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© 2015 OAPA

PDF Article**Journal of Lightwave Technology**- Vol. 34,
- Issue 1,
- pp. 157-179
- (2016)

© 2015 OAPA

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- T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Communication Systems. Tokyo, Japan: KTK Scientific Publisher, 1988, ch. 1.

- S. Tsukamoto, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 6–11, 2005, Paper PDP29.

- K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Exp., vol. 8, no. 20, pp. 1642–1662, 2011.

- K. Kikuchi, “Coherent optical communication technology,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, , 2015, Paper Th4F.4.

- O. E. DeLange, “Wide-band optical communication systems—Part II: Frequency-division multiplexing,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 1683–1690, 1970.

- T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, “Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers for heterodyne-type optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 179–181, 1980.

- F. Favre and D. LeGuen, “High frequency stability of laser diode for heterodyne communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 709–710, 1980.

- T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 16, pp. 630–631, 1980.

- C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 2, pp. 259–264, 1982.

- Y. Yamamoto, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-19, no. 1, pp. 34–461983.

- K. Vahala and A. Yariv, “Semiclassical theory of noise in semiconductor lasers—Part I,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-19, no. 6, pp. 1096–1101, 1983.

- K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 $\mu$m InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 11, pp. 1814–1818, 1985.

- T. Okoshi, S. Ryu, and K. Kikuchi, “Polarization-diversity receiver for heterodyne/coherent optical fiber communications,” presented at the International Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, Tokyo, Japan, , 1983, Paper 30C3-2.

- B. Glance, “Polarization independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 274–276, 1987.

- N. Shibata, Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, and T. Hosaka, “Fabrication of polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-1, no. 1, pp. 38–43, 1983.

- L. Jeunhomme and N. Monerie, “Polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber cable design,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 24, pp. 921–922, 1980.

- T. Tanemura and K. Kikuchi, “Circular-birefringence fiber for nonlinear optical signal processing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4108–4119, 2006.

- Y. Yamamoto, “Receiver performance evaluation of various digital optical modulation–demodulation systems in the 0.5–10 $\mu$m wavelength region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-16, no. 11, pp. 1251–1259, 1980.

- T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. Th. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 134–141, 1981.

- T. Imai, Y. Hayashi, N. Ohkawa, T. Sugie, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Ito, “Field demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/s coherent optical transmission through installed submarine fibre cables,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1407–1409, 1990.

- S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, “PSK optical homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 374–376, 1990.

- R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise Erbium-doped fibre amplifier at 1.54 $\mu$m,” Electron. Lett., vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 1026–1028, 1987.

- J. M. Kahn and K.-P. Ho, “Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 259–272, 2004.

- R. Griffin and A. Carter, “Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 17–22, 2002, Paper WX6.

- S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Single side-band modulation performance of a LiNbO$_3$ integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 364–366, 2001.

- D. MacGhan, C. Laperle, A. Savchenko, C. Li, G. Mak, and M. O'Sullivan, “5120 km RZ-DPSK transmission over G652 fiber at 10 Gb/s with no optical dispersion compensation,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 6–11, 2005, Paper PDP27.

- D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 12–21, 2006.

- K. Kikuchi, “Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multi-level optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation,” IEEE J. Sel. TopicQuantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 563–570, 2006.

- F. Derr, “Optical QPSK transmission system with novel digital receiver concept,” Electron Lett., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 2177–2179, 1991.

- R. Noé, “Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing,” presented at the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., Yokohama, Japan, Jul. 12–16, 2004, Paper 16C2-5.

- S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1131–1133, 2006.

- Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Unrepeated 200-km transmission of 40-Gbit/s 16-QAM signals using digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 32, pp. 1435–1441, 2009.

- M. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 674–676, 2004.

- S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Unrepeated transmission of 20-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal over 200-km standard single-mode fiber based on digital processing of homodyne-detected signal for group-velocity dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1016–1018, 2006.

- S. Tsukamoto, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Kikuchi, “Optical homodyne receiver comprising phase and polarization diversities with digital signal processing,” presented at the European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, , 2006, Paper Mo4.2.1.

- K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 1817–1822, 2008.

- S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 804–817, 2008.

- H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40-Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 873–879, 2008.

