Abstract

In this paper, a power switched, baseband modulation technique for visible light communications (VLC) is proposed and a theoretical model is constructed. It is shown that this technique, called single edge position modulation (SEPM), offers the unique performance characteristic that the communication properties reliability and power and spectral efficiency are invariable over a wide range of dimming levels. It is demonstrated that dimming robustness is obtained by increasing the number of bits per symbol. SEPM is compared with contemporary used baseband power switched modulation techniques for VLC that support dimming. The number of bits per symbol can be chosen to make a compromise between the dimming range over which reliability robustness is obtained on one hand, and the level of power and spectral efficiency on the other hand.

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  1. A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.51, no.12, pp.2632, 2013.
  2. T. Yamazatoet al., Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.8897, 2014.
  3. H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, VLC: Beyond point-to-point communication, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.98105, 2014.
  4. D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art,IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol.17, no.3, pp.16491678, thirdquarter 2015.
  5. S. Rajagopal, R. Roberts, and S.-K. Lim, IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: Modulation schemes and dimming support, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.50, no.3, pp.7282, 2012.
  6. S. e. a. Barman, Human electroretinogram responses to video displays, fluorescent lighting, and other high frequency sources, Optometry Vis. Sci., vol.68, no.8, pp.645662, 1991.
  7. J. Bullough and D. Marcus, Influence of flicker characteristics on stroboscopic effects,Lighting Res. Technol., 2015, doi: .
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Zafar, D. Karunatilaka, and R. Parthiban, Dimming schemes for visible light communication: The state of research, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.2935, 2015.
  9. M. Dyble, N. Narendran, A. Bierman, and T. Klein, Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods,Proc SPIE, vol.5941, pp.291299, 2005.
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  11. S. Kaur, W. Liu, and D. Castor, VLC dimming proposal,IEEE P 802.15 Working Group for wireless personal area networks (WPANs), Tech. Rep. , 2009.
  12. W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.61, no.5, pp.19681976, 2013.
  13. R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, An enhanced color shift keying modulation scheme for high-speed wireless visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.32, no.14, pp.25822592, 2014.
  14. R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.7 CSK physical layer, in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 2013, pp.10641069.
  15. F. Delgado Rajo, V. Guerra, J. Rabadan Borges, J. Rufo Torres, and R. Perez-Jimenez, Color shift keying communication system with a modified PPM synchronization scheme, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.26, no.18, pp.18511854, 2014.
  16. T. Ozaki, Y. Kozawa, and Y. Umeda, Improved error performance of variable PPM for visible light communication, in Proc. Int. Symp. Wireless Pers. Multimedia Commun. Symp., 2014, pp.259264.
  17. Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hayes, N. Seed, and E. Kaluarachchi, Digital pulse interval modulation for optical communications, IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.36, no.12, pp.9599, 1998.
  18. S. Khazraei, M. Shoaie, and M. Pakravan, Efficient modulation technique for optical code division multiple access networks: Differential pulse position modulation, IET Optoelectron., vol.8, no.5, pp.181190, 2014.
  19. B. Bai, Z. Xu, and Y. Fan, Joint led dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping ppm, in Proc. 2010 19th Annu. Wireless Opt. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp.15.
  20. M. Noshad and M. Brandt-Pearce, Expurgated PPM using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs, IEE Commun. Lett., vol.16, no.7, pp.968971, 2012.
  21. X. Ma, K. Lee, and K. Lee, Appropriate modulation scheme for visible light communication systems considering illumination, Electron. Lett., vol.48, no.18, pp.11371139, 2012.
  22. A. Ali, Z. Zhang, and B. Zong, Pulse position and shape modulation for visible light communication system, in Proc. 2014 Int. Conf. Electromagn. Adv. Appl., 2014, pp.546549.
  23. Y. Zeng, R. Green, and M. Leeson, Multiple pulse amplitude and position modulation for the optical wireless channel, in Proc. 2008 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, vol.4, pp.193196.
  24. X. You, J. Chen, H. Zheng, and C. Yu, Efficient data transmission using MPPM dimming control in indoor visible light communication, IEEE Photon. J., vol.7, no.4, pp.112, 2015.
  25. D. shan Shiu and J. Kahn, Differential pulse-position modulation for power-efficient optical communication, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.47, no.8, pp.12011210, 1999.
  26. H. Ai-ping, F. Yang-Yu, L. Yuan-Kui, J. Meng, B. Bo, and T. Qing-Gui, A differential pulse position width modulation for optical wireless communication, in Proc. 4th IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl. 2009, 2009, pp.17731776.
  27. W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.18, pp.29482954, 2012.
  28. T. Ohtsuki, Multiple-subcarrier modulation in optical wireless communications, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.41, no.3, pp.7479, 2003.
  29. P. Haighet al., Multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for bandlimited visible light communications systems, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.4653, 2015.
  30. G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and T. Sphicopoulos, Combining illumination dimming based on pulse-width modulation with visible light communications based on discrete multitone, IEEE/OSA Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.3, no.1, pp.5665, 2011.
  31. A. Mirvakili, V. Koomson, M. Rahaim, H. Elgala, and T. Little, Wireless access test-bed through visible light and dimming compatible ofdm, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., 2015, pp.22682272.
  32. T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.
  33. K. Lee and H. Park, Channel model and modulation schemes for visible light communications, in Proc. IEEE 54th Midwest Symp. Circuits Syst., 2011, pp.14.
  34. T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using led lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol.50, no.1, pp.100107, 2004.
  35. L. W. Couch, II, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 6th ed.Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2000.
  36. D. A. Guimaraes, Digital Transmission (ser. Signals and Communication Technology). Berlin: Springer, 2009.
  37. S. Arnon, The effect of clock jitter in visible light communication applications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.21, pp.34343439, 2012.
  38. R. Gagliardi, The effect of timing errors in optical digital systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.20, no.2, pp.8793, 1972.
  39. K. Lee and H. Park, Modulations for visible light communications with dimming control, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.23, no.16, pp.11361138, 2011.

