Abstract

We describe the fabrication and distributed sensing capabilities of very long continuous fiber grating sensor arrays in a twisted multicore fiber. The continuous gratings are fabricated in fibers with UV transparent coating using a flexible and scalable reel-to-reel processing system. Single-frequency continuous gratings are characterized using optical frequency-domain reflectometry and a shape reconstruction algorithm to measure fiber bend radius. Broadband reflection gratings are shown to act as enhanced quasi-Rayleigh scattering elements allowing for distributed temperature measurements in the presence of 10-dB transmission loss.

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  1. G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.
  2. A. D. Kerseyet al., “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442–1463, 1997.
  3. L. S. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Eds.Optical Fiber Sensor Technology: Advanced Applications-Bragg Gratings and Distributed Sensors. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2013.
  4. D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing using Rayleigh backscatter,” in Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 511–512.
  5. M. Froggatt and J. Moore, “High-spatial-resolution distributed strain measurement in optical fiber with Rayleigh scatter,” Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1735–1740, 1998.
  6. T. M. Daleyet al., “Field testing of fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) for subsurface seismic monitoring,” Leading Edge, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 699–706, 2013.
  7. M. J. Ganderet al., “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multi-core fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 120–121, 2000.
  8. R. G. Duncanet al., “High accuracy fiber-optic shape sensing,” Proc. SPIE, 2007, vol. 6530, Art. no. .
  9. A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.
  10. S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-Iezzi, and R. Kashyap, “Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, 2015, Art. no. .
  11. P. Lefebvre, A. Vincelette, C. Beaulieu, and P. Ficocelli, “Automated manufacturing of fiber Bragg grating arrays,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf., 2006, p. ThE27.
  12. J. F. Brennanet al., “Dispersion correction with a robust fiber grating over the full C-band at 10-Gb/s rates with <0.3-dB power penalties,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1722–1724, 2003.
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  14. W. Bai, H. Yu, D. Jiang, and M. Yang, “All fiber grating (AFG): A new platform for fiber optic sensing technologies,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .
  15. P. S. Westbrooket al., “Integrated optical fiber shape sensor modules based on twisted multicore fiber grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8938, 2014, Art. no. .
  16. P. S. Westbrooket al., “Multicore optical fiber grating array fabrication for medical sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9317, 2015, Art. no. .
  17. R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, D. A. Simoff, K. T. Nelson, and M. A. Paczkowski, “Fiber Bragg gratings written through a fiber coating,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1997, p. PD4.
  18. J. P. Moore, “Shape sensing using multi-core fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2015, p. Th1C.2.
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2015 (3)

S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-Iezzi, and R. Kashyap, “Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, 2015, Art. no. .

W. Bai, H. Yu, D. Jiang, and M. Yang, “All fiber grating (AFG): A new platform for fiber optic sensing technologies,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

P. S. Westbrooket al., “Multicore optical fiber grating array fabrication for medical sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9317, 2015, Art. no. .

2014 (1)

P. S. Westbrooket al., “Integrated optical fiber shape sensor modules based on twisted multicore fiber grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8938, 2014, Art. no. .

2013 (1)

T. M. Daleyet al., “Field testing of fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) for subsurface seismic monitoring,” Leading Edge, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 699–706, 2013.

2012 (1)

2007 (1)

R. G. Duncanet al., “High accuracy fiber-optic shape sensing,” Proc. SPIE, 2007, vol. 6530, Art. no. .

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

J. F. Brennanet al., “Dispersion correction with a robust fiber grating over the full C-band at 10-Gb/s rates with <0.3-dB power penalties,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1722–1724, 2003.

2000 (1)

M. J. Ganderet al., “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multi-core fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 120–121, 2000.

1998 (1)

M. Froggatt and J. Moore, “High-spatial-resolution distributed strain measurement in optical fiber with Rayleigh scatter,” Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1735–1740, 1998.

1997 (2)

A. D. Kerseyet al., “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442–1463, 1997.

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.