- L. E. Nelson, S. L. Woodward, M. D. Feuer, X. Zhou, P. D. Magill, S. Foo, D. Hanson, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. Moyer, and M. O'Sullivan, “Performance of a 46-Gb/s dual-polarization QPSK transceiver in a high-PMD fiber transmission experiment,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, , 2008, Paper PDP9.

- E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, and K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 13139–13184, 2011.

- K. Kikuchi, “Coherent optical communications: Historical perspectives and future directions,” in High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technology, M. Nakazawa, K. Kikuchi, and T. Miyazaki, Eds., Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2010, ch. 2.

- H. Hodgikinson, R. A. Harmon, and D. W. Smith, Demodulation of optical DPSK using in-phase and quadrature detection,” Electron. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 867–868, 1985.

- A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, P. J. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 561–572, 1987.

- Y. Yamamoto and H. Haus, “Preparation, measurement and information capacity of optical quantum states,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1001–1020, 1986.

- H. P. Robertson, “The uncertainty principle,” Phys. Rev., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 163–164, 1929.

- F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-6, no. 1, pp. 87–93, 1988.

- C. E. Shannon, “A mathematical theory of communication,” Bell Sys. Tech. J., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 379–423, 1948 and vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 623–656, 1948.

- S. Ishimura and K. Kikuchi, “Multi-dimensional permutation-modulation format for coherent optical communications,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 15587–15597, 2015.

- J. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York, USA: McGraw Hill, 2007, ch. 7.

- M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?” Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 10814–10819, 2009.

- E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126, 2009.

- L. Coelho and N. Hanik, “Global optimization of fiber-optic communication systems using four-dimensional modulation formats,” presented at the European Conf. Optical Communication, Geneva, Switzerland, , 2011, Paper Mo.2.B.

- T. Mizuochi, “Next generation FEC for optical communication,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, , 2008, Paper OTuE5.

- K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of digital coherent receivers with symbol-rate analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Signal Processing in Photonics Communications, Boston MA, USA, , 2015, Paper SpT3D.4.

- S. Haykin, Introduction to Adaptive Filters, New York, NY, USA: Macmillan, 2001, ch. 4.

- Md. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Igarashi, and K. Kikuchi, “Multi-impairment monitoring from adaptive finite-impulse-response filters in a digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 26, pp. 26929–26936. 2010.

- S. U. H. Qureshi, “Adaptive equalization,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 1349–1387, 1985.

- D. N. Godard, “Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-28, no. 11, pp. 1867–1875, 1980.

- K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of polarization demultiplexing based on constant-modulus algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 9868–9880, 2011.

- Y. Mori, C. Zhang, and K. Kikuchi, “Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26236–26251, 2012.

- K. Kikuchi, “Clock recovering characteristics of adaptive finite-impulse-response filters in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 5611–5619, 2011.

- F. Pancaldi, G. M. Vitetta, R. Kalbasi, N. Al-Dhahir, M. Uysal, and H. Mheidat, “Single-carrier frequency domain equalization,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 37–56, 2008.

- R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, and Y. Miyamoto, “Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3721–3718, 2009.

- Md. S. Faruk and K. Kikuchi, “Adaptive frequency-domain equalization in digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 12789–12798, 2011.

- A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. IT-29, no. 4, pp. 543–551, 1983.

- M. Seimetz, “Performance of coherent optical square-16-QAM-systems based on IQ-transmitters and homodyne receivers with digital phase estimation,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, , 2006, Paper NWA4.

- K. Kikuchi, T. Okoshi, M. Nagamatsu, and N. Henmi, “Degradation of bit-error rate in coherent optical communications due to spectral spread of the transmitter and the local oscillator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 6, pp. 1024–1033, 1984.

- G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA, USA: Academic, 1989, ch. 2.

- K. Kikuchi, “Analyses of wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexed transmission characteristics of optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 19, pp. 17985–17995, 2011.

- K. Kikuchi, “Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase fluctuations in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying transmission system using the digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 889–896, 2008.

- E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3416–3425, 2008.

- S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 28–35, 1992.

- L. Dou, Y. Zhao, Z. Tao, Y. Fan, T. Hoshida, and J. C. Rasmussen, “Advanced digital nonlinear distortion compensation,” presented at Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, , 2015, Paper Th3G.3.

