Abstract

We propose a nearly lossless, compact, electrically modulated vertical directional coupler, which is based on the controllable evanescent coupling in a previously proposed graphene-assisted total internal reflection (GA-FTIR) scheme. In the proposed device, two single-mode waveguides are separate by graphene-SiO2-graphene layers. By changing the chemical potential of the graphene layers with a gate voltage, the coupling strength between the waveguides, and hence the coupling length of the directional coupler, is controlled. Therefore, for a properly chosen, fixed device length, when an input wave is launched into one of the waveguides, the ratio of their output powers can be controlled electrically. The operation of the proposed device is analyzed, with the dispersion relations calculated using a model of a one-dimensional slab waveguide. The supermodes in the coupled waveguide are calculated using the finite-element method to estimate the coupling length, realistic devices are designed, and their performance was confirmed using the finite-difference time-domain method. The designed 3 μm by 1 μm device achieves an insertion loss of less than 0.11 dB, and a 24-dB extinction ratio between bar and cross states. The proposed low-loss device could enable integrated modulation of a strong optical signal, without thermal buildup.

© 2017 Optical Society of Korea

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  1. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Phot. 4, 518-526 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Phot. 4, 611-622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).
  4. X. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229-237 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482-1485 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integratedMach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39,79-81 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 11869-11876 (2013).
  10. W. Xu, Z. H. Zhu, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, X. D. Yuan, Q. S. Lu, and S. Q. Qin, “Toward integrated electrically control-lable directional coupling based on dielectric loaded graphene plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1603-1606 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Q. Tran, S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “Tunable Wide-Angle Tunneling in Graphene-Assisted Frustrated Total Internal Reflection,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19975 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).
  13. A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light-Matter Interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370-3377 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Campione, I. Brener, and F. Marquire, “Theory of epsilon-near-zero modes in ultrathin films,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 121408 (2015).
  17. C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Phot. 9, 511-514 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. Q. Tran, S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “Tunable Wide-Angle Tunneling in Graphene-Assisted Frustrated Total Internal Reflection,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19975 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Campione, I. Brener, and F. Marquire, “Theory of epsilon-near-zero modes in ultrathin films,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 121408 (2015).

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Phot. 9, 511-514 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Xu, Z. H. Zhu, K. Liu, J. F. Zhang, X. D. Yuan, Q. S. Lu, and S. Q. Qin, “Toward integrated electrically control-lable directional coupling based on dielectric loaded graphene plasmonic waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1603-1606 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229-237 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express 21, 11869-11876 (2013).

2012 (2)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482-1485 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light-Matter Interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370-3377 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Phot. 4, 518-526 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Phot. 4, 611-622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integratedMach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39,79-81 (2003).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, S.

Andry, P. S.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Athikulwongse, K.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

Bernstein, K.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Phot. 4, 611-622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

S. Campione, I. Brener, and F. Marquire, “Theory of epsilon-near-zero modes in ultrathin films,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 121408 (2015).

Campione, S.

S. Campione, I. Brener, and F. Marquire, “Theory of epsilon-near-zero modes in ultrathin films,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 121408 (2015).

Cardenas, J.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Phot. 9, 511-514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, D. E.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light-Matter Interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370-3377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dang, B.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Daniel Lee, Y.-H.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Phot. 9, 511-514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Phot. 4, 611-622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Frank, D. J.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light-Matter Interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370-3377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Phot. 4, 518-526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gosciniak, J.

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

Guarini, K. W.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Phot. 4, 611-622 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, X.

X. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229-237 (2015).
[Crossref]

Healy, M. B.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heo, H.

T. Q. Tran, S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “Tunable Wide-Angle Tunneling in Graphene-Assisted Frustrated Total Internal Reflection,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19975 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, N.

Horikawa, T.

Horton, R. R.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Hossain, M. M.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ieong, M.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Imai, M.

