Abstract

Cupping therapy has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years to relieve muscle pain/tendency/fatigue and to cure or reduce symbols of other diseases. However, its therapeutic effect is sparsely interpreted in the language of modern physiology. To objectively evaluate its therapeutic effect, we focused on dry cupping treatment and utilized near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess the concentration change in oxy-hemoglobin ([HbO2]), deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]), and blood volume in the course of cupping therapy over 13 volunteers on the infraspinatus muscle, where is usually applied for shoulder pains. Both a prominent drop in [Hb] and a significant elevation in [HbO2] in the tissue surrounding the cupping site were observed during both cupping and post-treatment, manifesting the enhancement of oxygen uptake. This resulting promotion indicates potential positive therapeutic effect of cupping therapy in hemodynamics for facilitating muscular functions.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

As an important treatment method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), cupping therapy is broadly used in China to relieve muscle pain, tendency, and fatigue [1–5] caused by various reasons, such as long time working, high insensitive sporting. This method is also used to cure or reduce symbols of illnesses, e.g., fibromyalgia [1], carpal tunnel syndrome [6], herpes zoster [7] and postherpetic neuralgia [8], and caner pain [9]. In a general procedure of cupping treatment, the practitioner places a cup at the surface of treatment, with open side against the skin. Lower air pressure inside the cup is then produced by either a chemical method (e.g., burning up oxygen) or a mechanical method (e.g., air pumping). The lower air pressure will induce local stasis of blood in the area mantled by the cup. According to the theory of TCM, local stasis of blood could possibly motivate Qi (a mechanism closely relevant to the control of circulation) and blood in skin and muscle microcirculations mantled by the cup. Therapeutic aim in hemodynamic improvement is therefore achieved and can be enhanced when cupping is combined with other treatment approaches, such as medicine filling, bloodletting and acupuncture. The detailed mechanism of cupping therapy is illustrated in ref [10].

Though having attracted more and more interests from international populations such as Olympic athletes, cupping therapy still remains suspected of being a pseudoscience due to few objective evaluation of treatment efficiency by modern scientific criteria [11]. Previous studies mainly assessed therapeutic effects by surveying the changes in blood pressure [2], skin surface temperature [2], thermal effect [12], under skin blood flow [3], and scores of human feeling, such as pain intensity index, pain score, visual analog scale, fatigue severity scale and numeric rating scale [1, 5, 6, 13]. Although these metrics can quantify the alternations, the evaluations are conducted in subjective or macroscopic level, rather than metabolism level that directly correlates with physiological events in real time, especially for deep tissues.

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a noninvasive, real time, portable, relatively inexpensive method for hemodynamic measurements and have been validated in many realms for metabolic quantifications since invented in the 1970s [14–16]. In the NIRS technique using continuous-wave (CW) light, photons at multiple wavelengths, typically ranging from 700 to 900 nm, penetrate through the biological tissues and the concentration changes of hemoglobin are quantified through the light intensity variation. Probing depth of NIRS can be centimeters sufficient for measurements of muscles in human subjects [17]. NIRS has been successfully utilized in a few therapeutic evaluation studies, such as massage therapy [18, 19], electrical stimulation [20, 21] and deep venous thrombosis [22].

In this study, we focused on assessment of single cupping therapy, without bloodletting (aka dry cupping) and any combination. We investigated the concentration changes in oxy-hemoglobin ([HbO2]), deoxy-hemoglobin ([Hb]) and the derived change in blood volume ([tHb]) in the course of treatment on the infraspinatus muscles of human subjects. Statistically significant elevations in blood oxygen were observed, implying the efficiency of cupping therapy in enhancing hemodynamics.

2. Method

A custom-made CW NIRS oximeter (Fig. 1(a)) was engaged, which integrates a three-wavelength LED light source (735, 805, and 850 nm) and an optical detector. Light is injected into tissues via a probe containing an adhesive tip attached on the skin. The source-detector distance was set as 3.0 cm, allowing for larger than 1 cm penetration depth [23]. ∆[Hb] and ∆[HbO2], i.e., the changes of [Hb] and [HbO2], are then calculated out of the light intensity variations using the modified Beer-Lambert law [15, 24] and the derived Δ[tHb] is then calculated with Δ[tHb]= Δ[Hb]+Δ[HbO2]. The sampling rate is 5 Hz. The details of the NIRS oximeter can be found at refs [22, 25].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 The experiment device and protocol. (a) The NIRS system composed of a probe, a control module, and the software in a computer. (b) The cupping kit set. (c) Timeline of the measurement (d) A subject under treatment. (e) Treatment vestige.

