Abstract

Network virtualization is widely considered to be one of the main paradigms for the future Internet architecture as it provides a number of advantages including scalability, on demand allocation of network resources, and the promise of efficient use of network resources. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient virtual network embedding (EEVNE) approach for cloud computing networks, where power savings are introduced by consolidating resources in the network and data centers. We model our approach in an IP over WDM network using mixed integer linear programming (MILP). The performance of the EEVNE approach is compared with two approaches from the literature: the bandwidth cost approach (CostVNE) and the energy aware approach (VNE-EA). The CostVNE approach optimizes the use of available bandwidth, while the VNE-EA approach minimizes the power consumption by reducing the number of activated nodes and links without taking into account the granular power consumption of the data centers and the different network devices. The results show that the EEVNE model achieves a maximum power saving of 60% (average 20%) compared to the CostVNE model under an energy inefficient data center power profile. We develop a heuristic, real-time energy optimized VNE (REOViNE), with power savings approaching those of the EEVNE model. We also compare the different approaches adopting an energy efficient data center power profile. Furthermore, we study the impact of delay and node location constraints on the energy efficiency of virtual network embedding. We also show how VNE can impact the design of optimally located data centers for minimal power consumption in cloud networks. Finally, we examine the power savings and spectral efficiency benefits that VNE offers in optical orthogonal division multiplexing networks.

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2015 (1)

L. Nonde, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Cloud virtual network embedding: Profit, power and acceptance,” submitted to IEEE Commun., 2015.

2014 (5)

S. Su, Z. Zhang, A.X. Liu, X. Cheng, Y. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Energy-aware virtual network embedding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1607–1620, 2014.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Distributed energy efficient clouds over core networks,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1261–1281, 2014.

A. Hammadi and L. Mhamdi, “A survey on architectures and energy efficiency in data center networks,” Comput. Commun. vol. 40, pp. 1–21, 2014.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “BitTorrent content distribution in optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 3607–3623, 2014.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, X. Dong, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing networks,” in IET Optoelectron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 137–148, 2014.

2013 (4)

R. Jain and S. Paul, “Network virtualization and software defined networking for cloud computing: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 24–31, 2013.

A. Fischer, M. T. Beck, H. De Meer, and X. Hesselbach, “Virtual network embedding: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1888–1906, 2013.

M. A. Sharkh, M. Jammal, A. Shami, and A. Ouda, “Resource allocation in a network-based cloud computing environment: Design challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 46–52, 2013.

J. F. Botero and X. Hesselbach, “Greener networking in a network virtualization environment,” Comput. Netw., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2021–2039, 2013.

2012 (3)

M. Chowdhury, M. R. Rahman, and R. Boutaba, “ViNEYard: Virtual network embedding algorithms with coordinated node and link mapping,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 20, 1, pp. 206–219, 2012.

J.F. Botero, X. Hesselbach, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, A. Fischer, and H. De Meer, “Energy efficient virtual network embedding,” IEEE Commun., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 756–759, 2012.

A. Belbekkouche, M. M. Hasan, and A. Karmouch, “Resource discovery and allocation in network virtualization,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1114–1128, 2012.

2011 (4)

I. Houidi, W. Louati, W. Ben Ameur, and D. Zeghlache, “Virtual network provisioning across multiple substrate networks,” Comp. Netw., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1011–1023, 2011.

A. Fischer, J. F. Botero, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, X. Hesselbach, and H. DeMeer, “ALEVIN—A framework to develop, compare, and analyse virtual network embedding algorithms,” Electron. Commun. EASST, vol. 37, pp. 1–12, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

E. Lach and W. Idler, “Modulation formats for 100G and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 2011.

2009 (3)

F. D. Mahad, M. Supa’at, and A. Sahmah, “EDFA gain optimization for WDM system,” Elektrika, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 2009.

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimised design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.

N. M. M. K. Chowdhury and R. Boutaba, “Network virtualization: State of the art and research challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 20–26, 2009.

