Abstract

As high aspect ratio ridges are not easy to process with standard lithographic techniques we propose alternative solutions based on atomic layer deposition and precise dicing to allow both uniform coating of the relief surface and a selective lift-off at the top of the ridges. The techniques are successfully employed to demonstrate an electro-optical (EO) low-loss tapered ridge waveguide with 90% of EO overlap coefficient, and a Fabry–Perot-based 150 μm long intensity modulator with a figure of merit 8 times better than a standard Ti-indiffused EO modulator. Furthermore, enhancement is even expected by optimizing the manufacturing of the Fabry–Perot cavity inside the ridge. These developments open the way to active three-dimensional microstructures, not only for optical applications but also for MEMS, acoustic or microfluidic devices.

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2017 (3)

G. Bettellaet al., “Lithium niobate micromachining for the fabrication of microfluidic droplet generators,” Micromachines, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 185–198, 2017.

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er: Ti: LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 123 no. 4, pp. 118–122,  2017.

2016 (4)

Y. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd: LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C 5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 81, pp. 122–126,  2016.

M. Chauvetet al., “High efficiency frequency doubling in fully diced LiNbO3 ridge waveguide on silicon,” J. Opt., vol. 18, no. 8,  2016, Art. no. .

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. F. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1386–1391,  2016.

N. Courjalet al., “Simple production of membrane-based LiNbO3 micro-modulators with integrated tapers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 21, pp. 5110–5113,  2016.

2015 (5)

S. B. Goncalves, M. J. Oliveira, A. C. Peixoto, A. F. Silva, and J. H. Correia, “Out-of-plane neural microelectrode arrays fabrication using conventional blade dicing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 85, pp. 431–442,  2015.

N. Courjalet al., “Low-loss LiNbO3 tapered-ridge waveguides made by optical-grade dicing,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 13983–13990,  2015.

M. Häyrinen, M. Roussey, A. Säynätjoki, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Titanium dioxide slot waveguides for visible wavelengths,” Appl. Opt., vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 2653–2657,  2015.

Q. Luanet al., “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd:CNGG disorder laser crystal produced by combination of carbon ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater., vol. 39, pp. 247–250,  2015.

A. Autereet al., “Slot waveguide ring resonators coated by an atomic layer deposited organic/inorganic nanolaminate,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 26940–26951,  2015.

2014 (3)

C. Guyotet al., “Optical characterization of ultra-short Bragg grating on lithium niobate ridge waveguide,” Opt. Lett., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 371–374, 2014.

M. Häyrinenet al., “Low-Loss Titanium dioxide strip waveguides fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 208–212,  2014.

R. W. Johnson, A. Hultqvist, and F. Bent, “A brief review of atomic layer deposition: from fundamentals to applications,” Mater. Today, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 236–246,  2014.

2013 (2)

H. Luet al., “Integrated temperature sensor based on an enhanced pyroelectric photonic crystal,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, no. 14, pp. 16311–16318,  2013.

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

2011 (1)

N. Courjalet al., “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D, vol. 44, no. 30,  2011, Art. no. .

2010 (1)

R. Bhandari, S. Negi, L. Rieth, and F. Solzbacher, “A wafer-scale etching technique for high aspect ratio implantable MEMS structures,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 130–136,  2010.

2009 (1)

T. Guenther, Z. X. Jiang, K. Kim, and D. D. Sieloff, “Mesa sample preparation for secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling using an automated dicing saw,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 677–680, 2009.

Ai, L.

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

Akhmadaliev, S.

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

Y. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd: LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C 5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 81, pp. 122–126,  2016.

Autere, A.

Ballandras, S.

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

Bassignot, F.

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

Bent, F.

R. W. Johnson, A. Hultqvist, and F. Bent, “A brief review of atomic layer deposition: from fundamentals to applications,” Mater. Today, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 236–246,  2014.

Bettella, G.

G. Bettellaet al., “Lithium niobate micromachining for the fabrication of microfluidic droplet generators,” Micromachines, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 185–198, 2017.

Bhandari, R.