2015 (5)

D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art,IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol.17, no.3, pp.16491678, thirdquarter 2015.

J. Bullough and D. Marcus, Influence of flicker characteristics on stroboscopic effects,Lighting Res. Technol., 2015, doi: .
[Crossref]

F. Zafar, D. Karunatilaka, and R. Parthiban, Dimming schemes for visible light communication: The state of research, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.2935, 2015.

X. You, J. Chen, H. Zheng, and C. Yu, Efficient data transmission using MPPM dimming control in indoor visible light communication, IEEE Photon. J., vol.7, no.4, pp.112, 2015.

P. Haighet al., Multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for bandlimited visible light communications systems, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.4653, 2015.

2014 (5)

R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, An enhanced color shift keying modulation scheme for high-speed wireless visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.32, no.14, pp.25822592, 2014.

F. Delgado Rajo, V. Guerra, J. Rabadan Borges, J. Rufo Torres, and R. Perez-Jimenez, Color shift keying communication system with a modified PPM synchronization scheme, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.26, no.18, pp.18511854, 2014.

S. Khazraei, M. Shoaie, and M. Pakravan, Efficient modulation technique for optical code division multiple access networks: Differential pulse position modulation, IET Optoelectron., vol.8, no.5, pp.181190, 2014.

T. Yamazatoet al., Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.8897, 2014.

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, VLC: Beyond point-to-point communication, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.98105, 2014.

2013 (2)

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.51, no.12, pp.2632, 2013.

W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.61, no.5, pp.19681976, 2013.

2012 (5)

S. Rajagopal, R. Roberts, and S.-K. Lim, IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: Modulation schemes and dimming support, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.50, no.3, pp.7282, 2012.

M. Noshad and M. Brandt-Pearce, Expurgated PPM using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs, IEE Commun. Lett., vol.16, no.7, pp.968971, 2012.