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A set of conventional cupping kit (Fig. 1(b)) was used for treatments. It includes a few cups and a mechanical exhauster which produces a scaled low air pressure circumstance inside the cups via sensing the air pressure on the tube wall.

Approved by the Human Subjects Institutional Review Board at University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, our experiment protocol (Fig. 1(c)) includes a 5-minute baseline measurement denoted by “baseline”, a 5-minute cupping treatment denoted by “cupping”, and a 6-minute recovery measurement denoted by “post-cupping”. Thirteen healthy volunteers, including 11 males and 2 females at an average age of 22.3 years old, participated in this study. None of the volunteers received any cupping or similar treatment within one year. Each subject laid prone. A cup was placed on his/her infraspinatus muscle. The probe of the NIRS oximeter was attached to the same muscle in 1 cm distance away from the cup placement (Fig. 1(d)). For each treatment, the pressure inside the cup was kept constant at 0.075±0.005 MPa under the inspection of the practitioner. The room temperature was maintained at 25 and lights were remained off during the experiment. After treatment, the air valve was loosened and the air pressure restored as normal level as that in room circumstance. A telltale sign of cupping treatment, the red circle shown in Fig. 1(e), will appear after treatment and usually disappear in the next 3 days. The oxygenation data during the entire period of measurement was normalized to the baseline, i.e., the average data in the first 30 seconds. For statistical analyses, p < 0.05 was set as the significance criteria for all T-tests, one way ANOVA, and linear regression methods.

3. Results

We noticed that the data collected from 2 males were contaminated by strong motion artifacts caused by body posture adjustment. Their data were excluded and the rest 11 measurements were subsequently analyzed. Figure 2(a) shows the hemodynamic changes of a typical individual during cupping therapy. An obvious elevation in Δ[HbO2] (5.53 μM at maximum and 4.91 μM on average) and a dramatic decline in Δ[Hb] (−24.00 μM at maximum and −19.56 μM on average) during the treatment were observed. The Δ[tHb] consequently has a mean decline of -14.65 μM possibly due to the suction effect of low air pressure. After the cupping therapy, Δ[HbO2] decreased and Δ[Hb] increased as expected. In the post-cupping stage, the mean values of Δ[Hb], Δ[HbO2] and Δ[tHb] were −9.11, 0.64, and −8.47 (μM) respectively, corresponding to 46.56%, 13.00% and 57.81% of the mean values in the cupping stage. All the mean values were calculated over the stable period as exampled in the green dash lines (about 5 mins for baseline and 4 mins for cupping and post-cupping). The variations were significant when compared with the baseline (N = 11, p < 0.05 in T-tests for all parameters.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Blood oxygen response in the course of cupping therapy. (a) Typical response from a representative individual subject during the experiment. (b) The mean response over 11 subjects. The bar represents the standard deviation.

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The same trend was observed in the mean response of 11 subjects as shown in Fig. 2(b) where the data was down sampled to 0.5 Hz for clear display. Figure 3 displays the mean values of Δ[Hb], Δ[HbO2] and Δ[tHb] respectively in the format of mean ±standard deviation. During treatments, the Δ[Hb] decreased by 19.43 ±3.83 μM and Δ[HbO2] increased by 7.73 ±2.56 μM, resulting in a 11.70 ±2.71 μM change in Δ[tHb]. The sustaining oxygenation changes were also observed after the air pressure was released. During the post-cupping stage, the mean values of Δ[Hb],Δ[HbO2], and Δ[tHb] were 13.70 ±4.98, 5.64±2.68, and 8.06 ±3.40 μM respectively All T-tests exhibit the significant alternations (p < 0.05, N = 11; Fig. 4) between each two stages in each variable of [Hb], [HbO2] and  [tHb]. One-way ANOVA was performed to evaluate the difference among all stages forΔ[Hb], Δ[HbO2] and Δ[tHb] respectively. Significances were found for all parameters (p < 0.01), specifically, F (2, 11) = 26.45 for Δ[HbO2], F (2, 11) = 14.55 for Δ[Hb], and F (2, 11) = 17.49 for Δ[tHb].

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The means and standard deviation bar of all measured hemodynamic parameters during the periods of baseline, cupping, and post-cupping. T-test results were shown by p-values.