- X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 560–568, 2013.

- Y. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, J. X. Cai, O. Sinkin, M. Nissov, and A. Philipetskii, “Experimental demonstration of coherent MAP detection for nonlinearity mitigation in long-haul transmission,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, , 2010, Paper OTuE1.

- F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. L. Teixeira, and A. N. Pinto, “Mitigation of intra-channel nonlinearities using a frequency-domain Volterra series equalizer,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1360–1368, 2012.

- K. Roberts, L. Chuandong, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 403–405, 2006.

S. Ishimura and K. Kikuchi, “Multi-dimensional permutation-modulation format for coherent optical communications,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 15587–15597, 2015.

X. Liu, A. R. Chraplyvy, P. J. Winzer, R. W. Tkach, and S. Chandrasekhar, “Phase-conjugated twin waves for communication beyond the Kerr nonlinearity limit,” Nature Photon., vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 560–568, 2013.

F. P. Guiomar, J. D. Reis, A. L. Teixeira, and A. N. Pinto, “Mitigation of intra-channel nonlinearities using a frequency-domain Volterra series equalizer,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 1360–1368, 2012.

Y. Mori, C. Zhang, and K. Kikuchi, “Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26236–26251, 2012.

K. Kikuchi, “Clock recovering characteristics of adaptive finite-impulse-response filters in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 5611–5619, 2011.

K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of polarization demultiplexing based on constant-modulus algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 9868–9880, 2011.

Md. S. Faruk and K. Kikuchi, “Adaptive frequency-domain equalization in digital coherent receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 13, pp. 12789–12798, 2011.

K. Kikuchi, “Analyses of wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexed transmission characteristics of optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 19, pp. 17985–17995, 2011.

E. Yamazaki, S. Yamanaka, Y. Kisaka, T. Nakagawa, K. Murata, E. Yoshida, T. Sakano, M. Tomizawa, Y. Miyamoto, S. Matsuoka, J. Matsui, A. Shibayama, J. Abe, Y. Nakamura, H. Noguchi, K. Fukuchi, H. Onaka, K. Fukumitsu, K. Komaki, O. Takeuchi, Y. Sakamoto, H. Nakashima, T. Mizuochi, K. Kubo, Y. Miyata, H. Nishimoto, S. Hirano, and K. Onohara, “Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 13139–13184, 2011.

K. Kikuchi, “Digital coherent optical communication systems: Fundamentals and future prospects,” IEICE Electron. Exp., vol. 8, no. 20, pp. 1642–1662, 2011.

Md. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Igarashi, and K. Kikuchi, “Multi-impairment monitoring from adaptive finite-impulse-response filters in a digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Exp., vol. 18, no. 26, pp. 26929–26936. 2010.

R. Kudo, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, Y. Takatori, A. Sano, and Y. Miyamoto, “Coherent optical single carrier transmission using overlap frequency domain equalization for long-haul optical systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3721–3718, 2009.

M. Karlsson and E. Agrell, “Which is the most power-efficient modulation format in optical links?” Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 10814–10819, 2009.

E. Agrell and M. Karlsson, “Power-efficient modulation formats in coherent transmission systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 5115–5126, 2009.

Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Igarashi, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Unrepeated 200-km transmission of 40-Gbit/s 16-QAM signals using digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Exp., vol. 17, no. 32, pp. 1435–1441, 2009.

K. Kikuchi and S. Tsukamoto, “Evaluation of sensitivity of the digital coherent receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 20, no. 13, pp. 1817–1822, 2008.

S. J. Savory, “Digital filters for coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 804–817, 2008.

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, and K. Roberts, “Real-time measurements of a 40-Gb/s coherent system,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 873–879, 2008.

F. Pancaldi, G. M. Vitetta, R. Kalbasi, N. Al-Dhahir, M. Uysal, and H. Mheidat, “Single-carrier frequency domain equalization,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 37–56, 2008.

K. Kikuchi, “Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase fluctuations in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying transmission system using the digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 889–896, 2008.

E. Ip and J. M. Kahn, “Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 26, no. 20, pp. 3416–3425, 2008.

K. Roberts, L. Chuandong, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, and I. Hardcastle, “Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 403–405, 2006.