X. Ma, K. Lee, and K. Lee, Appropriate modulation scheme for visible light communication systems considering illumination, Electron. Lett., vol.48, no.18, pp.11371139, 2012.

W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.18, pp.29482954, 2012.

S. Arnon, The effect of clock jitter in visible light communication applications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.21, pp.34343439, 2012.

2011 (2)

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and T. Sphicopoulos, Combining illumination dimming based on pulse-width modulation with visible light communications based on discrete multitone, IEEE/OSA Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.3, no.1, pp.5665, 2011.

K. Lee and H. Park, Modulations for visible light communications with dimming control, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.23, no.16, pp.11361138, 2011.

2005 (1)

M. Dyble, N. Narendran, A. Bierman, and T. Klein, Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods,Proc SPIE, vol.5941, pp.291299, 2005.

2004 (1)

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using led lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol.50, no.1, pp.100107, 2004.

2003 (2)

T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.

T. Ohtsuki, Multiple-subcarrier modulation in optical wireless communications, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.41, no.3, pp.7479, 2003.

1999 (1)

D. shan Shiu and J. Kahn, Differential pulse-position modulation for power-efficient optical communication, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.47, no.8, pp.12011210, 1999.

1998 (1)

Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hayes, N. Seed, and E. Kaluarachchi, Digital pulse interval modulation for optical communications, IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.36, no.12, pp.9599, 1998.

1991 (1)

S. e. a. Barman, Human electroretinogram responses to video displays, fluorescent lighting, and other high frequency sources, Optometry Vis. Sci., vol.68, no.8, pp.645662, 1991.

1972 (1)

R. Gagliardi, The effect of timing errors in optical digital systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.20, no.2, pp.8793, 1972.

Ai-ping, H.

H. Ai-ping, F. Yang-Yu, L. Yuan-Kui, J. Meng, B. Bo, and T. Qing-Gui, A differential pulse position width modulation for optical wireless communication, in Proc. 4th IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl. 2009, 2009, pp.17731776.

Ali, A.

A. Ali, Z. Zhang, and B. Zong, Pulse position and shape modulation for visible light communication system, in Proc. 2014 Int. Conf. Electromagn. Adv. Appl., 2014, pp.546549.

Arnon, S.

S. Arnon, The effect of clock jitter in visible light communication applications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.21, pp.34343439, 2012.

Bai, B.

B. Bai, Z. Xu, and Y. Fan, Joint led dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping ppm, in Proc. 2010 19th Annu. Wireless Opt. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp.15.

Barman, S. e. a.

S. e. a. Barman, Human electroretinogram responses to video displays, fluorescent lighting, and other high frequency sources, Optometry Vis. Sci., vol.68, no.8, pp.645662, 1991.

Bierman, A.

M. Dyble, N. Narendran, A. Bierman, and T. Klein, Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods,Proc SPIE, vol.5941, pp.291299, 2005.

Bo, B.

H. Ai-ping, F. Yang-Yu, L. Yuan-Kui, J. Meng, B. Bo, and T. Qing-Gui, A differential pulse position width modulation for optical wireless communication, in Proc. 4th IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl. 2009, 2009, pp.17731776.

Borges, J. Rabadan

F. Delgado Rajo, V. Guerra, J. Rabadan Borges, J. Rufo Torres, and R. Perez-Jimenez, Color shift keying communication system with a modified PPM synchronization scheme, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.26, no.18, pp.18511854, 2014.

Brandt-Pearce, M.

M. Noshad and M. Brandt-Pearce, Expurgated PPM using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs, IEE Commun. Lett., vol.16, no.7, pp.968971, 2012.

Bullough, J.

J. Bullough and D. Marcus, Influence of flicker characteristics on stroboscopic effects,Lighting Res. Technol., 2015, doi: .
[Crossref]

Burchardt, H.

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, VLC: Beyond point-to-point communication, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.98105, 2014.

Castor, D.

