Abstract

Enterprises and cloud providers are moving away from deployment of large-scale data centers and towards small- to mid-sized data centers because of their lower implementation and maintenance costs. An optical metro network is used to provide connectivity among these data centers. The optical network requires flexibility on bandwidth allocation and various levels of Quality of Service to support the new emerging applications and services including the ones enabled by 5G. As a result, next generation optical metro networks face complex control and management issues that needs to be resolved with automation. We present a converged inter/intra data center network architecture with an autonomous control plane for flexible bandwidth allocation. The architecture supports both single-rate and multi-rate data planes with two types of physical layer connections (Background and Dynamic) that provide connections with strict bandwidth and latency requirements. We demonstrate autonomous bandwidth steering between two data centers on our prototype. Leveraging a simulation platform, we show up to 5 $\times$ lower transmission times and 25% less spectrum usage compared with the single-rate conventional non-converged networks. This is a significant improvement in the data center network performance and energy efficiency.

© 2017 OAPA

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  1. V. Bahl, “Cloud 2020: The emergence of micro datacenter for mobile computing,” Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Micro-Data-Centers-mDCs-for-Mobile-Computing-1.pdf
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  3. P. Öhlenet al., “Data plane and control architectures for 5G transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1501–1508, 2016.
  4. Cisco, “Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2014-2019,” White Paper, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/ip-ngn-ip-next-generation-network/white_paper_c11-481360.html
  5. Cisco, “White paper: Cisco VNI Forecast and Methodology, 2015-2020,” White Paper, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/mobile-white-paper-c11-520862.html
  6. Ericsson, “5G use cases,” White Paper, 2015. [Online]. Available: www.ericsson.com/5g
  7. T. Talebet al., “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over cloud,” IEEE Network, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 78–88, 2015.
  8. M. Fiorani, P. Samadi, Y. Shen, L. Wosinska, and K. Bergman, “Flexible architecture and control strategy for metro-scale networking of geographically distributed data centers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.2016, pp. 1–3.
  9. X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.
  10. P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.
  11. M. Schiano, A. Percelsi, and M. Quagliotti, “Flexible node architectures for metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 131–140, 2015.
  12. G. Chenet al., “First demonstration of holistically-organized metro-embedded cloud platform with all-optical interconnections for virtual datacenter provisioning,” in Proc. IEEE Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf., 2015, pp. 1–3.
  13. M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.
  14. S. Yanet al., “Archon: A function programmable optical interconnect architecture for transparent intra and inter data center networking,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1586–1595, 2015.
  15. P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, pp. 1–3.
  16. P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” OSA Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.
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  18. RYU, “RYU SDN Framework.” [Online]. Available: https://osrg.github.io/ryu/
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  20. T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in Proc. ACM Workshop Res. Enterprise Netw., 2009, pp. 65–72.
  21. T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. 10th Internet Meas. Conf., 2010, pp. 267–280.
  22. Inphi, Inphi debuts 100G DWDM solution for 80 km data center interconnects. 22, Mar. 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.inphi.com/media-center/press-room/press-releases-and-media-alerts/inphi-debuts-100g-dwdm-solution-for-80km-data-center-interconnects.php
  23. Natural Resources Defense Council, “Americas data centers are wasting huge amounts of energy,” Issue Brief, (2014). [Online]. Available: https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/data-center-efficiency-assessment-IB.pdf
  24. Polatis Series 700, 384 $\times$ 384 port software-defined optical circuit switch. [Online]. Available: http://www.polatis.com
  25. OpenDayLight, OpenDaylight: Open source SDN platform. [Online]. Available: https://www.opendaylight.org/
  26. M. Wu, T. J. Seok, and S. Han, “Large-scale silicon photonic switches,” in Proc. Int. Coonf. Adv. Photon., 2016, pp. 370–375.
  27. T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Elect., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1150–1157, 2010.

2016 (2)

P. Öhlenet al., “Data plane and control architectures for 5G transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1501–1508, 2016.

P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” OSA Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.

2015 (4)

S. Yanet al., “Archon: A function programmable optical interconnect architecture for transparent intra and inter data center networking,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1586–1595, 2015.

T. Talebet al., “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over cloud,” IEEE Network, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 78–88, 2015.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.

M. Schiano, A. Percelsi, and M. Quagliotti, “Flexible node architectures for metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 131–140, 2015.

2014 (1)

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.

2013 (1)

X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.

2010 (1)

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Elect., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1150–1157, 2010.

