Abstract

We achieved the lowest-ever transmission losses of 0.1419 dB/km at 1560 nm wavelength and 0.1424 dB/km at 1550 nm in a Ge-free silica-core optical fiber. It was an improvement by 4 mdB/km from the previous record realized in 2015. The Ge-free silica core included fluorine co-doping, which helps to reduce disorder in the microscopic glass network structure that causes Rayleigh scattering loss without a significant increase in waveguide imperfection loss. A two-layered polymer coating with an inner layer having lower elastic modulus than before also contributed to the ultralow loss without influence of microbending loss increase even with an enlarged effective area of 147 μm2. The present fiber with ultralow loss and a large effective area benefits an ultralong haul optical transmission system including transoceanic submarine cable systems. We estimate system performance based on the fiber figure of merit theory that the present fiber enables a 0.10 bit/s/Hz increase in spectral efficiency or 7% reduction in the number of repeaters, compared to the previous record-loss fiber.

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  1. K. C. Kao and G. A. Hockham, “Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1151–1158, 1966.
  2. H. Kanamoriet al., “Transmission characteristics and reliability of pure- silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1144–1150, 1986.
  3. S. Ohnukiet al., “Further attenuation improvement of a pure silica core fiber with large effective area,” in Proc. SubOptic 2010, 2010, Paper THU3A.
  4. M. Hiranoet al., “Record low loss, record high FOM optical fiber with manufacturable process,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper PDP5A.7.
  5. H. Yamaguchiet al., “Ultra-low loss and large Aeff pure-silica core fiber advances,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper EC06.
  6. K. Nagayamaet al., “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484 dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1168–1169, 2002.
  7. S. Makovejset al., “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2015, 2015, Paper Th5A.2.
  8. Y. Tamuraet al., “Lowest-ever 0.1419-dB/km loss optical fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2017, 2017, Paper Th5D.1.
  9. B. Zhuet al., “Transmission of 200 Gb/s PM-16QAM and 150 Gb/s PM-8QAM DWDM Signals over long-haul and transoceanic distance at 100 km span length with EDFA-only,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2017, 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.3.
  10. Submarine Telecoms Forum, “Submarine telecoms industry report, 5th anniversary edition,” 2016. [Online]. Available: http://subtelforum.com/articles/products/industry-report/?gclid=CObduIXdxtQCFU0GKgodIIoH_w, Accessed on 19, 2017.
  11. T. Frisch and S. Desbruslais, “Electrical power, a potential limit to cable capacity,” in Proc. SubOptic 2013, 2013, Paper TU1C-04.
  12. E. Mateoet al., “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.
  13. K. Saito and A. J. Ikushima, “Effects of fluorine on structure, structural relaxation, and absorption edge in silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 4886–4889, 2002.
  14. A. Q. Tool “Relation between inelastic deformability and thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 240–253, 1946.
  15. K. Saitoet al., “Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 25, pp. 5175–5178, 2003.
  16. H. Kakiuchidaet al., “Effect of chlorine on Rayleigh scattering reduction in silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. L1526–L1528, 2003.
  17. M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? I. Alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 209–218, 1994.
  18. M. E. Lines “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? II. Combined fluorine and alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 219–227, 1994.
  19. S. Sakaguchi, “Relaxation of Rayleigh scattering in silica core optical fiber by heat treatment,” Electron. Commun. Jpn., vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 35–41, 2000.
  20. K. Tsujikawaet al., “Intrinsic loss of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 11, pp. 319–331, 2005.
  21. A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, “Raman studies of vitreous SiO2 versus fictive temperature,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 3266–3271, 1983.
  22. S. Ten, “Ultra low-loss optical fiber technology,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2016, 2016, Paper Th4E.5.
  23. M. Ogaiet al., “Development and performance of fully fluorine- doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1455–1461, 1988.
  24. F. Palacioset al., “Ultra-large effective area fibre performances in high fibre count cables and joints, a new technical challenge,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper TU1A-2.
  25. Y. Yamamotoet al., “OSNR-enhancing pure-silica-core fiber with large effective area and low attenuation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2010, 2010, Paper OTuI2.
  26. Recommendation ITU-T G.654, 2016.
  27. S. Makovejset al., “Towards superior transmission performance in submarine systems: Leveraging ultralow attenuation and large effective area,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2016.
  28. M. Hiranoet al., “Analytical OSNR formulation validated with 100G-WDM experiments and optimal subsea fiber proposal,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper OTu2B.6.
  29. V. Curriet al., “Fiber figure of merit based on maximum reach,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper OTh3G.2.
  30. T. Hasegawaet al., “Optimal fiber design for large capacity long haul coherent transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 706–712, 2017.
  31. P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.
  32. V. A. J. M. Sleifferet al., “A comparison between SSMF and large-Aeff pure-Silica core fiber for ultra long-haul 100G transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. 710–715, 2011.
  33. D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 703–718, 1977.
  34. A. Carenaet al., “Modeling of the impact of nonlinear propagation effects in uncompensated optical coherent transmission links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1524–1539, 2012.
  35. O. V. Sinkinet al., “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077, 2017.