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 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Scatterplots of hemodynamics elevations during cupping (x axis) and post-cupping (y axis) periods respectively. Correlation results were reported with by R and p values. The regression line was drawn only when a significant correlation is found.

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4. Discussions and conclusion

In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of cupping therapy on the infraspinatus muscle. The inspected area is close to two acupunctural point SI9 and SI13 and is often applied during cupping and/or acupuncture therapy for shoulder pains [13]. Although this study was performed upon healthy subjects, the research outcomes may also have significant physiological implications for real clinical treatment such as shoulder pains.

During and post treatment, the [tHb] changes well reflected a physiological event that blood was promptly transferred from surrounding areas to the treatment area driven by the lower air pressure (i.e., concentration decline) and then a part of the blood flew back to the surrounding areas after the restoration of air pressure (i.e., partial recovery). However, cupping therapy doesn’t only yield blood transportation, but also promote the oxygen level in the microcirculation as evidenced by the increase in [HbO2] and the decrease in [Hb]. Blood oxygen saturation (StO2), defined as [HbO2]/([Hb]+[HbO2]), consequently elevated since [HbO2] proliferated (Δ[HbO2] > 0) and [Hb] + [HbO2] dropped (Δ[Hb]+Δ[HbO2] < 0, i.e, Δ[tHb]<0). Enriched oxygen in tissue is always considered beneficial to the metabolism in muscle and consequent ameliorations in physiological functions by proliferating Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) [26]. Similar elevations in [HbO2] has been reported in other physical therapy studies such as muscle stimulation [20].

The sustaining high oxygen level was spotted after treatment, as seen in Fig. 3. Limited by the experiment permission, we were unable to investigate the remaining duration of elevated [HbO2] here. To investigate the correlation between the intra-cupping and post-treatment alternations, we performed linear regression analysis and observed that significant correlation was only found for [HbO2] (Fig. 4(a), p < 0.05, R = 0.87; y = 0.91x + 1.40 where x and y are the Δ[HbO2] in the cupping and post cupping stages respectively), but not for the other two (Fig. 4(b), p = 0.09 for Δ[tHb]; Fig. 4(c), p = 0.08 for Δ[Hb]). The slope of 0.91indicates that the post-cupping Δ[HbO2] went low when the low air pressure is removed. It also indicates that the sustaining high oxygen level in the post cupping was highly relevant to the cupping therapy and may be reasonably considered as a residual effect of the treatment. The restoration of blood volume and deoxy-hemoglobin, however, is little related to the alternations during the treatment, implying different therapeutic effects interpreted by different hemodynamic parameters.

We observe an outlier in the Δ[Hb], Δ[HbO2] and Δ[tHb] above the line y = x in Fig. 4, which denotes that the oxygenation change in the post-treatment alteration was higher than the intra-cupping alternations. The only subject with these responses shows no distinctiveness in height, weight or health condition, but has almost no exercising time daily according to the personal information questionnaire. By contrast, the rest 10 subjects have an average exercising time of 40 minutes daily regardless of sport types. Although the links between exercising time and hemodynamics were not found, we assume that long time lack of exercise may have resulted in insensitivity in muscle functions of this subject and thus slower response to external motivations. We may recruit more subjects for further investigations.

The treatment time of cupping varies among different clinical applications ranging from a few minutes to hours for one treatment. Accordingly, the physiological responses may also vary with treatment strategy. In this study, we used strong vacuuming and observed the physiological alternations in a 5 minute treatment, as suggested by the user instruction of the cupping kit. In the future, it may be necessary to trace the hemodynamic alternations in the treatments which requires long time but low vacuuming. Besides, simultaneous monitoring hemodynamics within and surrounding cupping region will help us to get more complete picture of the cupping therapeutic effect. Future research would also devote on the evaluation of cupping therapy in more metrics such as absolute quantification of blood oxygenation using frequency-domain NIRS technique [21] and deep tissue blood flow [24], multiple site measurement, and which tissue layer the cupping-therapeutic hemodynamic signal mainly coming from.

To conclude, we utilized CW-NIRS to assess the blood oxygenation change in the course of cupping therapy over 13 subjects. Results showed that the cupping therapy may help to reduce deoxy-hemoglobin and to obtain more oxy-hemoglobin, which enhances the local oxygen uptake and promotes the blood microcirculation and hemodynamic activity. The treatment induced an oxygen elevation in the local tissue to accelerate the possible repair or function of the local tissue, subsequently giving rise to positive therapeutic effects. This study paced a way to explore the mechanism of Chinese medicine in the view of biomedical science.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61308114); National Natural Science Fund Projects (No. 61675039).

