Abstract

The rapidly growing IPTV market has resulted in increased traffic volumes raising concerns over Internet energy consumption. In this paper, we explore the dynamics of TV viewing behavior and program popularity in order to devise a strategy to minimize energy usage. We evaluate the impact of our strategy by calculating the power consumption of IPTV delivered over an IP-over-WDM network, considering both standard definition and high definition TV. Caches are used to reduce energy consumption by storing the most popular programs at nodes closer to the end user. We then use our knowledge of viewing behaviors to generate a time-driven content replacement strategy to maximize cache hit ratios and minimize energy use. We develop a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to evaluate the power consumption of the network while performing time-driven content replacements on caches and validate the results by simulation. Finally, we extend our model to perform content replacements on caches with sleep-mode capabilities which can save power by reducing their size. Our results show that time-based content replacements with such variable caches increase cache hit ratios and so reduces the overall power consumption by up to 86% compared to no caching. Our findings also show that more power savings are achieved for high definition TV compared to standard definition TV, so this strategy will be beneficial in the long term.

© 2014 IEEE

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2014 (1)

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

2013 (1)

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Caching in green IP over WDM networks,” J. High-Speed Netw. (Green Netw. Comput.), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 2013.

2012 (1)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1931–1942, 2012.

2011 (2)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM with data centers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

2009 (2)

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 167–186, 2009.

J. Elerath and M. Pecht, “A highly accurate method for assessing reliability of redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 289–299, 2009.

2006 (1)

N. Singhal, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.

2005 (1)

Q. Zhu and Y. Zhou, “Power-aware storage cache management,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 587–602, 2005.

Boszormenyi, L.

S. Podlipnig and L. Boszormenyi, “Replacement strategies for quality based video caching,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo., 2002, vol. 2, pp. 49–52.

Caria, M.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” Proc. IEEE 12th Int. Conf. High Performance Switching Routing, 2011, pp. 70–76.

Chamania, M.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” Proc. IEEE 12th Int. Conf. High Performance Switching Routing, 2011, pp. 70–76.

Chen, M. S.

H. P. Hung and M. S. Chen, “Maximizing the profit for cache replacement in a transcoding proxy,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo., 2005, pp. 1162–1165.

Colle, D.

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

Demeester, P.

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

Diot, C.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. Massoulie, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Emerging Netw. Exp. Technol., 2009, pp. 37–48.

Dixit, S.

S. Dixit, IP OVER WDM: Building the Next-Generation Optical Internet. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2003.

Dong, X.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1931–1942, 2012.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM with data centers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

Elerath, J.

J. Elerath and M. Pecht, “A highly accurate method for assessing reliability of redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 289–299, 2009.

El-Gorashi, T.

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Caching in green IP over WDM networks,” J. High-Speed Netw. (Green Netw. Comput.), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 2013.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1931–1942, 2012.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM with data centers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Reduction of energy consumption of video-on-demand services using cache size optimization,” presented at the 8th Int. Conf. Wireless Opt. Commun. Netw., Paris, France, May 2011.

Elmirghani, J. M. H.

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Caching in green IP over WDM networks,” J. High-Speed Netw. (Green Netw. Comput.), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 2013.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1931–1942, 2012.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM with data centers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Reduction of energy consumption of video-on-demand services using cache size optimization,” presented at the 8th Int. Conf. Wireless Opt. Commun. Netw., Paris, France, May 2011.

Eom, Y. I.

H. J. Roh, Y. Kim, K. S. Ko, and Y. I. Eom, “Design of a content replacement scheme using the p-based LRFU-k algorithm in contents delivery networks,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Adv. Commun. Technol., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 2067–2070.

Feldmann,

Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun. Internet Media Technol. Econ., 2010, pp. 1–6.

Gladisch, A.

Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun. Internet Media Technol. Econ., 2010, pp. 1–6.

Heddeghem, W. V.

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

Hung, H. P.

H. P. Hung and M. S. Chen, “Maximizing the profit for cache replacement in a transcoding proxy,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo., 2005, pp. 1162–1165.

Ito, M. B.

B. Sonah and M. B. Ito, “New adaptive object replacement policy for video-on-demand systems,” in Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Modeling, Anal. Simul. Comput. Telecommun. Syst., pp. 13–18, 1998.

Jukan, A.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” Proc. IEEE 12th Int. Conf. High Performance Switching Routing, 2011, pp. 70–76.

Kim, Y.

H. J. Roh, Y. Kim, K. S. Ko, and Y. I. Eom, “Design of a content replacement scheme using the p-based LRFU-k algorithm in contents delivery networks,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Adv. Commun. Technol., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 2067–2070.

Kind, M.

Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun. Internet Media Technol. Econ., 2010, pp. 1–6.

Ko, K. S.

H. J. Roh, Y. Kim, K. S. Ko, and Y. I. Eom, “Design of a content replacement scheme using the p-based LRFU-k algorithm in contents delivery networks,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Adv. Commun. Technol., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 2067–2070.

Lambert, S.

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

Lange, C.

Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun. Internet Media Technol. Econ., 2010, pp. 1–6.

Lannoo, B.

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

Laoutaris, N.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. Massoulie, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Emerging Netw. Exp. Technol., 2009, pp. 37–48.