Akella, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in Proc. ACM Workshop Res. Enterprise Netw., 2009, pp. 65–72.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. 10th Internet Meas. Conf., 2010, pp. 267–280.

Aleksic, S.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.

Anand, A.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in Proc. ACM Workshop Res. Enterprise Netw., 2009, pp. 65–72.

Bahl, V.

V. Bahl, “Cloud 2020: The emergence of micro datacenter for mobile computing,” Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Micro-Data-Centers-mDCs-for-Mobile-Computing-1.pdf

Benson, T.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in Proc. ACM Workshop Res. Enterprise Netw., 2009, pp. 65–72.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. 10th Internet Meas. Conf., 2010, pp. 267–280.

Bergman, K.

P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” OSA Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, pp. 1–3.

M. Fiorani, P. Samadi, Y. Shen, L. Wosinska, and K. Bergman, “Flexible architecture and control strategy for metro-scale networking of geographically distributed data centers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.2016, pp. 1–3.

Casoni, M.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.

Chaiken, R.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: Measurements & analysis,” in Proc. 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas. Conf., 2009, pp. 202–208.

Chen, G.

G. Chenet al., “First demonstration of holistically-organized metro-embedded cloud platform with all-optical interconnections for virtual datacenter provisioning,” in Proc. IEEE Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf., 2015, pp. 1–3.

Chen, J.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.

Fiorani, M.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.

M. Fiorani, P. Samadi, Y. Shen, L. Wosinska, and K. Bergman, “Flexible architecture and control strategy for metro-scale networking of geographically distributed data centers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.2016, pp. 1–3.

Greenberg, A.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: Measurements & analysis,” in Proc. 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas. Conf., 2009, pp. 202–208.

Han, S.

M. Wu, T. J. Seok, and S. Han, “Large-scale silicon photonic switches,” in Proc. Int. Coonf. Adv. Photon., 2016, pp. 370–375.

Hofmeister, T.

X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.

Kamalov, V.

X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.

Kandula, S.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: Measurements & analysis,” in Proc. 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas. Conf., 2009, pp. 202–208.

Koley, B.

X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.

Liu, X.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.

Lu, P.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.

Maltz, D. A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. 10th Internet Meas. Conf., 2010, pp. 267–280.

Noordhuis, P.

S. Sanfilippo and P. Noordhuis, Redis. [Online]. Available: http://redis.io

Öhlen, P.

P. Öhlenet al., “Data plane and control architectures for 5G transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1501–1508, 2016.

Patel, P.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: Measurements & analysis,” in Proc. 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas. Conf., 2009, pp. 202–208.

Percelsi, A.

M. Schiano, A. Percelsi, and M. Quagliotti, “Flexible node architectures for metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 131–140, 2015.

Quagliotti, M.

M. Schiano, A. Percelsi, and M. Quagliotti, “Flexible node architectures for metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 131–140, 2015.

Samadi, P.

P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” OSA Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, pp. 1–3.

M. Fiorani, P. Samadi, Y. Shen, L. Wosinska, and K. Bergman, “Flexible architecture and control strategy for metro-scale networking of geographically distributed data centers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.2016, pp. 1–3.

Sanfilippo, S.

S. Sanfilippo and P. Noordhuis, Redis. [Online]. Available: http://redis.io

Schiano, M.

M. Schiano, A. Percelsi, and M. Quagliotti, “Flexible node architectures for metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 131–140, 2015.

Sengupta, S.

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: Measurements & analysis,” in Proc. 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas. Conf., 2009, pp. 202–208.

Seok, T. J.

M. Wu, T. J. Seok, and S. Han, “Large-scale silicon photonic switches,” in Proc. Int. Coonf. Adv. Photon., 2016, pp. 370–375.

Shen, Y.

M. Fiorani, P. Samadi, Y. Shen, L. Wosinska, and K. Bergman, “Flexible architecture and control strategy for metro-scale networking of geographically distributed data centers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.2016, pp. 1–3.

Strasser, T. A.

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Elect., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1150–1157, 2010.

Taleb, T.

T. Talebet al., “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over cloud,” IEEE Network, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 78–88, 2015.

Vusirikala, V.

X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.

Wagener, J. L.

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Elect., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1150–1157, 2010.

Wen, K.

P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” OSA Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.

Wosinska, L.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.

M. Fiorani, P. Samadi, Y. Shen, L. Wosinska, and K. Bergman, “Flexible architecture and control strategy for metro-scale networking of geographically distributed data centers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.2016, pp. 1–3.

Wu, M.