R. Bhandari, S. Negi, L. Rieth, and F. Solzbacher, “A wafer-scale etching technique for high aspect ratio implantable MEMS structures,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 130–136,  2010.

Chauvet, M.

M. Chauvetet al., “High efficiency frequency doubling in fully diced LiNbO3 ridge waveguide on silicon,” J. Opt., vol. 18, no. 8,  2016, Art. no. .

Chen,

Y. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd: LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C 5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 81, pp. 122–126,  2016.

Chen, F.

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd: LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C 5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 81, pp. 122–126,  2016.

Correia, J. H.

S. B. Goncalves, M. J. Oliveira, A. C. Peixoto, A. F. Silva, and J. H. Correia, “Out-of-plane neural microelectrode arrays fabrication using conventional blade dicing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 85, pp. 431–442,  2015.

Courjal, N.

N. Courjalet al., “Simple production of membrane-based LiNbO3 micro-modulators with integrated tapers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 21, pp. 5110–5113,  2016.

N. Courjalet al., “Low-loss LiNbO3 tapered-ridge waveguides made by optical-grade dicing,” Opt. Lett., vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 13983–13990,  2015.

N. Courjalet al., “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D, vol. 44, no. 30,  2011, Art. no. .

Goncalves, S. B.

S. B. Goncalves, M. J. Oliveira, A. C. Peixoto, A. F. Silva, and J. H. Correia, “Out-of-plane neural microelectrode arrays fabrication using conventional blade dicing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 85, pp. 431–442,  2015.

Guenther, T.

T. Guenther, Z. X. Jiang, K. Kim, and D. D. Sieloff, “Mesa sample preparation for secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling using an automated dicing saw,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 677–680, 2009.

Guichardaz, B.

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

Guyot, C.

C. Guyotet al., “Optical characterization of ultra-short Bragg grating on lithium niobate ridge waveguide,” Opt. Lett., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 371–374, 2014.

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

Häyrinen, M.

M. Häyrinen, M. Roussey, A. Säynätjoki, M. Kuittinen, and S. Honkanen, “Titanium dioxide slot waveguides for visible wavelengths,” Appl. Opt., vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 2653–2657,  2015.

M. Häyrinenet al., “Low-Loss Titanium dioxide strip waveguides fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 208–212,  2014.

Henrot, F.

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

Honkanen, S.

Hultqvist, A.

R. W. Johnson, A. Hultqvist, and F. Bent, “A brief review of atomic layer deposition: from fundamentals to applications,” Mater. Today, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 236–246,  2014.

Jiang, Z. X.

T. Guenther, Z. X. Jiang, K. Kim, and D. D. Sieloff, “Mesa sample preparation for secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling using an automated dicing saw,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 677–680, 2009.

Johnson, R. W.

R. W. Johnson, A. Hultqvist, and F. Bent, “A brief review of atomic layer deposition: from fundamentals to applications,” Mater. Today, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 236–246,  2014.

Kim, K.

T. Guenther, Z. X. Jiang, K. Kim, and D. D. Sieloff, “Mesa sample preparation for secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling using an automated dicing saw,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 677–680, 2009.

Kip, D.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er: Ti: LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 123 no. 4, pp. 118–122,  2017.

Kip, D. F.

Kuittinen, M.

Lu, H.

Luan, Q.

Q. Luanet al., “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd:CNGG disorder laser crystal produced by combination of carbon ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater., vol. 39, pp. 247–250,  2015.

Negi, S.

R. Bhandari, S. Negi, L. Rieth, and F. Solzbacher, “A wafer-scale etching technique for high aspect ratio implantable MEMS structures,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 130–136,  2010.

Oliveira, M. J.

S. B. Goncalves, M. J. Oliveira, A. C. Peixoto, A. F. Silva, and J. H. Correia, “Out-of-plane neural microelectrode arrays fabrication using conventional blade dicing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 85, pp. 431–442,  2015.

Peixoto, A. C.

S. B. Goncalves, M. J. Oliveira, A. C. Peixoto, A. F. Silva, and J. H. Correia, “Out-of-plane neural microelectrode arrays fabrication using conventional blade dicing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 85, pp. 431–442,  2015.

