Abstract

Multibeam angle adaptive systems (MBAAS) have been shown to offer performance improvements over traditional spot-diffusing optical wireless systems. However, an increase in the computational cost is incurred. This paper introduces a method to speed up the adaptation process through efficient use of a divide and conquer algorithm by recursively breaking down the scanning process and focusing it into a smaller region in each iteration. The new, fast and efficient angle adaptation algorithm offers the advantages of optimizing the number and pattern (positions) of the spots so as to maximize the receiver's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), regardless of the transmitter's position, the receiver's orientation and its field of view. It can also adapt to environmental changes, providing a robust link against shadowing and signal blockage. Furthermore, a beam delay adaptation method is used to reduce the effect of multipath dispersion and inter-symbol interference. The combination of angle and delay adaptation adds a degree of freedom to the link design, resulting in a compact impulse response and a system that is able to achieve higher data rates (15 Gbit/s). Significant improvements in the SNR, with optical wireless channel bandwidths of more than 15 GHz are obtained, and eye safety is considered while operating at 15 Gbit/s with full mobility in a realistic environment where shadowing exists.

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2013 (1)

T. Fath, C. Heller, H. Haas, "Optical wireless transmitter employing discrete power level stepping," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 1734-1743 (2013).

2012 (3)

M. T. Alresheedi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "10 Gbit/s indoor optical wireless systems employing beam delay, power and angle adaptation methods with imaging detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 30 , 1843-1856 (2012).

D. O’Brien, R. Turnbull, H. L. Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, M. El Tabach, E. Gueutier, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, J. Li, "High-speed optical wireless demonstrators conclusions and future directions," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2181-2187 (2012).

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Analysis of indoor multiple-input multiple-output coherent optical wireless systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 317-324 (2012).

2006 (1)

C. J. Henderson, D. G. Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, "Free space adaptive optical interconnect at 1.25 Gb/s, with beam steering using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal SLM," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1989 -1997 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Performance comparison of LSMS and conventional diffuse and hybrid wireless techniques in a real indoor environment," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Line strip spot-diffusing transmitter configuration for optical wireless systems influenced by background noise and multipath dispersion," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 37-45 (2004).

2002 (1)

K. Alkhavan, M. Kavehard, S. Jivkova, "High-speed power-efficient indoor wireless infrared communication using code combining—Part I," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1495-1502 (2002).

2000 (3)

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehard, "Multispot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970-978 (2000).

H. Xu, B. Davey, D. Timothy, D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, "Optically enhancing the small electro-optical effect of a fast-switching liquid-crystal mixture ," Opt. Eng. 39, 1568-1572 (2000).

P. Djahani, J. Kahn, " Analysis of infrared wireless links employing multibeam transmitter and imaging diversity receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 2077 -2088 (2000).

1997 (2)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85 , 265-298 (1997).

A. J. C. Moreira, R. T. Valadas, A. M. De Oliveira Duarte, "Optical interference produced by artificial light," Wireless Netw. 3 , 131-140 (1997).

1996 (3)

G. W. Marsh, J. M. Kahn, "Performance evaluation of experimental 50-Mb/s diffuse infrared wireless link using on-off keying with decision-feedback equalization," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44 , 1496-1504 (1996).

J. M. H. Elmirghani, H. H. Chan, R. A. Cryan, "Sensitivity evaluation of optical wireless PPM systems utilizing PIN-BJT receivers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 355-359 (1996).

P. L. Eardley, D. R. Wisely, D. Wood, P. McKee, "Holograms for optical wireless LANs," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 365-369 (1996).

1994 (1)

G. W. Marsh, J. M. Kahn, "50-Mb/s diffuse infrared free-space link using on-off keying with decision-feedback equalization ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1268-1270 (1994).

1993 (1)

E. Kimber, B. Patel, A. Hadjifotiou, "12 GHz PIN-HEMT optical receiver front end," IEE Colloq. Opt. Detector Receivers 701-710 (1993).

1979 (1)

F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, "Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation," Proc. IEEE 67, 1474-1486 (1979).

1973 (1)

S. D. Personick, "Receiver design for digital fiber optical communication system—Part I and II," Bell Syst. Technol. J. 52, 843-886 (1973).

Proc. IEEE (1)

F. R. Gfeller, U. H. Bapst, "Wireless in-house data communication via diffuse infrared radiation," Proc. IEEE 67, 1474-1486 (1979).

Bell Syst. Technol. J. (1)

S. D. Personick, "Receiver design for digital fiber optical communication system—Part I and II," Bell Syst. Technol. J. 52, 843-886 (1973).

IEE Colloq. Opt. Detector Receivers (1)

E. Kimber, B. Patel, A. Hadjifotiou, "12 GHz PIN-HEMT optical receiver front end," IEE Colloq. Opt. Detector Receivers 701-710 (1993).

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

P. L. Eardley, D. R. Wisely, D. Wood, P. McKee, "Holograms for optical wireless LANs," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 365-369 (1996).

IEE Proc. Optelectron. (1)

A. C. Boucouvalas, "Indoor ambient light noise and its effect on wireless optical links," IEE Proc. Optelectron. 143, 334-38 (1996 ).