D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent detection of optical quadrature phase-shift keying signals with carrier phase estimation,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 12–21, 2006.

K. Kikuchi, “Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multi-level optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation,” IEEE J. Sel. TopicQuantum Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 563–570, 2006.

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of optical multilevel phase shift-keying signals using homodyne detection and digital signal processing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 1131–1133, 2006.

S. Tsukamoto, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Unrepeated transmission of 20-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying signal over 200-km standard single-mode fiber based on digital processing of homodyne-detected signal for group-velocity dispersion compensation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1016–1018, 2006.

T. Tanemura and K. Kikuchi, “Circular-birefringence fiber for nonlinear optical signal processing,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 4108–4119, 2006.

J. M. Kahn and K.-P. Ho, “Spectral efficiency limits and modulation/detection techniques for DWDM systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 259–272, 2004.

M. Taylor, “Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 674–676, 2004.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, “Single side-band modulation performance of a LiNbO$_3$ integrated modulator consisting of four-phase modulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 364–366, 2001.

S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 28–35, 1992.

F. Derr, “Optical QPSK transmission system with novel digital receiver concept,” Electron Lett., vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 2177–2179, 1991.

T. Imai, Y. Hayashi, N. Ohkawa, T. Sugie, Y. Ichihashi, and T. Ito, “Field demonstration of 2.5 Gbit/s coherent optical transmission through installed submarine fibre cables,” Electron. Lett., vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 1407–1409, 1990.

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, “PSK optical homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 374–376, 1990.

F. Koyama and K. Iga, “Frequency chirping in external modulators,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-6, no. 1, pp. 87–93, 1988.

A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, P. J. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 561–572, 1987.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, and D. N. Payne, “Low-noise Erbium-doped fibre amplifier at 1.54 $\mu$m,” Electron. Lett., vol. 23, no. 19, pp. 1026–1028, 1987.

B. Glance, “Polarization independent coherent optical receiver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-5, no. 2, pp. 274–276, 1987.

Y. Yamamoto and H. Haus, “Preparation, measurement and information capacity of optical quantum states,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1001–1020, 1986.

H. Hodgikinson, R. A. Harmon, and D. W. Smith, Demodulation of optical DPSK using in-phase and quadrature detection,” Electron. Lett., vol. 21, no. 19, pp. 867–868, 1985.

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 $\mu$m InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 11, pp. 1814–1818, 1985.

K. Kikuchi, T. Okoshi, M. Nagamatsu, and N. Henmi, “Degradation of bit-error rate in coherent optical communications due to spectral spread of the transmitter and the local oscillator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-2, no. 6, pp. 1024–1033, 1984.

A. J. Viterbi and A. M. Viterbi, “Nonlinear estimation of PSK-modulated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. IT-29, no. 4, pp. 543–551, 1983.

Y. Yamamoto, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-19, no. 1, pp. 34–461983.

K. Vahala and A. Yariv, “Semiclassical theory of noise in semiconductor lasers—Part I,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-19, no. 6, pp. 1096–1101, 1983.

N. Shibata, Y. Sasaki, K. Okamoto, and T. Hosaka, “Fabrication of polarization-maintaining and absorption-reducing fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. LT-1, no. 1, pp. 38–43, 1983.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-18, no. 2, pp. 259–264, 1982.

T. Okoshi, K. Emura, K. Kikuchi, and R. Th. Kersten, “Computation of bit-error rate of various heterodyne and coherent-type optical communication schemes,” J. Opt. Commun., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 134–141, 1981.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, “Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers for heterodyne-type optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 179–181, 1980.

F. Favre and D. LeGuen, “High frequency stability of laser diode for heterodyne communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 709–710, 1980.

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, and A. Nakayama, “Novel method for high resolution measurement of laser output spectrum,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 16, pp. 630–631, 1980.

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Y. Mori, C. Zhang, and K. Kikuchi, “Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26236–26251, 2012.

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K. Kikuchi, “Coherent optical communication technology,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, , 2015, Paper Th4F.4.

S. Tsukamoto, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 6–11, 2005, Paper PDP29.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Communication Systems. Tokyo, Japan: KTK Scientific Publisher, 1988, ch. 1.