Acknowledgment

We appreciate the precious comments from Prof. Yu Shang at North University of China.

References and links

1. H. Cao, J. Liu, and G. T. Lewith, “Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16(4), 397–409 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016). [PubMed]  

3. W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013). [CrossRef]  

4. J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. P. Hao, Y. Yang, and L. Guan, “[Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 36(1), 37–40 (2016). [PubMed]  

8. H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

9. Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

10. I. Z. C. M. RCHM, Traditional Chinese Medicine Cupping Therapy (Elsevier, 2014).

11. M. S. Lee, J.-I. Kim, and E. Ernst, “Is Cupping an Effective Treatment? An Overview of Systematic Reviews,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 4(1), 1–4 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014). [CrossRef]  

13. H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

14. F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994). [PubMed]  

18. N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. M. Ferrari, M. Muthalib, and V. Quaresima, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4577–4590 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. G. E. Strangman, Z. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Depth Sensitivity and Source-Detector Separations for Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on the Colin27 Brain Template,” PLoS One 8(8), e66319 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. T. Li, M. Duan, K. Li, G. Yu, and Z. Ruan, “Bedside monitoring of patients with shock using a portable spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3431–3436 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. D. A. Burton, K. Stokes, and G. M. Hall, “Physiological effects of exercise,” Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain 4(6), 185–188 (2004).

References

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  1. H. Cao, J. Liu, and G. T. Lewith, “Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16(4), 397–409 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  3. W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. Hao, Y. Yang, and L. Guan, “[Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 36(1), 37–40 (2016).
    [PubMed]
  8. H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).
  9. Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).
  10. I. Z. C. M. RCHM, Traditional Chinese Medicine Cupping Therapy (Elsevier, 2014).
  11. M. S. Lee, J.-I. Kim, and E. Ernst, “Is Cupping an Effective Treatment? An Overview of Systematic Reviews,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 4(1), 1–4 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).
  14. F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
    [PubMed]
  18. N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Ferrari, M. Muthalib, and V. Quaresima, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4577–4590 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. G. E. Strangman, Z. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Depth Sensitivity and Source-Detector Separations for Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on the Colin27 Brain Template,” PLoS One 8(8), e66319 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. Li, M. Duan, K. Li, G. Yu, and Z. Ruan, “Bedside monitoring of patients with shock using a portable spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3431–3436 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. D. A. Burton, K. Stokes, and G. M. Hall, “Physiological effects of exercise,” Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain 4(6), 185–188 (2004).

2016 (2)

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

P. Hao, Y. Yang, and L. Guan, “[Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 36(1), 37–40 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (3)

Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, M. Duan, K. Li, G. Yu, and Z. Ruan, “Bedside monitoring of patients with shock using a portable spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3431–3436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

G. E. Strangman, Z. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Depth Sensitivity and Source-Detector Separations for Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on the Colin27 Brain Template,” PLoS One 8(8), e66319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. Ferrari, M. Muthalib, and V. Quaresima, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4577–4590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Lee, J.-I. Kim, and E. Ernst, “Is Cupping an Effective Treatment? An Overview of Systematic Reviews,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 4(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. Cao, J. Liu, and G. T. Lewith, “Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16(4), 397–409 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. A. Burton, K. Stokes, and G. M. Hall, “Physiological effects of exercise,” Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain 4(6), 185–188 (2004).

1994 (1)

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bachmann, J.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baecker, M.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bensoussan, A.

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

Bock, S.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boddy, K.

J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolinger, L.

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

Burton, D. A.

D. A. Burton, K. Stokes, and G. M. Hall, “Physiological effects of exercise,” Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain 4(6), 185–188 (2004).

Callaghan, J. P.

J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

H. Cao, J. Liu, and G. T. Lewith, “Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16(4), 397–409 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

Chen, C.

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

Chen, C. L.

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

Chen, L.

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

Chen, X.

T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, R.

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, L. M.

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cui, S.

P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dobos, G. J.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, M.

Durkin, J. L.

J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ernst, E.

M. S. Lee, J.-I. Kim, and E. Ernst, “Is Cupping an Effective Treatment? An Overview of Systematic Reviews,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 4(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

M. Ferrari, M. Muthalib, and V. Quaresima, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4577–4590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, L.

P. Hao, Y. Yang, and L. Guan, “[Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 36(1), 37–40 (2016).
[PubMed]

Guo, T. M.

Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, G. M.

D. A. Burton, K. Stokes, and G. M. Hall, “Physiological effects of exercise,” Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain 4(6), 185–188 (2004).

Hamaoka, T.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hao, P.

P. Hao, Y. Yang, and L. Guan, “[Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 36(1), 37–40 (2016).
[PubMed]

Harvey, A.

J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, L.

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henry, B. A.

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

Hughson, R. L.

J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jöbsis, F. F.

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendrick, K.

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

Kim, J. I.

J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-I.

M. S. Lee, J.-I. Kim, and E. Ernst, “Is Cupping an Effective Treatment? An Overview of Systematic Reviews,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 4(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiser, S.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, H. L.

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

Langhorst, J.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leang, L. T.

P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. H.

J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M. S.

J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Lee, J.-I. Kim, and E. Ernst, “Is Cupping an Effective Treatment? An Overview of Systematic Reviews,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 4(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewith, G. T.

H. Cao, J. Liu, and G. T. Lewith, “Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16(4), 397–409 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

Li, K.

Li, T.

T. Li, M. Duan, K. Li, G. Yu, and Z. Ruan, “Bedside monitoring of patients with shock using a portable spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3431–3436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

Li, Z.

G. E. Strangman, Z. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Depth Sensitivity and Source-Detector Separations for Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on the Colin27 Brain Template,” PLoS One 8(8), e66319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L. M.

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lin, Y.

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

H. Cao, J. Liu, and G. T. Lewith, “Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16(4), 397–409 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lüdtke, R.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mancini, D. M.

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

Mata Pavia, J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCully, K. K.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, X.

W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Metz, A. J.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michalsen, A.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munk, N.

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Musial, F.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muthalib, M.

M. Ferrari, M. Muthalib, and V. Quaresima, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4577–4590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niwayama, M.

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, T. C.

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

Piao, S.

W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari, M. Muthalib, and V. Quaresima, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4577–4590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rampp, T.

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, R.

T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruan, Z.

Salles, S. S.

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholkmann, F.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, Y.

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelton, B. J.

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stokes, K.

D. A. Burton, K. Stokes, and G. M. Hall, “Physiological effects of exercise,” Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain 4(6), 185–188 (2004).

Strangman, G. E.

G. E. Strangman, Z. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Depth Sensitivity and Source-Detector Separations for Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on the Colin27 Brain Template,” PLoS One 8(8), e66319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, F.

Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swartz, K. R.

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Symons, B.

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szabunio, M.

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Z.

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

Tian, H.

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

Tian, Y. J.

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

Wang, B.

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

Wang, N. S.

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

Wang, S. F.

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y. Y.

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

Wee, D. A. C.

P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wei, L.

W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilson, J. R.

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

Wolf, M.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, P.

P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

Yang, J. S.

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

Yang, L.

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

Yang, Y.

P. Hao, Y. Yang, and L. Guan, “[Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 36(1), 37–40 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yu, G.

T. Li, M. Duan, K. Li, G. Yu, and Z. Ruan, “Bedside monitoring of patients with shock using a portable spatially-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3431–3436 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Q. L.

Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

G. E. Strangman, Z. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Depth Sensitivity and Source-Detector Separations for Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on the Colin27 Brain Template,” PLoS One 8(8), e66319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. G.

Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

Zhao, Y.

T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, R.

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain (1)

D. A. Burton, K. Stokes, and G. M. Hall, “Physiological effects of exercise,” Cont. Edu. Anae. Crit. Care Pain 4(6), 185–188 (2004).

Ergonomics (1)

J. L. Durkin, A. Harvey, R. L. Hughson, and J. P. Callaghan, “The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving,” Ergonomics 49(1), 28–44 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. (2)

L. M. Chi, L. M. Lin, C. L. Chen, S. F. Wang, H. L. Lai, and T. C. Peng, “The Effectiveness of Cupping Therapy on Relieving Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2016(9), 7358918 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. I. Kim, M. S. Lee, D. H. Lee, K. Boddy, and E. Ernst, “Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2011, 467014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. (1)

M. S. Lee, J.-I. Kim, and E. Ernst, “Is Cupping an Effective Treatment? An Overview of Systematic Reviews,” J. Acupunct. Meridian Stud. 4(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Altern. Complement. Med. (1)

H. Cao, J. Liu, and G. T. Lewith, “Traditional Chinese Medicine for Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16(4), 397–409 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol. (1)