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

J. M. H. Elmirghani, H. H. Chan, R. A. Cryan, "Sensitivity evaluation of optical wireless PPM systems utilizing PIN-BJT receivers," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 143, 355-359 (1996).

IEE Proc. Optoelectron. (1)

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Performance comparison of LSMS and conventional diffuse and hybrid wireless techniques in a real indoor environment," IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 152, 199-204 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

S. Jivkova, M. Kavehard, "Multispot diffusing configuration for wireless infrared access," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 970-978 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. R. Barry, J. M. Krause, E. A. Lee, D. G. Messerschmitt, "Simulation of multipath impulse response for indoor wireless optical channels," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 11, 367-379 (1993 ).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. W. Marsh, J. M. Kahn, "50-Mb/s diffuse infrared free-space link using on-off keying with decision-feedback equalization ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1268-1270 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

K. Alkhavan, M. Kavehard, S. Jivkova, "High-speed power-efficient indoor wireless infrared communication using code combining—Part I," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1495-1502 (2002).

A. G. Al-Ghamdi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Line strip spot-diffusing transmitter configuration for optical wireless systems influenced by background noise and multipath dispersion," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 37-45 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

G. W. Marsh, J. M. Kahn, "Performance evaluation of experimental 50-Mb/s diffuse infrared wireless link using on-off keying with decision-feedback equalization," IEEE Trans. Commun. 44 , 1496-1504 (1996).

P. Djahani, J. Kahn, " Analysis of infrared wireless links employing multibeam transmitter and imaging diversity receivers," IEEE Trans. Commun. 48, 2077 -2088 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

P. Viswanath, D. N. C. Tse, R. Laroia, "Opportunistic beamforming using dumb antennas," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 48, 1277-1294 (2002 ).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

D. O’Brien, R. Turnbull, H. L. Minh, G. Faulkner, O. Bouchet, P. Porcon, M. El Tabach, E. Gueutier, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, J. Li, "High-speed optical wireless demonstrators conclusions and future directions," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2181-2187 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

G. Ntogari, T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Analysis of indoor multiple-input multiple-output coherent optical wireless systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 317-324 (2012).

T. Fath, C. Heller, H. Haas, "Optical wireless transmitter employing discrete power level stepping," J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 1734-1743 (2013).

K. Wang, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, E. Skafidas, "4 × 12.5 Gb/s WDM optical wireless communication system for indoor applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1988-1996 (2011 ).

M. T. Alresheedi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "10 Gbit/s indoor optical wireless systems employing beam delay, power and angle adaptation methods with imaging detection," J. Lightw. Technol. 30 , 1843-1856 (2012).

F. E. Alsaadi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "High-speed spot diffusing mobile optical wireless system employing beam angle and power adaptation and imaging receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2191-2206 (2010 ).

C. J. Henderson, D. G. Leyva, T. D. Wilkinson, "Free space adaptive optical interconnect at 1.25 Gb/s, with beam steering using a ferroelectric liquid-crystal SLM," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1989 -1997 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Xu, B. Davey, D. Timothy, D. Wilkinson, W. A. Crossland, "Optically enhancing the small electro-optical effect of a fast-switching liquid-crystal mixture ," Opt. Eng. 39, 1568-1572 (2000).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. M. Kahn, J. R. Barry, "Wireless infrared communications," Proc. IEEE 85 , 265-298 (1997).

submitted to J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. T. Alresheedi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "High-speed indoor optical wireless links employing fast angle and power adaptive computer-generated holograms with imaging receivers," submitted to J. Lightw. Technol. .

Wireless Netw. (1)

A. J. C. Moreira, R. T. Valadas, A. M. De Oliveira Duarte, "Optical interference produced by artificial light," Wireless Netw. 3 , 131-140 (1997).

Other (10)

S. Zahedi, J. A. Salehi, M. Nasiri-Kenari, "A photon counting approachto the performance aalysis of indoors wireless infrared CDMA networks," Proc. IEEE PIMRC’00 (2000, vol. 2) pp. 928-932.

M. A. Alhartomi, F. E. Alsaadi, J. M. H. Elmirghani, "Mobile optical wireless system using fast beam angle, delay and power adaptation with angle diversity receivers," Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Transparent Opt. Netw. (2012) pp. 1-5.

“10 Gb/s optical transponder” [Online]. (2011). Available: http://www.finisar.com/sites/default/files/pdf/12TRAAU4MALCB-10Gbs-Tunable-Long-Reach-Transponder-product-brief-RevF .

“MSA 10 Gb/s Transponder” (2005). [Online]. Available: http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/OPTCMP/lineup/300msa/300msatdm-catalog.

A. C. Boucouvalas, "IEC 825–1 eye safety classification of some consumer electronic products," Proc. IEE Colloq. Opt. Free Space Commun. Links (1996) pp. 13/1-13/6 .

A. Legout, G. Urvoy Keller, P. Michiardi, "Rarest first and choke algorithms are enough," Proc. 6th ACM SIGCOMM Conf. Internet Meas. (2006) pp. 203-216.

E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 1994).

J. Kleinberg, E. Tardos, Algorithm Design (Pearson Education, 2006).

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, High Collection Nonimaging Optics (Academic, 1989).

U. Weidmann, Transporttechnik der FussgNanger, Schriftenreihe des IVT, vol. 80, ETH, ZNurich, 1992..

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