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S. Tsukamoto, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Kikuchi, “Optical homodyne receiver comprising phase and polarization diversities with digital signal processing,” presented at the European Conf. on Optical Communication, Cannes, France, , 2006, Paper Mo4.2.1.

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K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of digital coherent receivers with symbol-rate analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Signal Processing in Photonics Communications, Boston MA, USA, , 2015, Paper SpT3D.4.

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S. Tsukamoto, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, “Coherent demodulation of 40-Gbit/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK signals with 16-GHz spacing after 200-km transmission,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, Mar. 6–11, 2005, Paper PDP29.

T. Mizuochi, “Next generation FEC for optical communication,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, , 2008, Paper OTuE5.

Y. Mori, C. Zhang, and K. Kikuchi, “Novel configuration of finite-impulse-response filters tolerant to carrier-phase fluctuations in digital coherent optical receivers for higher-order quadrature amplitude modulation signals,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 24, pp. 26236–26251, 2012.

R. Noé, “Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing,” presented at the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., Yokohama, Japan, Jul. 12–16, 2004, Paper 16C2-5.

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 $\mu$m InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-21, no. 11, pp. 1814–1818, 1985.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, “Frequency stabilization of semiconductor lasers for heterodyne-type optical communication systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 179–181, 1980.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Communication Systems. Tokyo, Japan: KTK Scientific Publisher, 1988, ch. 1.

T. Okoshi, S. Ryu, and K. Kikuchi, “Polarization-diversity receiver for heterodyne/coherent optical fiber communications,” presented at the International Conf. on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication, Tokyo, Japan, , 1983, Paper 30C3-2.

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Y. Yamamoto, “AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor lasers—Part I: Theoretical analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-19, no. 1, pp. 34–461983.

Y. Yamamoto, “Receiver performance evaluation of various digital optical modulation–demodulation systems in the 0.5–10 $\mu$m wavelength region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. QE-16, no. 11, pp. 1251–1259, 1980.

K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of polarization demultiplexing based on constant-modulus algorithm in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 9868–9880, 2011.

K. Kikuchi, “Clock recovering characteristics of adaptive finite-impulse-response filters in digital coherent optical receivers,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 5611–5619, 2011.

K. Kikuchi, “Analyses of wavelength- and polarization-division multiplexed transmission characteristics of optical quadrature-amplitude-modulation signals,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 19, pp. 17985–17995, 2011.

K. Kikuchi, “Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase fluctuations in a 1000-km 20-Gbit/s optical quadrature phase-shift keying transmission system using the digital coherent receiver,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 889–896, 2008.

H. P. Robertson, “The uncertainty principle,” Phys. Rev., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 163–164, 1929.

K. Kikuchi, “Coherent optical communications: Historical perspectives and future directions,” in High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technology, M. Nakazawa, K. Kikuchi, and T. Miyazaki, Eds., Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2010, ch. 2.

J. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York, USA: McGraw Hill, 2007, ch. 7.

T. Mizuochi, “Next generation FEC for optical communication,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, , 2008, Paper OTuE5.

K. Kikuchi, “Performance analyses of digital coherent receivers with symbol-rate analog-to-digital conversion,” presented at the Signal Processing in Photonics Communications, Boston MA, USA, , 2015, Paper SpT3D.4.

S. Haykin, Introduction to Adaptive Filters, New York, NY, USA: Macmillan, 2001, ch. 4.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, San Diego, CA, USA: Academic, 1989, ch. 2.

M. Seimetz, “Performance of coherent optical square-16-QAM-systems based on IQ-transmitters and homodyne receivers with digital phase estimation,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, , 2006, Paper NWA4.

S. U. H. Qureshi, “Adaptive equalization,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 1349–1387, 1985.

R. Noé, “Phase noise tolerant synchronous QPSK receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing,” presented at the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conf., Yokohama, Japan, Jul. 12–16, 2004, Paper 16C2-5.

K. Kikuchi, “Coherent optical communication technology,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, , 2015, Paper Th4F.4.

O. E. DeLange, “Wide-band optical communication systems—Part II: Frequency-division multiplexing,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 1683–1690, 1970.

T. Okoshi and K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Communication Systems. Tokyo, Japan: KTK Scientific Publisher, 1988, ch. 1.

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