Askins, C. G.

Asseh, A.

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.

Atkins, R. M.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, D. A. Simoff, K. T. Nelson, and M. A. Paczkowski, “Fiber Bragg gratings written through a fiber coating,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1997, p. PD4.

Bai, W.

W. Bai, H. Yu, D. Jiang, and M. Yang, “All fiber grating (AFG): A new platform for fiber optic sensing technologies,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

Beaulieu, C.

P. Lefebvre, A. Vincelette, C. Beaulieu, and P. Ficocelli, “Automated manufacturing of fiber Bragg grating arrays,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf., 2006, p. ThE27.

Brennan, J. F.

J. F. Brennanet al., “Dispersion correction with a robust fiber grating over the full C-band at 10-Gb/s rates with <0.3-dB power penalties,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1722–1724, 2003.

Daley, T. M.

T. M. Daleyet al., “Field testing of fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) for subsurface seismic monitoring,” Leading Edge, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 699–706, 2013.

Duncan, R. G.

R. G. Duncanet al., “High accuracy fiber-optic shape sensing,” Proc. SPIE, 2007, vol. 6530, Art. no. .

Dunphy, J. R.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.

Espindola, R. P.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, D. A. Simoff, K. T. Nelson, and M. A. Paczkowski, “Fiber Bragg gratings written through a fiber coating,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1997, p. PD4.

Farina, J. D.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.

Ficocelli, P.

P. Lefebvre, A. Vincelette, C. Beaulieu, and P. Ficocelli, “Automated manufacturing of fiber Bragg grating arrays,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf., 2006, p. ThE27.

Friebele, E. J.

Froggatt, M.

M. Froggatt and J. Moore, “High-spatial-resolution distributed strain measurement in optical fiber with Rayleigh scatter,” Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1735–1740, 1998.

Froggatt, M. E.

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies,” Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 666–674, 2005.

D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing using Rayleigh backscatter,” in Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 511–512.

Gagné, M.

S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-Iezzi, and R. Kashyap, “Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, 2015, Art. no. .

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Ganderet al., “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multi-core fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 120–121, 2000.

Gifford, D. K.

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies,” Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 666–674, 2005.

D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing using Rayleigh backscatter,” in Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 511–512.

Glenn, W. H.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.

Jiang, D.

W. Bai, H. Yu, D. Jiang, and M. Yang, “All fiber grating (AFG): A new platform for fiber optic sensing technologies,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

Kashyap, R.

S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-Iezzi, and R. Kashyap, “Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, 2015, Art. no. .

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kerseyet al., “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442–1463, 1997.

Lambin-Iezzi, V.

S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-Iezzi, and R. Kashyap, “Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, 2015, Art. no. .

Lefebvre, P.

P. Lefebvre, A. Vincelette, C. Beaulieu, and P. Ficocelli, “Automated manufacturing of fiber Bragg grating arrays,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf., 2006, p. ThE27.

Leonberger, F. J.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.

Loranger, S.

S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-Iezzi, and R. Kashyap, “Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, 2015, Art. no. .

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.

Moore, J.

M. Froggatt and J. Moore, “High-spatial-resolution distributed strain measurement in optical fiber with Rayleigh scatter,” Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1735–1740, 1998.

Moore, J. P.

Nelson, K. T.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, D. A. Simoff, K. T. Nelson, and M. A. Paczkowski, “Fiber Bragg gratings written through a fiber coating,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1997, p. PD4.

Paczkowski, M. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, D. A. Simoff, K. T. Nelson, and M. A. Paczkowski, “Fiber Bragg gratings written through a fiber coating,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1997, p. PD4.

Putnam, M. A.

Rogge, M. D.

Sahlgren, B. E.

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.

Sandgren, S.

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.

Simoff, D. A.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, D. A. Simoff, K. T. Nelson, and M. A. Paczkowski, “Fiber Bragg gratings written through a fiber coating,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1997, p. PD4.

Soller, B. J.