D. M. Mancini, L. Bolinger, H. Li, K. Kendrick, B. Chance, and J. R. Wilson, “Validation of near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Humans,” J. Appl. Physiol. 77(6), 2740–2747 (1994).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Shang, Y. Lin, B. A. Henry, R. Cheng, C. Huang, L. Chen, B. J. Shelton, K. R. Swartz, S. S. Salles, and G. Yu, “Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 105002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Li, Y. Sun, X. Chen, Y. Zhao, and R. Ren, “Noninvasive diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of deep vein thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(1), 010502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. (1)

N. Munk, B. Symons, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, and G. Yu, “Noninvasively measuring the hemodynamic effects of massage on skeletal muscle: a novel hybrid near-infrared diffuse optical instrument,” J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 16(1), 22–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pain (1)

A. Michalsen, S. Bock, R. Lüdtke, T. Rampp, M. Baecker, J. Bachmann, J. Langhorst, F. Musial, and G. J. Dobos, “Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” J. Pain 10(6), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. (1)

H. Cao, X. Li, X. Yan, N. S. Wang, A. Bensoussan, and J. Liu, “Cupping therapy for acute and chronic pain management: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” J. Trad. Chin. Med. Sci. 1(1), 49–61 (2014).

Neuroimage (1)

F. Scholkmann, S. Kleiser, A. J. Metz, R. Zimmermann, J. Mata Pavia, U. Wolf, and M. Wolf, “A review on continuous wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging instrumentation and methodology,” Neuroimage 85(Pt 1), 6–27 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (2)

T. Hamaoka, K. K. McCully, M. Niwayama, and B. Chance, “The use of muscle near-infrared spectroscopy in sport, health and medical sciences: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4591–4604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ferrari, M. Muthalib, and V. Quaresima, “The use of near-infrared spectroscopy in understanding skeletal muscle physiology: recent developments,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1955), 4577–4590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

PLoS One (2)

G. E. Strangman, Z. Li, and Q. Zhang, “Depth Sensitivity and Source-Detector Separations for Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on the Colin27 Brain Template,” PLoS One 8(8), e66319 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Yuan, T. M. Guo, L. Liu, F. Sun, and Y. G. Zhang, “Traditional Chinese medicine for neck pain and low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS One 10(2), e0117146 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Li, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, L. He, C. Huang, M. Szabunio, and G. Yu, “Simultaneous measurement of deep tissue blood flow and oxygenation using noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198(4323), 1264–1267 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion (1)

Z. Huang, H. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Tan, C. Chen, and W. Chen, “Observations on the efficacy of cupping for treating 30 patients with cancer pain,” Shanghai J. Acupunct. Moxibustion 25(8), 14–15 (2006).

World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. (2)

W. Liu, S. Piao, X. Meng, and L. Wei, “Effects of cupping on blood flow under skin of back in healthy human,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 23(3), 50–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Xu, S. Cui, D. A. C. Wee, S. Xu, and L. T. Leang, “Preliminary observation on effect of cupping on the skin surface temperature of patients with back pain,” World Journal of Acupuncture - Moxibustion. 24(4), 59–61 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhongguo Zhenjiu (2)

P. Hao, Y. Yang, and L. Guan, “[Effects of bloodletting pricking, cupping and surrounding acupuncture on inflammation-related indices in peripheral and local blood in patients with acute herpes zoster],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 36(1), 37–40 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Tian, Y. J. Tian, B. Wang, L. Yang, Y. Y. Wang, and J. S. Yang, “[Impacts of bleeding and cupping therapy on serum P substance in patients of postherpetic neuralgia],” Zhongguo Zhenjiu 33(8), 678–681 (2013).

Other (1)

I. Z. C. M. RCHM, Traditional Chinese Medicine Cupping Therapy (Elsevier, 2014).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The experiment device and protocol. (a) The NIRS system composed of a probe, a control module, and the software in a computer. (b) The cupping kit set. (c) Timeline of the measurement (d) A subject under treatment. (e) Treatment vestige.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Blood oxygen response in the course of cupping therapy. (a) Typical response from a representative individual subject during the experiment. (b) The mean response over 11 subjects. The bar represents the standard deviation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The means and standard deviation bar of all measured hemodynamic parameters during the periods of baseline, cupping, and post-cupping. T-test results were shown by p-values.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Scatterplots of hemodynamics elevations during cupping (x axis) and post-cupping (y axis) periods respectively. Correlation results were reported with by R and p values. The regression line was drawn only when a significant correlation is found.

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