Karlsson, M.

E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126,  2009.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1817–1822,  2008.

Killey, R. I.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.

Lavery, D.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

D. Lavery, C. Behrens, and S. J. Savory, “A comparison of modulation formats for passive optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B836–B841, 2011.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.

Lazarou, I.

Lerin, A.

I. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 973–975,  2014.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization independent single-PD coherent ONU receiver with centralized scrambling in udWDM-PONs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2014, Paper P.7.12.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2014, Paper W4G.2.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Flexible D(Q)PSK 1.25–5 Gb/s UDWDM-PON with directly modulated DFBs and centralized polarization scrambling,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.7.

Li, T.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic, 2008.

Liu, X.

Louchet, H.

Ludwig, A.

Luo, M.

M. Luoet al., “Demonstration of 10-Gb/s, 5-GHz spaced coherent UDWDM-PON with digital signal processing in real-time,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper M2B.1.

Maher, R.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

Malouin, C.

Miguelez, P.

P. Miguelez, “What applications are driving higher capacity in access?,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper M2B.1.

Millar, D. S.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

Mitchell, J. E.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical access network,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693,  2007.

Nesset, D.

Nielsen, N.

N. Nielsen, Nielsen's Law of Internet Bandwidth, 1998. [Online]. Available: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/law-of-bandwidth/, Accessed on: 16, 2018.

Pachnicke, S.

S. Pachnickeet al., “Tunable WDM-PON system with centralized wavelength control,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 812–818,  2016.

K. Grobe, M. H. Eiselt, S. Pachnicke, and J.-P. Elbers, “Access networks based on tunable lasers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2815–2815,  2014.

Polo, V.

I. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 973–975,  2014.

I. N. Cano, J. C. Velasquez, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “10 Gbit/s phase time diversity directly modulated DFB with single-PD intradyne receiver for coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper W.4.P1.SC7.74.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Flexible D(Q)PSK 1.25–5 Gb/s UDWDM-PON with directly modulated DFBs and centralized polarization scrambling,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.7.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2014, Paper W4G.2.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization independent single-PD coherent ONU receiver with centralized scrambling in udWDM-PONs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2014, Paper P.7.12.

J. Tabares, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization-independent heterodyne DPSK receiver based on 3 × 3 coupler for cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th1K.3.

Pousti, A.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Pousti, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, post-deadline Paper PDPD4.

Prat, J.

I. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 973–975,  2014.

I. N. Cano, J. C. Velasquez, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “10 Gbit/s phase time diversity directly modulated DFB with single-PD intradyne receiver for coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper W.4.P1.SC7.74.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Flexible D(Q)PSK 1.25–5 Gb/s UDWDM-PON with directly modulated DFBs and centralized polarization scrambling,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.7.

J. Tabares, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization-independent heterodyne DPSK receiver based on 3 × 3 coupler for cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th1K.3.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization independent single-PD coherent ONU receiver with centralized scrambling in udWDM-PONs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2014, Paper P.7.12.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2014, Paper W4G.2.

Presi, M.

M. Rannello, M. Artiglia, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “10 Gb/s long-reach PON system based on directly modulated transmitters and simple polarization independent coherent receiver,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 17841–17846, 2017.

M. Presiet al., “Field-trial of a high-budget, filterless, $\lambda$-to-the-user, UDWDM-PON enabled by an innovative class of low-cost coherent transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 23, pp. 5250–5259,  2017.

M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Rannello, M.

M. Rannello, M. Artiglia, M. Presi, and E. Ciaramella, “10 Gb/s long-reach PON system based on directly modulated transmitters and simple polarization independent coherent receiver,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 15, pp. 17841–17846, 2017.

M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.

Reis, J. D.

R. M. Ferreira, A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, and A. L. Teixeira, “Coherent UDWDM-PON with dual-polarization transceivers in real-time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 909–912,  2017.

Rohde, H.

H. Rohdeet al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052,  2014.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Pousti, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, post-deadline Paper PDPD4.