2008 (2)

M. Yu, Y. Yi, J. Rexford, and M. Chiang, “Rethinking virtual network embedding: Substrate support for path splitting and migration,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 38, no. 2. pp. 17–29, 2008.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, 2008.

2007 (1)

X. Fan, W. D. Weber, and L. A. Barroso, “Power provisioning for a warehouse-sized computer,” ACM SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 13–23, 2007.

Anderson, D. G.

D. G. Anderson, (2002). Theoretical Approaches to Node Assignment. [Online]. Available: http://repository.cmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article = 1079&context = compsci.

Barroso, L. A.

X. Fan, W. D. Weber, and L. A. Barroso, “Power provisioning for a warehouse-sized computer,” ACM SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 13–23, 2007.

Belbekkouche, A.

A. Belbekkouche, M. M. Hasan, and A. Karmouch, “Resource discovery and allocation in network virtualization,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1114–1128, 2012.

Bocoi, A.

A. Bocoi, M. Schuster, F. Rambach, M. Kiese, C. Bunge, and B. Spinnler, “Reach-dependent capacity in optical networks enabled by OFDM,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun., 2009.

Botero, J. F.

J. F. Botero and X. Hesselbach, “Greener networking in a network virtualization environment,” Comput. Netw., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2021–2039, 2013.

A. Fischer, J. F. Botero, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, X. Hesselbach, and H. DeMeer, “ALEVIN—A framework to develop, compare, and analyse virtual network embedding algorithms,” Electron. Commun. EASST, vol. 37, pp. 1–12, 2011.

Botero, J.F.

J.F. Botero, X. Hesselbach, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, A. Fischer, and H. De Meer, “Energy efficient virtual network embedding,” IEEE Commun., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 756–759, 2012.

Boutaba, R.

M. Chowdhury, M. R. Rahman, and R. Boutaba, “ViNEYard: Virtual network embedding algorithms with coordinated node and link mapping,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 20, 1, pp. 206–219, 2012.

N. M. M. K. Chowdhury and R. Boutaba, “Network virtualization: State of the art and research challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 20–26, 2009.

Chang, X.

B. Wang, X. Chang, J. Liu, and J. K. Muppala, “Reducing power consumption in embedding virtual infrastructures,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 3–7, 2012, pp. 714–718.

Chowdhury, M.

M. Chowdhury, M. R. Rahman, and R. Boutaba, “ViNEYard: Virtual network embedding algorithms with coordinated node and link mapping,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 20, 1, pp. 206–219, 2012.

Chowdhury, N. M. M. K.

N. M. M. K. Chowdhury and R. Boutaba, “Network virtualization: State of the art and research challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 20–26, 2009.

DeMeer, H.

A. Fischer, J. F. Botero, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, X. Hesselbach, and H. DeMeer, “ALEVIN—A framework to develop, compare, and analyse virtual network embedding algorithms,” Electron. Commun. EASST, vol. 37, pp. 1–12, 2011.

Dong, X.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, X. Dong, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing networks,” in IET Optoelectron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 137–148, 2014.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy efficiency of optical OFDM-based networks,” in Proc. IEEE Commun., 2013.

Duelli, M.

A. Fischer, J. F. Botero, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, X. Hesselbach, and H. DeMeer, “ALEVIN—A framework to develop, compare, and analyse virtual network embedding algorithms,” Electron. Commun. EASST, vol. 37, pp. 1–12, 2011.

Elgorashi, T. E. H.

L. Nonde, T. E. H. Elgorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green virtual network embedding in optical OFDM cloud networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. IEEE Conf. Transp. Opt. Netw., 2014.

El-Gorashi, T.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

El-Gorashi, T. E. H.

L. Nonde, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Cloud virtual network embedding: Profit, power and acceptance,” submitted to IEEE Commun., 2015.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Distributed energy efficient clouds over core networks,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1261–1281, 2014.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “BitTorrent content distribution in optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 3607–3623, 2014.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, X. Dong, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing networks,” in IET Optoelectron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 137–148, 2014.

