Abstract

Widespread adoption of electro-optical circuit boards based on embedded glass waveguide technology would enable seamless optical connectivity from external fiber-optic networks to system embedded optical interconnect architectures. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of planar multimode waveguides within thin glass foils based on a two-step thermal ion exchange process. Novel lamination techniques were developed to allow glass waveguide panels to be reliably integrated into a conventional electronic multilayer printed circuit board. In addition, a complete suite of optical connector technologies were developed to enable both direct fiber-to-board and board-to-board connectivity. We present the design, development, and characterization of a fully integrated connection platform, comprising a $281 \times 233$ mm2 multilayer electro-optical backplane with integrated planar glass waveguides, a pluggable connector system, and five pluggable test cards. Both on-card and externally generated 850 and 1310-nm optical test data were conveyed through the connector and waveguide system and characterised for in-system and system-to-system optical connectivity at data rates up to 32 Gb/s per channel exhibiting bit error rates of less than $10^{-12}$ .

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  10. B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.
  11. T. Ishigure, “Graded-index core polymer optical waveguide for high-bandwidth-density optical printed circuit boards: fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Interconnects XIV, vol. 8991,pp. 899102–899110, 2014.
  12. Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 × 4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2852–2861, 2009.
  13. R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.
  14. R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.
  15. C. Hermanns and J. Middleton, “Laser separation of flat glass in electronic-, optic-, display- and bio-industry,” Photon Process. Microelectron. Photon. IV, vol. 5713, pp. 387–396, 2005.
  16. H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.
  17. L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

2014 (1)

T. Ishigure, “Graded-index core polymer optical waveguide for high-bandwidth-density optical printed circuit boards: fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Interconnects XIV, vol. 8991,pp. 899102–899110, 2014.

2013 (2)

R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.

2012 (2)

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

2010 (1)

D. Selviah, A. Walker, and D. Hutt, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 5–19, 2010.

2009 (2)

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 × 4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2852–2861, 2009.

2008 (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

2005 (1)

C. Hermanns and J. Middleton, “Laser separation of flat glass in electronic-, optic-, display- and bio-industry,” Photon Process. Microelectron. Photon. IV, vol. 5713, pp. 387–396, 2005.

Amb, C. M.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Arai, S.

Y. Ito, S. Terada, M. K. Singh, S. Arai, and K. Choki, “Demonstration of high-bandwidth data transmission above 240 Gbps for optoelectronic module with low-loss and low-crosstalk polynorbornene waveguides,” in Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., 2012, pp. 1526–1531.

Baghsiahi, H.

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Bajkowski, D.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Bamiedakis, N.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Beals, J.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Berger, C.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Berry, J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Beyeler, R.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Breed, S. K.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Brusberg, L.

R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Budd, R. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Calver, J.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Carver, C.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Chan, B.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Choki, K.

Y. Ito, S. Terada, M. K. Singh, S. Arai, and K. Choki, “Demonstration of high-bandwidth data transmission above 240 Gbps for optoelectronic module with low-loss and low-crosstalk polynorbornene waveguides,” in Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., 2012, pp. 1526–1531.

Clapp, T. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Conway, P. P.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Corporation, D. C.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Cost-effective, A.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Dangel, R.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Dangel, R. F.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Degroot, J. V

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Dellmann, L.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Deshazer, D. J.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Dorward, R. M.

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

Gmur, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Graham-Jones, J.

R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Hamelin, Ré.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Herbst, C.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Hermanns, C.

C. Hermanns and J. Middleton, “Laser separation of flat glass in electronic-, optic-, display- and bio-industry,” Photon Process. Microelectron. Photon. IV, vol. 5713, pp. 387–396, 2005.

Horst, F.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Huang, J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Hutt, D.

D. Selviah, A. Walker, and D. Hutt, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 5–19, 2010.

Hutt, D. A.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Ishigure, T.

T. Ishigure, “Graded-index core polymer optical waveguide for high-bandwidth-density optical printed circuit boards: fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Interconnects XIV, vol. 8991,pp. 899102–899110, 2014.

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 × 4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2852–2861, 2009.

Ito, Y.

Y. Ito, S. Terada, M. K. Singh, S. Arai, and K. Choki, “Demonstration of high-bandwidth data transmission above 240 Gbps for optoelectronic module with low-loss and low-crosstalk polynorbornene waveguides,” in Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., 2012, pp. 1526–1531.

Kandulski, W.

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Knickerbocker, J. U.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Kropp, J.-R.

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

Lamprecht, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Lang, K.-D.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Lee, B. G.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Libsch, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Lin, H.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Meier, N.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Member, S.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Middleton, J.

C. Hermanns and J. Middleton, “Laser separation of flat glass in electronic-, optic-, display- and bio-industry,” Photon Process. Microelectron. Photon. IV, vol. 5713, pp. 387–396, 2005.

Miller, A.

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Milward, D.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Morf, T.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Neitz, M.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Offrein, B.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Offrein, B. J.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Oggioni, S.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Papakonstantinou, I.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Penty, R. V

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Pitwon, R.

R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Pitwon, R. C. a.

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

Rd, W. S.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Roeder, J.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Rygate, J.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Schröder, H.

R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.

Schroeder, H.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

Selviah, D.

D. Selviah, A. Walker, and D. Hutt, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 5–19, 2010.

Selviah, D. R.

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Singh, M. K.