S. Kaur, W. Liu, and D. Castor, VLC dimming proposal,IEEE P 802.15 Working Group for wireless personal area networks (WPANs), Tech. Rep. , 2009.

Chen, J.

X. You, J. Chen, H. Zheng, and C. Yu, Efficient data transmission using MPPM dimming control in indoor visible light communication, IEEE Photon. J., vol.7, no.4, pp.112, 2015.

Couch, L. W.

L. W. Couch, II, Digital and Analog Communication Systems, 6th ed.Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

David, J.

R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, An enhanced color shift keying modulation scheme for high-speed wireless visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.32, no.14, pp.25822592, 2014.

R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.7 CSK physical layer, in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 2013, pp.10641069.

Dyble, M.

M. Dyble, N. Narendran, A. Bierman, and T. Klein, Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods,Proc SPIE, vol.5941, pp.291299, 2005.

Elgala, H.

A. Mirvakili, V. Koomson, M. Rahaim, H. Elgala, and T. Little, Wireless access test-bed through visible light and dimming compatible ofdm, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., 2015, pp.22682272.

Fan, Y.

B. Bai, Z. Xu, and Y. Fan, Joint led dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping ppm, in Proc. 2010 19th Annu. Wireless Opt. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp.15.

Gagliardi, R.

R. Gagliardi, The effect of timing errors in optical digital systems, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.20, no.2, pp.8793, 1972.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hayes, N. Seed, and E. Kaluarachchi, Digital pulse interval modulation for optical communications, IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.36, no.12, pp.9599, 1998.

Green, R.

Y. Zeng, R. Green, and M. Leeson, Multiple pulse amplitude and position modulation for the optical wireless channel, in Proc. 2008 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, vol.4, pp.193196.

Guerra, V.

F. Delgado Rajo, V. Guerra, J. Rabadan Borges, J. Rufo Torres, and R. Perez-Jimenez, Color shift keying communication system with a modified PPM synchronization scheme, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.26, no.18, pp.18511854, 2014.

Guimaraes, D. A.

D. A. Guimaraes, Digital Transmission (ser. Signals and Communication Technology). Berlin: Springer, 2009.

Haas, H.

H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, VLC: Beyond point-to-point communication, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.98105, 2014.

W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.61, no.5, pp.19681976, 2013.

W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.18, pp.29482954, 2012.

Hagelauer, R.

T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.

Haigh, P.

P. Haighet al., Multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for bandlimited visible light communications systems, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.4653, 2015.

Hausner, J.

T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.

Hayes, A.

Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hayes, N. Seed, and E. Kaluarachchi, Digital pulse interval modulation for optical communications, IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.36, no.12, pp.9599, 1998.

Huemer, M.

T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.

Jovicic, A.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.51, no.12, pp.2632, 2013.

Kahn, J.

D. shan Shiu and J. Kahn, Differential pulse-position modulation for power-efficient optical communication, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.47, no.8, pp.12011210, 1999.

Kalavally, V.

D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art,IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol.17, no.3, pp.16491678, thirdquarter 2015.

Kaluarachchi, E.

Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hayes, N. Seed, and E. Kaluarachchi, Digital pulse interval modulation for optical communications, IEEE Commun. Mag, vol.36, no.12, pp.9599, 1998.

Kamalakis, T.

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and T. Sphicopoulos, Combining illumination dimming based on pulse-width modulation with visible light communications based on discrete multitone, IEEE/OSA Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.3, no.1, pp.5665, 2011.

Karunatilaka, D.

F. Zafar, D. Karunatilaka, and R. Parthiban, Dimming schemes for visible light communication: The state of research, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.2935, 2015.

D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art,IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol.17, no.3, pp.16491678, thirdquarter 2015.

Kaur, S.

S. Kaur, W. Liu, and D. Castor, VLC dimming proposal,IEEE P 802.15 Working Group for wireless personal area networks (WPANs), Tech. Rep. , 2009.

Khazraei, S.