2017 (2)

O. V. Sinkinet al., “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077, 2017.

T. Hasegawaet al., “Optimal fiber design for large capacity long haul coherent transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 706–712, 2017.

2016 (2)

Recommendation ITU-T G.654, 2016.

S. Makovejset al., “Towards superior transmission performance in submarine systems: Leveraging ultralow attenuation and large effective area,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2016.

2012 (2)

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.

A. Carenaet al., “Modeling of the impact of nonlinear propagation effects in uncompensated optical coherent transmission links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1524–1539, 2012.

2011 (1)

V. A. J. M. Sleifferet al., “A comparison between SSMF and large-Aeff pure-Silica core fiber for ultra long-haul 100G transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. 710–715, 2011.

2005 (1)

K. Tsujikawaet al., “Intrinsic loss of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 11, pp. 319–331, 2005.

2003 (2)

K. Saitoet al., “Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 25, pp. 5175–5178, 2003.

H. Kakiuchidaet al., “Effect of chlorine on Rayleigh scattering reduction in silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. L1526–L1528, 2003.

2002 (2)

K. Nagayamaet al., “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484 dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1168–1169, 2002.

K. Saito and A. J. Ikushima, “Effects of fluorine on structure, structural relaxation, and absorption edge in silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 4886–4889, 2002.

2000 (1)

S. Sakaguchi, “Relaxation of Rayleigh scattering in silica core optical fiber by heat treatment,” Electron. Commun. Jpn., vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 35–41, 2000.

1994 (2)

M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? I. Alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 209–218, 1994.

M. E. Lines “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? II. Combined fluorine and alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 219–227, 1994.

1988 (1)

M. Ogaiet al., “Development and performance of fully fluorine- doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1455–1461, 1988.

1986 (1)

H. Kanamoriet al., “Transmission characteristics and reliability of pure- silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1144–1150, 1986.

1983 (1)

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, “Raman studies of vitreous SiO2 versus fictive temperature,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 3266–3271, 1983.

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 703–718, 1977.

1946 (1)

A. Q. Tool “Relation between inelastic deformability and thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 240–253, 1946.

Carena, A.

A. Carenaet al., “Modeling of the impact of nonlinear propagation effects in uncompensated optical coherent transmission links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1524–1539, 2012.

Curri, V.

V. Curriet al., “Fiber figure of merit based on maximum reach,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper OTh3G.2.

Desbruslais, S.

T. Frisch and S. Desbruslais, “Electrical power, a potential limit to cable capacity,” in Proc. SubOptic 2013, 2013, Paper TU1C-04.

Frisch, T.

T. Frisch and S. Desbruslais, “Electrical power, a potential limit to cable capacity,” in Proc. SubOptic 2013, 2013, Paper TU1C-04.

Galeener, F. L.

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, “Raman studies of vitreous SiO2 versus fictive temperature,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 3266–3271, 1983.

Geissberger, A. E.

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, “Raman studies of vitreous SiO2 versus fictive temperature,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 3266–3271, 1983.

Hasegawa, T.

Hirano, M.

M. Hiranoet al., “Analytical OSNR formulation validated with 100G-WDM experiments and optimal subsea fiber proposal,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper OTu2B.6.

M. Hiranoet al., “Record low loss, record high FOM optical fiber with manufacturable process,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper PDP5A.7.

Hockham, G. A.

