Abstract

A truly passive long-reach, symmetric 40-Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) with a high loss budget is demonstrated, using direct modulation and direct detection in both upstream and downstream directions. Thermally tuned directly modulated lasers (DMLs) are employed to serve as both upstream and downstream transmitters, not only owing to their low cost, but also, as a carrier-less modulation method, where the signal generated by direct modulation is demonstrated to be more robust to high launch power induced fiber nonlinearities compared with external intensity modulation formats with strong carrier power. Therefore, DML is suitable for applying in TWDM-PON to achieve a high loss budget. Moreover, the frequency chirp induced dispersion of directly-modulated signal is managed thanks to the combination of optical spectral reshaping and dispersion supported transmission effects, which makes it possible for the directly-modulated signal to reach a distance of 100 km and still with a good quality. As a result, a system loss budget of 53 dB is achieved, supporting more than 1000 users with 100-km purely passive reach, which is the first demonstration of high loss budget, long reach TWDM-PONs to our best knowledge.

© 2014 OAPA

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  1. http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.989.1/e ITU-T Recommendation G.989.1, Mar. 2013.
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  14. M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.
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  16. E. Wong, M. Müller, and M. Amann, “Colourless operation of short-cavity VCSELs in C-minus band for TWDM-PONs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 282–284, 2013.
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  18. Z. Li, L. Yi, and W. Hu, “Comparison of downstream transmitters for high loss budget of long-reach 10G-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Tu2C.4.
  19. B. Wedding, B. Franz, and B. Junginger, “10-Gb/s optical transmission up to 253 km via standard single-mode fiber using the method of dispersion-supported transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1720–1727, 1994.
  20. S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.
  21. R. Derek Nesset, M. P. Gorena, and M. Yates, “Economic study comparing raman extended GPON and mid-span GPON reach extenders,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper NMC2.
  22. B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and GPON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Th.13.B.5.

2014 (1)

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, N. Cheng, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433, 2014.

2013 (3)

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON With 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 644–647, 2013.

E. Wong, M. Müller, and M. Amann, “Colourless operation of short-cavity VCSELs in C-minus band for TWDM-PONs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 282–284, 2013.

2011 (2)

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

2010 (1)

Z.-R. Lin, C.-K. Liu, Y.-J. Jhang, and G. Keiser, “Tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for WDM access networks,” Opt. Exp, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 17610–17619, 2010.

2009 (1)

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

2007 (1)

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693, 2007.

2005 (1)

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

1994 (1)

B. Wedding, B. Franz, and B. Junginger, “10-Gb/s optical transmission up to 253 km via standard single-mode fiber using the method of dispersion-supported transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1720–1727, 1994.

Amann, M.

E. Wong, M. Müller, and M. Amann, “Colourless operation of short-cavity VCSELs in C-minus band for TWDM-PONs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 282–284, 2013.

Appathurai, S.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Au, D.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and GPON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Th.13.B.5.

Bi, M.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON With 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 644–647, 2013.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

Brinton, C.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Buhl, L.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Buhl, L. L.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Caballero, A.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, N. Cheng, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433, 2014.

Cappuzzo, M.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Chanclou, P.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Chand, N.

N. Cheng, X. Yan, N. Chand, and F. Effenberger, “10 Gb/s upstream transmission in TWDM PON using duobinary and PAM-4 modulations with directly modulated tunable DBR laser,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper ATh3E.4.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Chang, F.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Chen, E.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Cheng, N.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, N. Cheng, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433, 2014.

N. Cheng, X. Yan, N. Chand, and F. Effenberger, “10 Gb/s upstream transmission in TWDM PON using duobinary and PAM-4 modulations with directly modulated tunable DBR laser,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper ATh3E.4.

Cusick, T.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Davey, R. P.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Derek Nesset, R.

R. Derek Nesset, M. P. Gorena, and M. Yates, “Economic study comparing raman extended GPON and mid-span GPON reach extenders,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper NMC2.

Doerr, C. R.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Effenberger, F.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

N. Cheng, X. Yan, N. Chand, and F. Effenberger, “10 Gb/s upstream transmission in TWDM PON using duobinary and PAM-4 modulations with directly modulated tunable DBR laser,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper ATh3E.4.

Fan, Z.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Franz, B.

B. Wedding, B. Franz, and B. Junginger, “10-Gb/s optical transmission up to 253 km via standard single-mode fiber using the method of dispersion-supported transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1720–1727, 1994.

Geller, B.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

Gomez, L.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Gong, M.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Gorena, M. P.