M. Wu, T. J. Seok, and S. Han, “Large-scale silicon photonic switches,” in Proc. Int. Coonf. Adv. Photon., 2016, pp. 370–375.

Xu, J.

P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” OSA Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, pp. 1–3.

Yan, S.

S. Yanet al., “Archon: A function programmable optical interconnect architecture for transparent intra and inter data center networking,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1586–1595, 2015.

Yao, J.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.

Zhang, L.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.

Zhang, M.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in Proc. ACM Workshop Res. Enterprise Netw., 2009, pp. 65–72.

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.

Zhu, Z.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

X. Zhao, V. Vusirikala, B. Koley, V. Kamalov, and T. Hofmeister, “The prospect of inter-data-center optical networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 32–38, 2013.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Elect. (1)

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Elect., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1150–1157, 2010.

IEEE Netw. (1)

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-data-center networks,” IEEE Netw., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 36–42, 2015.

IEEE Network (1)

T. Talebet al., “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over cloud,” IEEE Network, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 78–88, 2015.

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (2)

M. Schiano, A. Percelsi, and M. Quagliotti, “Flexible node architectures for metro networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 131–140, 2015.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, J. Chen, M. Casoni, and L. Wosinska, “Energy efficiency of an integrated intra-data-center and core network with edge caching,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 421–432, 2014.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. Yanet al., “Archon: A function programmable optical interconnect architecture for transparent intra and inter data center networking,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1586–1595, 2015.

P. Öhlenet al., “Data plane and control architectures for 5G transport networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1501–1508, 2016.

OSA Opt. Express (1)

P. Samadi, K. Wen, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Software-defined optical network for metro-scale geographically distributed data centers,” OSA Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 12310–12320, 2016.

Other (18)

S. Sanfilippo and P. Noordhuis, Redis. [Online]. Available: http://redis.io

RYU, “RYU SDN Framework.” [Online]. Available: https://osrg.github.io/ryu/

S. Kandula, S. Sengupta, A. Greenberg, P. Patel, and R. Chaiken, “The nature of data center traffic: Measurements & analysis,” in Proc. 9th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas. Conf., 2009, pp. 202–208.

T. Benson, A. Anand, A. Akella, and M. Zhang, “Understanding data center traffic characteristics,” in Proc. ACM Workshop Res. Enterprise Netw., 2009, pp. 65–72.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. A. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of data centers in the wild,” in Proc. 10th Internet Meas. Conf., 2010, pp. 267–280.

Inphi, Inphi debuts 100G DWDM solution for 80 km data center interconnects. 22, Mar. 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.inphi.com/media-center/press-room/press-releases-and-media-alerts/inphi-debuts-100g-dwdm-solution-for-80km-data-center-interconnects.php

Natural Resources Defense Council, “Americas data centers are wasting huge amounts of energy,” Issue Brief, (2014). [Online]. Available: https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/data-center-efficiency-assessment-IB.pdf

Polatis Series 700, 384 $\times$ 384 port software-defined optical circuit switch. [Online]. Available: http://www.polatis.com

OpenDayLight, OpenDaylight: Open source SDN platform. [Online]. Available: https://www.opendaylight.org/

M. Wu, T. J. Seok, and S. Han, “Large-scale silicon photonic switches,” in Proc. Int. Coonf. Adv. Photon., 2016, pp. 370–375.

Cisco, “Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2014-2019,” White Paper, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/ip-ngn-ip-next-generation-network/white_paper_c11-481360.html

Cisco, “White paper: Cisco VNI Forecast and Methodology, 2015-2020,” White Paper, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/mobile-white-paper-c11-520862.html

Ericsson, “5G use cases,” White Paper, 2015. [Online]. Available: www.ericsson.com/5g

M. Fiorani, P. Samadi, Y. Shen, L. Wosinska, and K. Bergman, “Flexible architecture and control strategy for metro-scale networking of geographically distributed data centers,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.2016, pp. 1–3.

V. Bahl, “Cloud 2020: The emergence of micro datacenter for mobile computing,” Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Micro-Data-Centers-mDCs-for-Mobile-Computing-1.pdf

5G PPP Architecture Working Group, “View on 5G architecture,” White Paper, 2016. [Online]. Available: www.5g-ppp.eu

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, pp. 1–3.

G. Chenet al., “First demonstration of holistically-organized metro-embedded cloud platform with all-optical interconnections for virtual datacenter provisioning,” in Proc. IEEE Opto-Electron. Commun. Conf., 2015, pp. 1–3.

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