K. C. Kao and G. A. Hockham, “Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1151–1158, 1966.

Ikushima, A. J.

K. Saito and A. J. Ikushima, “Effects of fluorine on structure, structural relaxation, and absorption edge in silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 4886–4889, 2002.

Kakiuchida, H.

H. Kakiuchidaet al., “Effect of chlorine on Rayleigh scattering reduction in silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. L1526–L1528, 2003.

Kanamori, H.

H. Kanamoriet al., “Transmission characteristics and reliability of pure- silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1144–1150, 1986.

Kao, K. C.

K. C. Kao and G. A. Hockham, “Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1151–1158, 1966.

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? I. Alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 209–218, 1994.

M. E. Lines “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? II. Combined fluorine and alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 219–227, 1994.

Makovejs, S.

S. Makovejset al., “Towards superior transmission performance in submarine systems: Leveraging ultralow attenuation and large effective area,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2016.

S. Makovejset al., “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2015, 2015, Paper Th5A.2.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 703–718, 1977.

Mateo, E.

E. Mateoet al., “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

Nagayama, K.

K. Nagayamaet al., “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484 dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1168–1169, 2002.

Ogai, M.

M. Ogaiet al., “Development and performance of fully fluorine- doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1455–1461, 1988.

Ohnuki, S.

S. Ohnukiet al., “Further attenuation improvement of a pure silica core fiber with large effective area,” in Proc. SubOptic 2010, 2010, Paper THU3A.

Palacios, F.

F. Palacioset al., “Ultra-large effective area fibre performances in high fibre count cables and joints, a new technical challenge,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper TU1A-2.

Poggiolini, P.

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.

Saito, K.

K. Saitoet al., “Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 25, pp. 5175–5178, 2003.

K. Saito and A. J. Ikushima, “Effects of fluorine on structure, structural relaxation, and absorption edge in silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 4886–4889, 2002.

Sakaguchi, S.

S. Sakaguchi, “Relaxation of Rayleigh scattering in silica core optical fiber by heat treatment,” Electron. Commun. Jpn., vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 35–41, 2000.

Sinkin, O. V.

O. V. Sinkinet al., “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077, 2017.

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

V. A. J. M. Sleifferet al., “A comparison between SSMF and large-Aeff pure-Silica core fiber for ultra long-haul 100G transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. 710–715, 2011.

Tamura, Y.

Y. Tamuraet al., “Lowest-ever 0.1419-dB/km loss optical fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2017, 2017, Paper Th5D.1.

Ten, S.

S. Ten, “Ultra low-loss optical fiber technology,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2016, 2016, Paper Th4E.5.

Tool, A. Q.

A. Q. Tool “Relation between inelastic deformability and thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 240–253, 1946.

Tsujikawa, K.

K. Tsujikawaet al., “Intrinsic loss of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 11, pp. 319–331, 2005.

Yamaguchi, H.

H. Yamaguchiet al., “Ultra-low loss and large Aeff pure-silica core fiber advances,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper EC06.

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamotoet al., “OSNR-enhancing pure-silica-core fiber with large effective area and low attenuation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2010, 2010, Paper OTuI2.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhuet al., “Transmission of 200 Gb/s PM-16QAM and 150 Gb/s PM-8QAM DWDM Signals over long-haul and transoceanic distance at 100 km span length with EDFA-only,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2017, 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.3.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Saitoet al., “Limit of the Rayleigh scattering loss in silica fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 83, no. 25, pp. 5175–5178, 2003.

Bell Sys. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, “Loss analysis of single-mode fiber splices,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 703–718, 1977.

Electron. Commun. Jpn. (1)

S. Sakaguchi, “Relaxation of Rayleigh scattering in silica core optical fiber by heat treatment,” Electron. Commun. Jpn., vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 35–41, 2000.

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Nagayamaet al., “Ultra-low-loss (0.1484 dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance,” Electron. Lett., vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1168–1169, 2002.

J. Amer. Ceramic Soc. (1)

A. Q. Tool “Relation between inelastic deformability and thermal expansion of glass in its annealing range,” J. Amer. Ceramic Soc., vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 240–253, 1946.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Saito and A. J. Ikushima, “Effects of fluorine on structure, structural relaxation, and absorption edge in silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 4886–4889, 2002.