R. Derek Nesset, M. P. Gorena, and M. Yates, “Economic study comparing raman extended GPON and mid-span GPON reach extenders,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper NMC2.

Grossman, B.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Guo, W.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

Han, J.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

He, H.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

Honkanen, S.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Hu, W.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON With 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 644–647, 2013.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Z. Li, L. Yi, and W. Hu, “Comparison of downstream transmitters for high loss budget of long-reach 10G-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Tu2C.4.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

Huang, M.-F.

D. Qian, E. Mateo, and M.-F. Huang, “A 105 km reach fully passive 10G-PON using a novel digital OLT,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper. Tu.1.B.2.

Iannone, P.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Jensen, J. B.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, N. Cheng, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433, 2014.

Jhang, Y.-J.

Z.-R. Lin, C.-K. Liu, Y.-J. Jhang, and G. Keiser, “Tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for WDM access networks,” Opt. Exp, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 17610–17619, 2010.

Johnson, J.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Junginger, B.

B. Wedding, B. Franz, and B. Junginger, “10-Gb/s optical transmission up to 253 km via standard single-mode fiber using the method of dispersion-supported transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1720–1727, 1994.

Kanan, A.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Keiser, G.

Z.-R. Lin, C.-K. Liu, Y.-J. Jhang, and G. Keiser, “Tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for WDM access networks,” Opt. Exp, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 17610–17619, 2010.

Kelly, A.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Khan, F.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and GPON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Th.13.B.5.

Kimber, M.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Küppers, F.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Lavery, D.

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., 2011, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Paper. OTuB4.

Le, Q. T.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Lentz, J.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Li, J.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

Li, Y.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and GPON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Th.13.B.5.

Li, Z.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON With 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 644–647, 2013.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

Z. Li, L. Yi, and W. Hu, “Comparison of downstream transmitters for high loss budget of long-reach 10G-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Tu2C.4.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Lin, Z.-R.

Z.-R. Lin, C.-K. Liu, Y.-J. Jhang, and G. Keiser, “Tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for WDM access networks,” Opt. Exp, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 17610–17619, 2010.

Liu, C.-K.

Z.-R. Lin, C.-K. Liu, Y.-J. Jhang, and G. Keiser, “Tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for WDM access networks,” Opt. Exp, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 17610–17619, 2010.

Luo, Y.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

Ma, Y.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

Mahgerefteh, D.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Mateo, E.

D. Qian, E. Mateo, and M.-F. Huang, “A 105 km reach fully passive 10G-PON using a novel digital OLT,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper. Tu.1.B.2.

Matsui, Y.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Mattila, M.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

McCallion, K.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Mitchell, J. E.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693, 2007.

Monroy, I. T.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, N. Cheng, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433, 2014.

Müller, M.

E. Wong, M. Müller, and M. Amann, “Colourless operation of short-cavity VCSELs in C-minus band for TWDM-PONs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 282–284, 2013.

Nakagawa, J.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Nesset, D.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Pálsdóttir, B.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Payne, D. B.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Peng, G.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

Qian, D.

D. Qian, E. Mateo, and M.-F. Huang, “A 105 km reach fully passive 10G-PON using a novel digital OLT,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper. Tu.1.B.2.

Qian, Y.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

Rafel, A.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Rasztovits-Wiech, M.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Reichmann, K.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Rodes, R.

J. B. Jensen, R. Rodes, A. Caballero, N. Cheng, D. Zibar, and I. T. Monroy, “VCSEL based coherent PONs,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1423–1433, 2014.

Saliou, F.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Savory, S.

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., 2011, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Paper. OTuB4.

Shea, D. P.

D. P. Shea and J. E. Mitchell, “A 10-Gb/s 1024-way-split 100-km long-reach optical-access network,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 685–693, 2007.

Shen, C.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Spiekman, L.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Tayebati, P.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Tervonen, A.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Tokle, T.

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

Torrengo, E.

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., 2011, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Paper. OTuB4.

von Lerber, T.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Wang, X.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

Wedding, B.

B. Wedding, B. Franz, and B. Junginger, “10-Gb/s optical transmission up to 253 km via standard single-mode fiber using the method of dispersion-supported transmission,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1720–1727, 1994.

Wei, W.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON With 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 644–647, 2013.

Weiershausen, W.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Wong, E.

E. Wong, M. Müller, and M. Amann, “Colourless operation of short-cavity VCSELs in C-minus band for TWDM-PONs,” Electron. Lett., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 282–284, 2013.