Salehi, M.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

Savory, S. J.

Md. S. Faruk, H. Louchet, M. S. Erkılınç, and S. J. Savory, “DSP algorithms for recovering single-carrier Alamouti coded signals for PON applications,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 24083–24091, 2017.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

D. Lavery, C. Behrens, and S. J. Savory, “A comparison of modulation formats for passive optical networks,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B836–B841, 2011.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.

Schmidt, T. J.

Schrenk, B.

Shahpari, A.

A. Shahpariet al., “Coherent access: A review,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1050–1058,  2017.

R. M. Ferreira, A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, and A. L. Teixeira, “Coherent UDWDM-PON with dual-polarization transceivers in real-time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 909–912,  2017.

Shea, D. P.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical access network,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693,  2007.

Shieh, W.

Smith, D.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Pousti, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, post-deadline Paper PDPD4.

Smolorz, S.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Pousti, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, post-deadline Paper PDPD4.

Tabares, J.

J. Tabares, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization-independent heterodyne DPSK receiver based on 3 × 3 coupler for cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th1K.3.

Teixeira, A. L.

R. M. Ferreira, A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, and A. L. Teixeira, “Coherent UDWDM-PON with dual-polarization transceivers in real-time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 909–912,  2017.

Thomsen, B. C.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.

Tsukamoto, S.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1817–1822,  2008.

Velasquez, J. C.

I. N. Cano, J. C. Velasquez, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “10 Gbit/s phase time diversity directly modulated DFB with single-PD intradyne receiver for coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper W.4.P1.SC7.74.

Willner, A. E.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic, 2008.

Xie, C.

C. Xieet al., “Colorless coherent receiver using 3 × 3 coupler hybrids and single-ended detection,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2011, Paper Th.13.B.2.

Zhang, B.

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou and N. Caponio, “Operative characteristics and application aspects of synchronous intra-bit polarization spreading for polarization independent heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 295–298,  1994.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J.-I. Kani, “Enabling technologies for future scalable and flexible WDM-PON and WDM/TDM-PON systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1290–1297,  2010.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

R. M. Ferreira, A. Shahpari, J. D. Reis, and A. L. Teixeira, “Coherent UDWDM-PON with dual-polarization transceivers in real-time,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 909–912,  2017.

E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent receivers for low-cost coherent OOK systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 548–551,  2014.

J. Zhou and N. Caponio, “Operative characteristics and application aspects of synchronous intra-bit polarization spreading for polarization independent heterodyne detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 295–298,  1994.

I. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Direct phase modulation DFBs for cost-effective ONU transmitter in udWDM PONs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 973–975,  2014.

J. Light. Technol. (1)

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical access network,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693,  2007.

J. Lightw. Technol. (14)

J. B. Jensen, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433,  2014.

H. Rohdeet al., “Coherent ultra dense WDM technology for next generation optical metro and access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 2041–2052,  2014.

A. Shahpariet al., “Coherent access: A review,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1050–1058,  2017.

B. Glance, “Polarization independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 274–276,  1987.

C. Bharet al., “A novel hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using cascaded AWGs and tunable components,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1708–1716,  2014.

K. Grobe, M. H. Eiselt, S. Pachnicke, and J.-P. Elbers, “Access networks based on tunable lasers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 2815–2815,  2014.

S. Pachnickeet al., “Tunable WDM-PON system with centralized wavelength control,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 812–818,  2016.

E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126,  2009.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Polarization-insensitive single-balanced photodiode coherent receiver for long-reach WDM-PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2034–2041,  2016.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1817–1822,  2008.

D. Lavery, R. Maher, D. S. Millar, B. C. Thomsen, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Digital coherent receivers for long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 609–620,  2013.

M. Presiet al., “Field-trial of a high-budget, filterless, $\lambda$-to-the-user, UDWDM-PON enabled by an innovative class of low-cost coherent transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 23, pp. 5250–5259,  2017.