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, M.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khorosh, I.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

T. Q. Tran, S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “Tunable Wide-Angle Tunneling in Graphene-Assisted Frustrated Total Internal Reflection,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19975 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-T.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Knickerbocker, J. U.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Koppens, F. H. L.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light-Matter Interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370-3377 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kumar, G.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.-H. S.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

T. Q. Tran, S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “Tunable Wide-Angle Tunneling in Graphene-Assisted Frustrated Total Internal Reflection,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19975 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lewis, D. L.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. K.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, T.-W.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Phot. 9, 511-514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

Liu, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482-1485 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loh, G. H.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, Q. S.

Manning, R. J.

R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integratedMach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39,79-81 (2003).
[Crossref]

Marquire, F.

S. Campione, I. Brener, and F. Marquire, “Theory of epsilon-near-zero modes in ultrathin films,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 121408 (2015).

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Phot. 4, 518-526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maxwell, G. D.

R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integratedMach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39,79-81 (2003).
[Crossref]

Min, B.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Noguchi, Y.

Panth, S.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Patel, C. S.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Pathak, M.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phare, C. T.

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Phot. 9, 511-514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Polastre, R. J.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Poustie, A. J.

R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integratedMach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39,79-81 (2003).
[Crossref]

Qin, S. Q.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Phot. 4, 518-526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ren, M.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sakuma, K.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Shen, G.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shi, L.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Singco, G. U.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Song, T.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sprogis, E. S.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Steen, S. E.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Phot. 4, 611-622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

Tan, D. T. H.

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Phot. 4, 518-526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Topol, A. W.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tran, T. Q.

T. Q. Tran, S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “Tunable Wide-Angle Tunneling in Graphene-Assisted Frustrated Total Internal Reflection,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19975 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsang, C. K.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Tulipe, D. C. L.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Usuki, T.

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Webb, B. C.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Webb, R. P.

R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integratedMach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39,79-81 (2003).
[Crossref]

Woo, D. H.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wright, S. L.

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

Xu, W.

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482-1485 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Young, A. M.

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. D.

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. F.

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482-1485 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z. H.

Carbon (1)

X. He, “Tunable terahertz graphene metamaterials,” Carbon 82, 229-237 (2015).
[Crossref]

Comput. IEEE Trans. (1)

D. H. Kim, K. Athikulwongse, M. B. Healy, M. M. Hossain, M. Jung, I. Khorosh, G. Kumar, Y.-J. Lee, D. L. Lewis, T.-W. Lin, C. Liu, S. Panth, M. Pathak, M. Ren, G. Shen, T. Song, D. H. Woo, X. Zhao, J. Kim, H. Choi, G. H. Loh, H.-H. S. Lee, and S. K. Lim, “Design and Analysis of 3D-MAPS (3D Massively Parallel Processor with Stacked Memory),” Comput. IEEE Trans. 64, 112-125 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. P. Webb, R. J. Manning, G. D. Maxwell, and A. J. Poustie, “40 Gbit/s all-optical XOR gate based on hybrid-integratedMach-Zehnder interferometer,” Electron. Lett. 39,79-81 (2003).
[Crossref]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

A. W. Topol, D. C. L. Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene Plasmonics: A Platform for Strong Light-Matter Interactions,” Nano Lett. 11, 3370-3377 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-Layer Graphene Optical Modulator,” Nano Lett. 12, 1482-1485 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11, 936-941 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phot. (3)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Phot. 4, 518-526 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Phot. 4, 611-622 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. T. Phare, Y.-H. Daniel Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Phot. 9, 511-514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64-67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Campione, I. Brener, and F. Marquire, “Theory of epsilon-near-zero modes in ultrathin films,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 121408 (2015).

Sci. Rep. (2)

T. Q. Tran, S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “Tunable Wide-Angle Tunneling in Graphene-Assisted Frustrated Total Internal Reflection,” Sci. Rep. 6, 19975 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Theoretical investigation of graphene-based photonic modulators,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1897 (2013).

Other (1)

J. U. Knickerbocker, P. S. Andry, B. Dang, R. R. Horton, C. S. Patel, R. J. Polastre, K. Sakuma, E. S. Sprogis, C. K. Tsang, B. C. Webb, and S. L. Wright, “3D silicon integration,” Electron. Components Technol. Conf. 2008. ECTC 2008. 58th 538-543 (2008).

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