Xia, R.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Xiao, S.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Yan, X.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

N. Cheng, X. Yan, N. Chand, and F. Effenberger, “10 Gb/s upstream transmission in TWDM PON using duobinary and PAM-4 modulations with directly modulated tunable DBR laser,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper ATh3E.4.

Yang, S.-H.

R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

Yang, X.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Yates, M.

R. Derek Nesset, M. P. Gorena, and M. Yates, “Economic study comparing raman extended GPON and mid-span GPON reach extenders,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper NMC2.

Yi, L.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON With 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 644–647, 2013.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

Z. Li, L. Yi, and W. Hu, “Comparison of downstream transmitters for high loss budget of long-reach 10G-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Tu2C.4.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

Yu, J.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

Zheng, X.

S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, Y. Matsui, D. Mahgerefteh, X. Zheng, K. McCallion, Z. Fan, and P. Tayebati, “Repeaterless transmission with negative penalty over 285 km at 10 Gb/s using a chirp managed laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 2454–2456, 2005.

Zhou, X.

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 587–593, 2013.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

Zhou, Z.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

Zhu, B.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and GPON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Th.13.B.5.

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

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Electron. Lett. (1)

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON With 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 644–647, 2013.

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R. P. Davey, B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, and S.-H. Yang, “Long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 273–280, 2009.

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Opt. Exp (1)

Z.-R. Lin, C.-K. Liu, Y.-J. Jhang, and G. Keiser, “Tunable directly modulated fiber ring laser using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for WDM access networks,” Opt. Exp, vol. 18, no. 17, pp. 17610–17619, 2010.

Opt. Exp. (2)

M. Zhu, S. Xiao, Z. Zhou, W. Guo, L. Yi, M. Bi, W. Hu, and B. Geller, “An upstream multi-wavelength shared PON based on tunable self-seeding fabry-pérot laser diode for upstream capacity upgrade and wavelength multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 8000–8010, 2011.

T. von Lerber, A. Tervonen, F. Saliou, Q. T. Le, P. Chanclou, R. Xia, M. Mattila, W. Weiershausen, S. Honkanen, and F. Küppers, “Saturated collision amplifier reach extender for XGPON1 and TDM/DWDM PON,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 26, pp. B645–B652, 2011.

Other (11)

P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, C. Brinton, J. Nakagawa, T. Cusick, M. Kimber, C. R. Doerr, L. Buhl, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, J. Johnson, A. Kanan, J. Lentz, F. Chang, B. Pálsdóttir, T. Tokle, and L. Spiekman, “Bi-directionally amplified extended reach 40 Gb/s CWDM-TDM PON with burst-mode upstream transmission,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2011, Paper. PDPD6.

D. Lavery, E. Torrengo, and S. Savory, “Bidirectional 10 Gbit/s long-reach WDM-PON using digital coherent receivers,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., 2011, Los Angeles, CA, USA, Paper. OTuB4.

D. Qian, E. Mateo, and M.-F. Huang, “A 105 km reach fully passive 10G-PON using a novel digital OLT,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper. Tu.1.B.2.

L. Yi, Z. Li, W. Hu, X. Yang, S. Xiao, H. He, J. Han, M. Gong, and C. Shen, “First demonstration of symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 100-km passive reach and 1024-split using direct modulation and direct detection,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper PDP 1870439.

http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.989.1/e ITU-T Recommendation G.989.1, Mar. 2013.

Z. Li, L. Yi, and W. Hu, “Comparison of downstream transmitters for high loss budget of long-reach 10G-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Tu2C.4.

Y. Ma, Y. Qian, G. Peng, X. Zhou, X. Wang, J. Yu, Y. Luo, X. Yan, and F. Effenberger, “Demonstration of a 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network prototype system,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper. PDP5D.7.

N. Cheng, X. Yan, N. Chand, and F. Effenberger, “10 Gb/s upstream transmission in TWDM PON using duobinary and PAM-4 modulations with directly modulated tunable DBR laser,” presented at the Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhib., Beijing, China, 2013, Paper ATh3E.4.

Z. Li, L. Yi, M. Bi, J. Li, H. He, X. Yang, and W. Hu, “Experimental demonstration of a symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, Paper. NTh4F.3.

R. Derek Nesset, M. P. Gorena, and M. Yates, “Economic study comparing raman extended GPON and mid-span GPON reach extenders,” presented at the Opt. Fiber. Commun. Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2010, Paper NMC2.

B. Zhu, D. Au, F. Khan, and Y. Li, “Coexistence of 10G-PON and GPON reach extension to 50-km with entirely passive fiber plant,” presented at the Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Geneva, Switzerland, 2011, Paper Th.13.B.5.

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