M. Artiglia, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, M. Rannello, and E. Ciaramella, “Polarization-independent coherent real-time analog receiver for PON access systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2027–2033,  2016.

M. Artiglia, R. Corsini, M. Presi, F. Bottoni, G. Cossu, and E. Ciaramella, “Coherent systems for low-cost 10 Gb/s optical access networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 15, pp. 3338–3344,  2015.

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Nature Commun. (1)

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, S. J. Savory, and P. Bayvel, “Bidirectional wavelength division multiplexed transmission over installed fibre using a simplified optical coherent access transceiver,” Nature Commun., vol. 8, 2017, Art. no. .

Opt. Express (7)

Other (23)

ITU-T Recommendation G.989 40-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (NG-PON2): General Requirements, Int. Telecommun. Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.989.1/e, Accessed on: 16, 2017.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2010.

C. Xieet al., “Colorless coherent receiver using 3 × 3 coupler hybrids and single-ended detection,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2011, Paper Th.13.B.2.

M. S. Erkılınç, D. Lavery, B. C. Thomsen, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, and S. J. Savory, “Bidirectional symmetric 8 $\times$ 10.7 Gb/s WDM-PON over 108 km installed fiber using low complexity polarization-insensitive coherent ONUs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper M.1.E.2.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Simplified polarization diversity heterodyne receiver for 1.25Gb/s cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2014, Paper W4G.2.

I. N. Cano, J. C. Velasquez, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “10 Gbit/s phase time diversity directly modulated DFB with single-PD intradyne receiver for coherent WDM-PON,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2016, Paper W.4.P1.SC7.74.

J. A. Altabaset al., “Real-time 10Gbps polarization independent quasicoherent receiver for NG-PON2 access networks,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper Th1A.3.

J. Tabares, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization-independent heterodyne DPSK receiver based on 3 × 3 coupler for cost-effective udWDM-PON,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2017, Paper Th1K.3.

G. P. Agrawal, Lightwave Technology: Telecommunication Systems. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2005.

I. P. Kaminow, T. Li, and A. E. Willner, Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB: Systems and Networks. Orlando, FL, USA: Academic, 2008.

P. Miguelez, “What applications are driving higher capacity in access?,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper M2B.1.

N. Nielsen, Nielsen's Law of Internet Bandwidth, 1998. [Online]. Available: https://www.nngroup.com/articles/law-of-bandwidth/, Accessed on: 16, 2018.

The EU Explained: Digital Agenda for Europe, Eur. Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 2017.

Huawei, Next-Generation PON Evolution, 2013. [Online]. Available: www.huawei.com/ilink/en/download/HW_077443, Accessed on: 16, 2017.

ITU-T Recommendation G.987 10-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Network (XG-PON) Systems, Int. Telecommun. Union, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.987.3/en, Accessed on: 16, 2017.

IEEE P802.3av10 Gb/s Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON), Inst. Elect. Electron. Eng., Piscataway, NJ, USA, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee802.org/3/av/, Accessed on: 16, 2017.

M. Luoet al., “Demonstration of 10-Gb/s, 5-GHz spaced coherent UDWDM-PON with digital signal processing in real-time,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper M2B.1.

S. Smolorz, E. Gottwald, H. Rohde, D. Smith, and A. Pousti, “Demonstration of a coherent UDWDM-PON with real-time processing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, post-deadline Paper PDPD4.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Flexible D(Q)PSK 1.25–5 Gb/s UDWDM-PON with directly modulated DFBs and centralized polarization scrambling,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.7.

I. N. Cano, A. Lerin, V. Polo, and J. Prat, “Polarization independent single-PD coherent ONU receiver with centralized scrambling in udWDM-PONs,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2014, Paper P.7.12.

B. Schrenk and F. Karinou, “Worlds first TO-can coherent transceiver,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2018, Paper Th1A.4.

J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th ed. New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 2008.

M. S. Erkılınçet al., “Polarization-insensitive single balanced photodiode coherent receiver for passive optical networks,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2015, Paper Th.1.3.3.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.