Rauch, J. Y.

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

Rieth, L.

R. Bhandari, S. Negi, L. Rieth, and F. Solzbacher, “A wafer-scale etching technique for high aspect ratio implantable MEMS structures,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 130–136,  2010.

Roussey, M.

Rüter, C. E.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er: Ti: LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 123 no. 4, pp. 118–122,  2017.

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. F. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1386–1391,  2016.

Säynätjoki, A.

Sieloff, D. D.

T. Guenther, Z. X. Jiang, K. Kim, and D. D. Sieloff, “Mesa sample preparation for secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling using an automated dicing saw,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 677–680, 2009.

Silva, A. F.

S. B. Goncalves, M. J. Oliveira, A. C. Peixoto, A. F. Silva, and J. H. Correia, “Out-of-plane neural microelectrode arrays fabrication using conventional blade dicing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 85, pp. 431–442,  2015.

Solzbacher, F.

R. Bhandari, S. Negi, L. Rieth, and F. Solzbacher, “A wafer-scale etching technique for high aspect ratio implantable MEMS structures,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 130–136,  2010.

Suntsov, S.

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er: Ti: LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 123 no. 4, pp. 118–122,  2017.

M. F. Volk, S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. F. Kip, “Low loss ridge waveguides in lithium niobate thin films by optical grade diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 1386–1391,  2016.

Tan, Y.

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

Volk, M. F.

Wang, L.

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

Zhou, S.

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

Y. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd: LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C 5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 81, pp. 122–126,  2016.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Suntsov, C. E. Rüter, and D. Kip, “Er: Ti: LiNbO3 ridge waveguide optical amplifiers by optical grade dicing and three-side Er and Ti in-diffusion,” Appl. Phys. B, vol. 123 no. 4, pp. 118–122,  2017.

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control (1)

F. Henrot, F. Bassignot, C. Guyot, J. Y. Rauch, B. Guichardaz, and S. Ballandras, “Highly coupled resonator based on periodically poled lithium niobate ridge,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelect., Freq. Control, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 1556–1563,  2013.

Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. (1)

S. B. Goncalves, M. J. Oliveira, A. C. Peixoto, A. F. Silva, and J. H. Correia, “Out-of-plane neural microelectrode arrays fabrication using conventional blade dicing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 85, pp. 431–442,  2015.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

L. Ai, L. Wang, Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Efficient second(harmonic generation of diced ridge waveguides based on carbon ion-irradiated periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2476–2480,  2017.

M. Häyrinenet al., “Low-Loss Titanium dioxide strip waveguides fabricated by atomic layer deposition,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 208–212,  2014.

J. Opt. (1)

M. Chauvetet al., “High efficiency frequency doubling in fully diced LiNbO3 ridge waveguide on silicon,” J. Opt., vol. 18, no. 8,  2016, Art. no. .

J. Phys. D (1)

N. Courjalet al., “High aspect ratio lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by optical grade dicing,” J. Phys. D, vol. 44, no. 30,  2011, Art. no. .

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. Guenther, Z. X. Jiang, K. Kim, and D. D. Sieloff, “Mesa sample preparation for secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling using an automated dicing saw,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 677–680, 2009.

Mater. Today (1)

R. W. Johnson, A. Hultqvist, and F. Bent, “A brief review of atomic layer deposition: from fundamentals to applications,” Mater. Today, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 236–246,  2014.

Micromachines (1)

G. Bettellaet al., “Lithium niobate micromachining for the fabrication of microfluidic droplet generators,” Micromachines, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 185–198, 2017.

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd: LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C 5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 81, pp. 122–126,  2016.

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Q. Luanet al., “Optical ridge waveguides in Nd:CNGG disorder laser crystal produced by combination of carbon ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater., vol. 39, pp. 247–250,  2015.

Sensors Actuators A Phys. (1)

R. Bhandari, S. Negi, L. Rieth, and F. Solzbacher, “A wafer-scale etching technique for high aspect ratio implantable MEMS structures,” Sensors Actuators A Phys., vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 130–136,  2010.

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