S. Khazraei, M. Shoaie, and M. Pakravan, Efficient modulation technique for optical code division multiple access networks: Differential pulse position modulation, IET Optoelectron., vol.8, no.5, pp.181190, 2014.

Klein, T.

M. Dyble, N. Narendran, A. Bierman, and T. Klein, Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods,Proc SPIE, vol.5941, pp.291299, 2005.

Komine, T.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using led lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol.50, no.1, pp.100107, 2004.

Koomson, V.

A. Mirvakili, V. Koomson, M. Rahaim, H. Elgala, and T. Little, Wireless access test-bed through visible light and dimming compatible ofdm, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., 2015, pp.22682272.

Kozawa, Y.

T. Ozaki, Y. Kozawa, and Y. Umeda, Improved error performance of variable PPM for visible light communication, in Proc. Int. Symp. Wireless Pers. Multimedia Commun. Symp., 2014, pp.259264.

Kroepl, C.

T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.

Lee, K.

X. Ma, K. Lee, and K. Lee, Appropriate modulation scheme for visible light communication systems considering illumination, Electron. Lett., vol.48, no.18, pp.11371139, 2012.

X. Ma, K. Lee, and K. Lee, Appropriate modulation scheme for visible light communication systems considering illumination, Electron. Lett., vol.48, no.18, pp.11371139, 2012.

K. Lee and H. Park, Modulations for visible light communications with dimming control, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.23, no.16, pp.11361138, 2011.

K. Lee and H. Park, Channel model and modulation schemes for visible light communications, in Proc. IEEE 54th Midwest Symp. Circuits Syst., 2011, pp.14.

Leeson, M.

Y. Zeng, R. Green, and M. Leeson, Multiple pulse amplitude and position modulation for the optical wireless channel, in Proc. 2008 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, vol.4, pp.193196.

Li, J.

A. Jovicic, J. Li, and T. Richardson, Visible light communication: Opportunities, challenges and the path to market, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.51, no.12, pp.2632, 2013.

Lim, S.-K.

S. Rajagopal, R. Roberts, and S.-K. Lim, IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: Modulation schemes and dimming support, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.50, no.3, pp.7282, 2012.

Little, T.

A. Mirvakili, V. Koomson, M. Rahaim, H. Elgala, and T. Little, Wireless access test-bed through visible light and dimming compatible ofdm, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., 2015, pp.22682272.

Liu, W.

S. Kaur, W. Liu, and D. Castor, VLC dimming proposal,IEEE P 802.15 Working Group for wireless personal area networks (WPANs), Tech. Rep. , 2009.

Lueftner, T.

T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.

Ma, X.

X. Ma, K. Lee, and K. Lee, Appropriate modulation scheme for visible light communication systems considering illumination, Electron. Lett., vol.48, no.18, pp.11371139, 2012.

Marcus, D.

J. Bullough and D. Marcus, Influence of flicker characteristics on stroboscopic effects,Lighting Res. Technol., 2015, doi: .
[Crossref]

Meng, J.

H. Ai-ping, F. Yang-Yu, L. Yuan-Kui, J. Meng, B. Bo, and T. Qing-Gui, A differential pulse position width modulation for optical wireless communication, in Proc. 4th IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl. 2009, 2009, pp.17731776.

Mirvakili, A.

A. Mirvakili, V. Koomson, M. Rahaim, H. Elgala, and T. Little, Wireless access test-bed through visible light and dimming compatible ofdm, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., 2015, pp.22682272.

Nakagawa, M.

T. Komine and M. Nakagawa, Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using led lights, IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol.50, no.1, pp.100107, 2004.

Narendran, N.

M. Dyble, N. Narendran, A. Bierman, and T. Klein, Impact of dimming white LEDs: Chromaticity shifts due to different dimming methods,Proc SPIE, vol.5941, pp.291299, 2005.

Noshad, M.

M. Noshad and M. Brandt-Pearce, Expurgated PPM using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs, IEE Commun. Lett., vol.16, no.7, pp.968971, 2012.

Ntogari, G.