X. Dong, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy efficiency of optical OFDM-based networks,” in Proc. IEEE Commun., 2013.

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

L. Nonde, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Cloud virtual network embedding: Profit, power and acceptance,” submitted to IEEE Commun., 2015.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Distributed energy efficient clouds over core networks,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1261–1281, 2014.

T. E. H. El-Gorashi, X. Dong, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing networks,” in IET Optoelectron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 137–148, 2014.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “BitTorrent content distribution in optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 3607–3623, 2014.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

L. Nonde, T. E. H. Elgorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green virtual network embedding in optical OFDM cloud networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. IEEE Conf. Transp. Opt. Netw., 2014.

X. Dong, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Energy efficiency of optical OFDM-based networks,” in Proc. IEEE Commun., 2013.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, W. D. Weber, and L. A. Barroso, “Power provisioning for a warehouse-sized computer,” ACM SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 13–23, 2007.

Fischer, A.

A. Fischer, M. T. Beck, H. De Meer, and X. Hesselbach, “Virtual network embedding: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1888–1906, 2013.

A. Fischer, J. F. Botero, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, X. Hesselbach, and H. DeMeer, “ALEVIN—A framework to develop, compare, and analyse virtual network embedding algorithms,” Electron. Commun. EASST, vol. 37, pp. 1–12, 2011.

Greenberg, A.

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Patel, “The cost of a cloud: Research problems in data center networks,” ACM SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 68–73, 2008.

Gruber, C. G.

J. C. Restrepo, C. G. Gruber, and C. M. Machuca, “Energy profile aware routing,” in Proc. IEEE Commun. Workshops, 2009.

Hammadi, A.

A. Hammadi and L. Mhamdi, “A survey on architectures and energy efficiency in data center networks,” Comput. Commun. vol. 40, pp. 1–21, 2014.

Hasan, M. M.

A. Belbekkouche, M. M. Hasan, and A. Karmouch, “Resource discovery and allocation in network virtualization,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1114–1128, 2012.

Hesselbach, X.

J. F. Botero and X. Hesselbach, “Greener networking in a network virtualization environment,” Comput. Netw., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2021–2039, 2013.

A. Fischer, J. F. Botero, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, X. Hesselbach, and H. DeMeer, “ALEVIN—A framework to develop, compare, and analyse virtual network embedding algorithms,” Electron. Commun. EASST, vol. 37, pp. 1–12, 2011.

Houidi, I.

I. Houidi, W. Louati, W. Ben Ameur, and D. Zeghlache, “Virtual network provisioning across multiple substrate networks,” Comp. Netw., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1011–1023, 2011.

I. Houidi, W. Louati, and D. Zeghlache, “A distributed virtual network mapping algorithm,” in Proc. EEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2008, pp. 5634–5640.

Idler, W.

E. Lach and W. Idler, “Modulation formats for 100G and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 2011.

Jain, R.

R. Jain and S. Paul, “Network virtualization and software defined networking for cloud computing: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 24–31, 2013.

Karmouch, A.

A. Belbekkouche, M. M. Hasan, and A. Karmouch, “Resource discovery and allocation in network virtualization,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1114–1128, 2012.

Lach, E.

E. Lach and W. Idler, “Modulation formats for 100G and beyond,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 377–386, 2011.

Lawey, A. Q.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “BitTorrent content distribution in optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 3607–3623, 2014.

A. Q. Lawey, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Distributed energy efficient clouds over core networks,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1261–1281, 2014.

Liu, J.

B. Wang, X. Chang, J. Liu, and J. K. Muppala, “Reducing power consumption in embedding virtual infrastructures,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 3–7, 2012, pp. 714–718.

Louati, W.

I. Houidi, W. Louati, and D. Zeghlache, “A distributed virtual network mapping algorithm,” in Proc. EEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2008, pp. 5634–5640.