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

H. Kanamoriet al., “Transmission characteristics and reliability of pure- silica-core single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 1144–1150, 1986.

A. Carenaet al., “Modeling of the impact of nonlinear propagation effects in uncompensated optical coherent transmission links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1524–1539, 2012.

P. Poggiolini, “The GN model of non-linear propagation in uncompensated coherent optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 3857–3879, 2012.

M. Ogaiet al., “Development and performance of fully fluorine- doped single-mode fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 1455–1461, 1988.

S. Makovejset al., “Towards superior transmission performance in submarine systems: Leveraging ultralow attenuation and large effective area,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2016.

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

M. E. Lines, “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? I. Alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 209–218, 1994.

M. E. Lines “Can the minimum attenuation of fused silica be significantly reduced by small compositional variations? II. Combined fluorine and alkali metal dopants,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vol. 171, pp. 219–227, 1994.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kakiuchidaet al., “Effect of chlorine on Rayleigh scattering reduction in silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 42, pp. L1526–L1528, 2003.

Opt. Express (2)

V. A. J. M. Sleifferet al., “A comparison between SSMF and large-Aeff pure-Silica core fiber for ultra long-haul 100G transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 26, pp. 710–715, 2011.

T. Hasegawaet al., “Optimal fiber design for large capacity long haul coherent transmission,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 706–712, 2017.

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

K. Tsujikawaet al., “Intrinsic loss of optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 11, pp. 319–331, 2005.

Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

O. V. Sinkinet al., “Maximum optical power efficiency in SDM based optical communication systems,” Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1075–1077, 2017.

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. E. Geissberger and F. L. Galeener, “Raman studies of vitreous SiO2 versus fictive temperature,” Phys. Rev. B, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 3266–3271, 1983.

Other (16)

S. Ten, “Ultra low-loss optical fiber technology,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2016, 2016, Paper Th4E.5.

K. C. Kao and G. A. Hockham, “Dielectric-fibre surface waveguides for optical frequencies,” in Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 113, no. 7, pp. 1151–1158, 1966.

S. Ohnukiet al., “Further attenuation improvement of a pure silica core fiber with large effective area,” in Proc. SubOptic 2010, 2010, Paper THU3A.

M. Hiranoet al., “Record low loss, record high FOM optical fiber with manufacturable process,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper PDP5A.7.

H. Yamaguchiet al., “Ultra-low loss and large Aeff pure-silica core fiber advances,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper EC06.

S. Makovejset al., “Record-low (0.1460 dB/km) attenuation ultra-large Aeff optical fiber for submarine applications,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2015, 2015, Paper Th5A.2.

Y. Tamuraet al., “Lowest-ever 0.1419-dB/km loss optical fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2017, 2017, Paper Th5D.1.

B. Zhuet al., “Transmission of 200 Gb/s PM-16QAM and 150 Gb/s PM-8QAM DWDM Signals over long-haul and transoceanic distance at 100 km span length with EDFA-only,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 2017, 2017, Paper Tu.1.E.3.

Submarine Telecoms Forum, “Submarine telecoms industry report, 5th anniversary edition,” 2016. [Online]. Available: http://subtelforum.com/articles/products/industry-report/?gclid=CObduIXdxtQCFU0GKgodIIoH_w, Accessed on 19, 2017.

T. Frisch and S. Desbruslais, “Electrical power, a potential limit to cable capacity,” in Proc. SubOptic 2013, 2013, Paper TU1C-04.

E. Mateoet al., “Capacity limits of submarine cables,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper TH1A-1.

M. Hiranoet al., “Analytical OSNR formulation validated with 100G-WDM experiments and optimal subsea fiber proposal,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper OTu2B.6.

V. Curriet al., “Fiber figure of merit based on maximum reach,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2013, 2013, Paper OTh3G.2.

F. Palacioset al., “Ultra-large effective area fibre performances in high fibre count cables and joints, a new technical challenge,” in Proc. SubOptic 2016, 2016, Paper TU1A-2.

Y. Yamamotoet al., “OSNR-enhancing pure-silica-core fiber with large effective area and low attenuation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. 2010, 2010, Paper OTuI2.

Recommendation ITU-T G.654, 2016.

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