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and T. Sphicopoulos, Combining illumination dimming based on pulse-width modulation with visible light communications based on discrete multitone, IEEE/OSA Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.3, no.1, pp.5665, 2011.

OFarrell, T.

R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, An enhanced color shift keying modulation scheme for high-speed wireless visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.32, no.14, pp.25822592, 2014.

R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.7 CSK physical layer, in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 2013, pp.10641069.

Ohtsuki, T.

T. Ohtsuki, Multiple-subcarrier modulation in optical wireless communications, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.41, no.3, pp.7479, 2003.

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T. Ozaki, Y. Kozawa, and Y. Umeda, Improved error performance of variable PPM for visible light communication, in Proc. Int. Symp. Wireless Pers. Multimedia Commun. Symp., 2014, pp.259264.

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S. Khazraei, M. Shoaie, and M. Pakravan, Efficient modulation technique for optical code division multiple access networks: Differential pulse position modulation, IET Optoelectron., vol.8, no.5, pp.181190, 2014.

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K. Lee and H. Park, Modulations for visible light communications with dimming control, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.23, no.16, pp.11361138, 2011.

K. Lee and H. Park, Channel model and modulation schemes for visible light communications, in Proc. IEEE 54th Midwest Symp. Circuits Syst., 2011, pp.14.

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D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art,IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol.17, no.3, pp.16491678, thirdquarter 2015.

F. Zafar, D. Karunatilaka, and R. Parthiban, Dimming schemes for visible light communication: The state of research, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.2935, 2015.

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F. Delgado Rajo, V. Guerra, J. Rabadan Borges, J. Rufo Torres, and R. Perez-Jimenez, Color shift keying communication system with a modified PPM synchronization scheme, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.26, no.18, pp.18511854, 2014.

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W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.61, no.5, pp.19681976, 2013.

W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.18, pp.29482954, 2012.

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W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Error performance of generalised space shift keying for indoor visible light communications, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol.61, no.5, pp.19681976, 2013.

W. Popoola, E. Poves, and H. Haas, Spatial pulse position modulation for optical communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.30, no.18, pp.29482954, 2012.

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H. Ai-ping, F. Yang-Yu, L. Yuan-Kui, J. Meng, B. Bo, and T. Qing-Gui, A differential pulse position width modulation for optical wireless communication, in Proc. 4th IEEE Conf. Ind. Electron. Appl. 2009, 2009, pp.17731776.

Rahaim, M.

A. Mirvakili, V. Koomson, M. Rahaim, H. Elgala, and T. Little, Wireless access test-bed through visible light and dimming compatible ofdm, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., 2015, pp.22682272.

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E. Sarbazi and M. Uysal, PHY layer performance evaluation of the IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication standard, in Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop Opt. Wireless Commun., 2013, pp.3539.

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S. Khazraei, M. Shoaie, and M. Pakravan, Efficient modulation technique for optical code division multiple access networks: Differential pulse position modulation, IET Optoelectron., vol.8, no.5, pp.181190, 2014.

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R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, An enhanced color shift keying modulation scheme for high-speed wireless visible light communications, J. Lightw. Technol., vol.32, no.14, pp.25822592, 2014.

R. Singh, T. OFarrell, and J. David, Performance evaluation of IEEE 802.15.7 CSK physical layer, in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 2013, pp.10641069.

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G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and T. Sphicopoulos, Combining illumination dimming based on pulse-width modulation with visible light communications based on discrete multitone, IEEE/OSA Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.3, no.1, pp.5665, 2011.

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F. Delgado Rajo, V. Guerra, J. Rabadan Borges, J. Rufo Torres, and R. Perez-Jimenez, Color shift keying communication system with a modified PPM synchronization scheme, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol.26, no.18, pp.18511854, 2014.

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H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, VLC: Beyond point-to-point communication, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.98105, 2014.

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T. Ozaki, Y. Kozawa, and Y. Umeda, Improved error performance of variable PPM for visible light communication, in Proc. Int. Symp. Wireless Pers. Multimedia Commun. Symp., 2014, pp.259264.