Machuca, C. M.

J. C. Restrepo, C. G. Gruber, and C. M. Machuca, “Energy profile aware routing,” in Proc. IEEE Commun. Workshops, 2009.

Mahad, F. D.

F. D. Mahad, M. Supa’at, and A. Sahmah, “EDFA gain optimization for WDM system,” Elektrika, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 2009.

Mhamdi, L.

A. Hammadi and L. Mhamdi, “A survey on architectures and energy efficiency in data center networks,” Comput. Commun. vol. 40, pp. 1–21, 2014.

Muppala, J. K.

B. Wang, X. Chang, J. Liu, and J. K. Muppala, “Reducing power consumption in embedding virtual infrastructures,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 3–7, 2012, pp. 714–718.

Nonde, L.

L. Nonde, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Cloud virtual network embedding: Profit, power and acceptance,” submitted to IEEE Commun., 2015.

L. Nonde, T. E. H. Elgorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green virtual network embedding in optical OFDM cloud networks,” in Proc. 16th Int. Conf. IEEE Conf. Transp. Opt. Netw., 2014.

Paul, S.

R. Jain and S. Paul, “Network virtualization and software defined networking for cloud computing: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 24–31, 2013.

Rahman, M. R.

M. Chowdhury, M. R. Rahman, and R. Boutaba, “ViNEYard: Virtual network embedding algorithms with coordinated node and link mapping,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 20, 1, pp. 206–219, 2012.

Restrepo, J. C.

J. C. Restrepo, C. G. Gruber, and C. M. Machuca, “Energy profile aware routing,” in Proc. IEEE Commun. Workshops, 2009.

Sahmah, A.

F. D. Mahad, M. Supa’at, and A. Sahmah, “EDFA gain optimization for WDM system,” Elektrika, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 2009.

Schlosser, D.

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M. A. Sharkh, M. Jammal, A. Shami, and A. Ouda, “Resource allocation in a network-based cloud computing environment: Design challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 46–52, 2013.

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G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimised design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.

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S. Su, Z. Zhang, A.X. Liu, X. Cheng, Y. Wang, and X. Zhao, “Energy-aware virtual network embedding,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1607–1620, 2014.

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G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimised design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.

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B. Wang, X. Chang, J. Liu, and J. K. Muppala, “Reducing power consumption in embedding virtual infrastructures,” in Proc. IEEE Globecom Workshops, 3–7, 2012, pp. 714–718.

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Elektrika (1)

F. D. Mahad, M. Supa’at, and A. Sahmah, “EDFA gain optimization for WDM system,” Elektrika, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 2009.

IEEE Commun. (2)

J.F. Botero, X. Hesselbach, M. Duelli, D. Schlosser, A. Fischer, and H. De Meer, “Energy efficient virtual network embedding,” IEEE Commun., vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 756–759, 2012.

L. Nonde, T. E. H. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Cloud virtual network embedding: Profit, power and acceptance,” submitted to IEEE Commun., 2015.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

M. A. Sharkh, M. Jammal, A. Shami, and A. Ouda, “Resource allocation in a network-based cloud computing environment: Design challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 46–52, 2013.

R. Jain and S. Paul, “Network virtualization and software defined networking for cloud computing: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 24–31, 2013.

N. M. M. K. Chowdhury and R. Boutaba, “Network virtualization: State of the art and research challenges,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 20–26, 2009.

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A. Fischer, M. T. Beck, H. De Meer, and X. Hesselbach, “Virtual network embedding: A survey,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1888–1906, 2013.

A. Belbekkouche, M. M. Hasan, and A. Karmouch, “Resource discovery and allocation in network virtualization,” IEEE Commun. Surveys Tuts., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1114–1128, 2012.

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

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X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM networks with data centers,” IEEE J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

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G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimised design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 176–186, 2009.

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T. E. H. El-Gorashi, X. Dong, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing networks,” in IET Optoelectron., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 137–148, 2014.

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