Abstract

Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) still remains a challenge for high-data-rate optical-communication systems. Practical solutions are desirable for PMD emulation, monitoring, and compensation. The authors review and compare various techniques for PMD emulation and compensation, with an emphasis on the application of programmable differential-group-delay (DGD) elements for manipulating PMD effects. The authors pay special attention to advanced emulation techniques, such as importance sampling and the hinge model, for practical applications. The tunability of programmable DGD elements proves to be attractive for both system performance evaluation and overall optimization.

© 2006 IEEE

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