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E. Sarbazi and M. Uysal, PHY layer performance evaluation of the IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication standard, in Proc. 2nd Int. Workshop Opt. Wireless Commun., 2013, pp.3539.

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H. Burchardt, N. Serafimovski, D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, VLC: Beyond point-to-point communication, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.98105, 2014.

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G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and T. Sphicopoulos, Combining illumination dimming based on pulse-width modulation with visible light communications based on discrete multitone, IEEE/OSA Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.3, no.1, pp.5665, 2011.

Weigel, R.

T. Lueftner, C. Kroepl, M. Huemer, J. Hausner, R. Hagelauer, and R. Weigel, Edge-position modulation for high-speed wireless infrared communications, IEE Proc.Optoelectron., vol.150, no.5, pp.427437, 2003.

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B. Bai, Z. Xu, and Y. Fan, Joint led dimming and high capacity visible light communication by overlapping ppm, in Proc. 2010 19th Annu. Wireless Opt. Commun. Conf., 2010, pp.15.

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D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art,IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol.17, no.3, pp.16491678, thirdquarter 2015.

F. Zafar, D. Karunatilaka, and R. Parthiban, Dimming schemes for visible light communication: The state of research, IEEE Wireless Commun., vol.22, no.2, pp.2935, 2015.

Zeng, Y.

Y. Zeng, R. Green, and M. Leeson, Multiple pulse amplitude and position modulation for the optical wireless channel, in Proc. 2008 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, vol.4, pp.193196.

Zhang, Z.

A. Ali, Z. Zhang, and B. Zong, Pulse position and shape modulation for visible light communication system, in Proc. 2014 Int. Conf. Electromagn. Adv. Appl., 2014, pp.546549.

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A. Ali, Z. Zhang, and B. Zong, Pulse position and shape modulation for visible light communication system, in Proc. 2014 Int. Conf. Electromagn. Adv. Appl., 2014, pp.546549.

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S. Rajagopal, R. Roberts, and S.-K. Lim, IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication: Modulation schemes and dimming support, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.50, no.3, pp.7282, 2012.

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T. Yamazatoet al., Image-sensor-based visible light communication for automotive applications,IEEE Commun. Mag., vol.52, no.7, pp.8897, 2014.

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D. Karunatilaka, F. Zafar, V. Kalavally, and R. Parthiban, Led based indoor visible light communications: State of the art,IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol.17, no.3, pp.16491678, thirdquarter 2015.

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X. You, J. Chen, H. Zheng, and C. Yu, Efficient data transmission using MPPM dimming control in indoor visible light communication, IEEE Photon. J., vol.7, no.4, pp.112, 2015.

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G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, J. Walewski, and T. Sphicopoulos, Combining illumination dimming based on pulse-width modulation with visible light communications based on discrete multitone, IEEE/OSA Opt. Commun. Netw., vol.3, no.1, pp.5665, 2011.

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T. Ozaki, Y. Kozawa, and Y. Umeda, Improved error performance of variable PPM for visible light communication, in Proc. Int. Symp. Wireless Pers. Multimedia Commun. Symp., 2014, pp.259264.

A. Ali, Z. Zhang, and B. Zong, Pulse position and shape modulation for visible light communication system, in Proc. 2014 Int. Conf. Electromagn. Adv. Appl., 2014, pp.546549.

Y. Zeng, R. Green, and M. Leeson, Multiple pulse amplitude and position modulation for the optical wireless channel, in Proc. 2008 10th Anniversary Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2008, vol.4, pp.193196.

A. Mirvakili, V. Koomson, M. Rahaim, H. Elgala, and T. Little, Wireless access test-bed through visible light and dimming compatible ofdm, in Proc. IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., 2015, pp.22682272.

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K. Lee and H. Park, Channel model and modulation schemes for visible light communications, in Proc. IEEE 54th Midwest Symp. Circuits Syst., 2011, pp.14.

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