Le, D. Danh

D. Danh Le, M. Molnar, and J. Palaysi, “An improved multicast routing algorithm in sparse splitting WDM networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Comput., Manage. Telecommun., 2013, pp. 99–104.

Massoulie, L.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. Massoulie, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Emerging Netw. Exp. Technol., 2009, pp. 37–48.

Molnar, M.

D. Danh Le, M. Molnar, and J. Palaysi, “An improved multicast routing algorithm in sparse splitting WDM networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Comput., Manage. Telecommun., 2013, pp. 99–104.

Mukherjee, B.

N. Singhal, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.

Osman, N. I.

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Caching in green IP over WDM networks,” J. High-Speed Netw. (Green Netw. Comput.), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 2013.

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Reduction of energy consumption of video-on-demand services using cache size optimization,” presented at the 8th Int. Conf. Wireless Opt. Commun. Netw., Paris, France, May 2011.

Palaysi, J.

D. Danh Le, M. Molnar, and J. Palaysi, “An improved multicast routing algorithm in sparse splitting WDM networks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Comput., Manage. Telecommun., 2013, pp. 99–104.

Pecht, M.

J. Elerath and M. Pecht, “A highly accurate method for assessing reliability of redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 289–299, 2009.

Pickavet, M.

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

Podlipnig, S.

S. Podlipnig and L. Boszormenyi, “Replacement strategies for quality based video caching,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo., 2002, vol. 2, pp. 49–52.

Rodriguez, P.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. Massoulie, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Emerging Netw. Exp. Technol., 2009, pp. 37–48.

Roh, H. J.

H. J. Roh, Y. Kim, K. S. Ko, and Y. I. Eom, “Design of a content replacement scheme using the p-based LRFU-k algorithm in contents delivery networks,” in Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Adv. Commun. Technol., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 2067–2070.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

N. Singhal, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.

Shen, G.

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 167–186, 2009.

Singhal, N.

N. Singhal, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.

Smaragdakis, G.

Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun. Internet Media Technol. Econ., 2010, pp. 1–6.

Sonah, B.

B. Sonah and M. B. Ito, “New adaptive object replacement policy for video-on-demand systems,” in Proc. 6th Int. Symp. Modeling, Anal. Simul. Comput. Telecommun. Syst., pp. 13–18, 1998.

Tucker, R. S.

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 167–186, 2009.

Valancius, V.

V. Valancius, N. Laoutaris, L. Massoulie, C. Diot, and P. Rodriguez, “Greening the internet with nano data centers,” in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Emerging Netw. Exp. Technol., 2009, pp. 37–48.

Westphal, F.

Feldmann, A. Gladisch, M. Kind, C. Lange, G. Smaragdakis, and F. Westphal, “Energy trade-offs among content delivery architectures,” in Proc. 9th Conf. Telecommun. Internet Media Technol. Econ., 2010, pp. 1–6.

Zhou, Y.

Q. Zhu and Y. Zhou, “Power-aware storage cache management,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 587–602, 2005.

Zhu, Q.

Q. Zhu and Y. Zhou, “Power-aware storage cache management,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 587–602, 2005.

IEEE Trans. Comput. (2)

Q. Zhu and Y. Zhou, “Power-aware storage cache management,” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 587–602, 2005.

J. Elerath and M. Pecht, “A highly accurate method for assessing reliability of redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAID),” IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 289–299, 2009.

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

N. Singhal, L. Sahasrabuddhe, and B. Mukherjee, “Optimal multicasting of multiple light-trees of different bandwidth granularities in a WDM mesh network with sparse splitting capabilities,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1104–1117, 2006.

IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Green IP over WDM with data centers,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1861–1880, 2011.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “On the energy efficiency of physical topology design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1931–1942, 2012.

X. Dong, T. El-Gorashi and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “IP over WDM networks employing renewable energy sources,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 3–14, 2011.

IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

G. Shen and R. S. Tucker, “Energy-minimized design for IP over WDM networks,” IEEE/OSA J. Opt. Commun. Netw., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 167–186, 2009.

J. High-Speed Netw. (Green Netw. Comput.) (1)

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Caching in green IP over WDM networks,” J. High-Speed Netw. (Green Netw. Comput.), vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33–53, 2013.

the J. Comput. Commun. (1)

W. V. Heddeghem, S. Lambert, B. Lannoo, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and P. Demeester, “Trends in worldwide ICT electricity consumption from 2007 to 2012,” accepted for publication in the J. Comput. Commun., 2014.

Other (28)

N. I. Osman, T. El-Gorashi, and J. M. H. Elmirghani, “Reduction of energy consumption of video-on-demand services using cache size optimization,” presented at the 8th Int. Conf. Wireless Opt. Commun. Netw., Paris, France, May 2011.

Global IPTV Forecast 2011–2015, Multimedia Research Group, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ, USA, 2012.

M. Caria, M. Chamania, and A. Jukan, “To switch on or off: A simple case study on energy efficiency in IP-over-WDM networks,” Proc. IEEE 12th Int. Conf. High Performance Switching Routing, 2011, pp. 70–76.

S. Podlipnig and L. Boszormenyi, “Replacement strategies for quality based video caching,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo., 2002, vol. 2, pp. 49–52.

H. P. Hung and M. S. Chen, “Maximizing the profit for cache replacement in a transcoding proxy,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Multimedia Expo., 2005, pp. 1162–1165.

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