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies,” Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 666–674, 2005.

D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing using Rayleigh backscatter,” in Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 511–512.

Storoy, H.

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.

Stubbe, R. A. H.

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.

Vincelette, A.

P. Lefebvre, A. Vincelette, C. Beaulieu, and P. Ficocelli, “Automated manufacturing of fiber Bragg grating arrays,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf., 2006, p. ThE27.

Westbrook, P. S.

P. S. Westbrooket al., “Multicore optical fiber grating array fabrication for medical sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9317, 2015, Art. no. .

P. S. Westbrooket al., “Integrated optical fiber shape sensor modules based on twisted multicore fiber grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8938, 2014, Art. no. .

Williams, G. M.

Wolfe, M. S.

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies,” Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 666–674, 2005.

D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing using Rayleigh backscatter,” in Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 511–512.

Yang, M.

W. Bai, H. Yu, D. Jiang, and M. Yang, “All fiber grating (AFG): A new platform for fiber optic sensing technologies,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

Yu, H.

W. Bai, H. Yu, D. Jiang, and M. Yang, “All fiber grating (AFG): A new platform for fiber optic sensing technologies,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

Appl. Opt., (1)

M. Froggatt and J. Moore, “High-spatial-resolution distributed strain measurement in optical fiber with Rayleigh scatter,” Appl. Opt., vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1735–1740, 1998.

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. J. Ganderet al., “Bend measurement using Bragg gratings in multi-core fiber,” Electron. Lett., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 120–121, 2000.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. F. Brennanet al., “Dispersion correction with a robust fiber grating over the full C-band at 10-Gb/s rates with <0.3-dB power penalties,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1722–1724, 2003.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, B. E. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, and R. A. H. Stubbe, “A writing technique for long fiber Bragg gratings with complex reflectivity profiles,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1419–1423, 1997.

A. D. Kerseyet al., “Fiber grating sensors,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1442–1463, 1997.

Leading Edge (1)

T. M. Daleyet al., “Field testing of fiber-optic distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) for subsurface seismic monitoring,” Leading Edge, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 699–706, 2013.

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

W. Bai, H. Yu, D. Jiang, and M. Yang, “All fiber grating (AFG): A new platform for fiber optic sensing technologies,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9634, 2015, Art. no. .

P. S. Westbrooket al., “Integrated optical fiber shape sensor modules based on twisted multicore fiber grating arrays,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 8938, 2014, Art. no. .

P. S. Westbrooket al., “Multicore optical fiber grating array fabrication for medical sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 9317, 2015, Art. no. .

G. Meltz, J. R. Dunphy, W. H. Glenn, J. D. Farina, and F. J. Leonberger, “Fiber optic temperature and strain sensors,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 0798, pp. 104–114, 1987.

R. G. Duncanet al., “High accuracy fiber-optic shape sensing,” Proc. SPIE, 2007, vol. 6530, Art. no. .

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Loranger, M. Gagné, V. Lambin-Iezzi, and R. Kashyap, “Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre,” Sci. Rep., vol. 5, 2015, Art. no. .

Other (5)

P. Lefebvre, A. Vincelette, C. Beaulieu, and P. Ficocelli, “Automated manufacturing of fiber Bragg grating arrays,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Sens. Conf., 2006, p. ThE27.

L. S. Grattan and B. T. Meggitt, Eds.Optical Fiber Sensor Technology: Advanced Applications-Bragg Gratings and Distributed Sensors. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2013.

D. K. Gifford, B. J. Soller, M. S. Wolfe, and M. E. Froggatt, “Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing using Rayleigh backscatter,” in Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., 2005, vol. 3, pp. 511–512.

R. P. Espindola, R. M. Atkins, D. A. Simoff, K. T. Nelson, and M. A. Paczkowski, “Fiber Bragg gratings written through a fiber coating,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 1997, p. PD4.

J. P. Moore, “Shape sensing using multi-core fiber,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., 2015, p. Th1C.2.

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