Y. Ito, S. Terada, M. K. Singh, S. Arai, and K. Choki, “Demonstration of high-bandwidth data transmission above 240 Gbps for optoelectronic module with low-loss and low-crosstalk polynorbornene waveguides,” in Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., 2012, pp. 1526–1531.

Spreafico, M.

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

Swatowski, B. W.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Symington, K.

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

Takeyoshi, Y.

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 × 4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2852–2861, 2009.

Terada, S.

Y. Ito, S. Terada, M. K. Singh, S. Arai, and K. Choki, “Demonstration of high-bandwidth data transmission above 240 Gbps for optoelectronic module with low-loss and low-crosstalk polynorbornene waveguides,” in Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., 2012, pp. 1526–1531.

Tsang, C. K.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Walker, A.

D. Selviah, A. Walker, and D. Hutt, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 5–19, 2010.

Wang, K.

R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Weidner, W. K.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Whalley, S.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

White, I. H.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

Zakariyah, S. S.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

Circuit World (1)

D. Selviah, A. Walker, and D. Hutt, “Integrated optical and electronic interconnect PCB manufacturing research,” Circuit World, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 5–19, 2010.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V Penty, S. Member, I. H. White, J. V Degroot, T. V. Clapp, and A. Cost-effective, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 415–424, 2009.

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. (1)

R. Dangel, C. Berger, R. Beyeler, L. Dellmann, M. Gmur, Ré. Hamelin, F. Horst, T. Lamprecht, T. Morf, S. Oggioni, M. Spreafico, and B. J. Offrein, “Polymer-waveguide-based board-level optical interconnect technology for datacom applications,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 759–767, 2008.

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

R. C. A. Pitwon, K. Wang, J. Graham-Jones, I. Papakonstantinou, H. Baghsiahi, B. Offrein, R. Dangel, D. Milward, and D. R. Selviah, “FirstLight: Pluggable optical interconnect technologies for polymeric electro-optical printed circuit boards in data centers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 21, pp. 3316–3329, 2012.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, S. Member, B. G. Lee, R. A. Budd, C. W. Baks, C. K. Tsang, J. U. Knickerbocker, R. Dangel, B. Chan, H. Lin, C. Carver, J. Huang, J. Berry, D. Bajkowski, F. Libsch, and J. A. Kash, “Terabit/s-class optical PCB links incorporating optical transceivers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 560–571, 2012.

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 × 4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 2852–2861, 2009.

H. Baghsiahi, K. Wang, W. Kandulski, R. C. a. Pitwon, and D. R. Selviah, “Optical waveguide end facet roughness and optical coupling loss,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 16, pp. 2659–2668, 2013.

Opt. Interconnects XIV (1)

T. Ishigure, “Graded-index core polymer optical waveguide for high-bandwidth-density optical printed circuit boards: fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Interconnects XIV, vol. 8991,pp. 899102–899110, 2014.

Photon Process. Microelectron. Photon. IV (1)

C. Hermanns and J. Middleton, “Laser separation of flat glass in electronic-, optic-, display- and bio-industry,” Photon Process. Microelectron. Photon. IV, vol. 5713, pp. 387–396, 2005.

Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII (1)

R. Pitwon, H. Schröder, L. Brusberg, J. Graham-Jones, and K. Wang, “Embedded planar glass waveguide optical interconnect for data centre applications,” in Proc. SPIE, Optoelectron. Interconnects XIII, vol. 8630, p. 86300Z, 2013.

Other (7)

R. M. Dorward, K. Symington, L. Brusberg, J.-R. Kropp, A. Miller, R. Pitwon, and S. Whalley, “Market drivers and architectural requirements for backplane inter-connect capacities in next generation PON head-end equipment in the access network,” in Proc. 15th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw., 2013, pp. 1–4.

L. Brusberg, H. Schroeder, R. Pitwon, S. Whalley, C. Herbst, A. Miller, M. Neitz, J. Roeder, and K.-D. Lang, “Optical backplane for board-to-board interconnection based on a glass panel gradient-index multimode waveguide technology,” in Proc. IEEE 63rd Electron. Compon.Technol. Conf., 2013, pp. 260–267.

S. S. Zakariyah, P. P. Conway, D. A. Hutt, D. R. Selviah, K. Wang, H. Baghsiahi, J. Rygate, J. Calver, and W. Kandulski, “Polymer optical waveguide fabrication using laser ablation,” in Proc. Electron. Packag. Technol. Conf., 2009, pp. 936–941.

B. W. Swatowski, C. M. Amb, S. K. Breed, D. J. Deshazer, W. K. Weidner, D. C. Corporation, W. S. Rd, R. F. Dangel, N. Meier, and B. J. Offrein, “Flexible, stable, and easily processable optical silicones for low loss polymer waveguides,” SPIE Proc., vol. 8622, pp. 862205–862215, 2013.

Y. Ito, S. Terada, M. K. Singh, S. Arai, and K. Choki, “Demonstration of high-bandwidth data transmission above 240 Gbps for optoelectronic module with low-loss and low-crosstalk polynorbornene waveguides,” in Proc. Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf., 2012, pp. 1526–1531.

Avago Technologies. (2014, Aug. 4). MicroPODTM and minipodTM 120g transmitters/receivers. [Online]. Available: http://www.avagotech.com/pages/minipod_micropod.

“Optical Engines— Finisar.”. (2014, 4). [Online]. Available: http://www.finisar.com/products/optical-engines.

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