Abstract

Noncontact photoplethysmography (PPG) is limited by a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A solution to this limitation is the use of alternate sources of optical contrast to generate a complementary pulsatile waveform. One such source is laser speckle contrast, which is modulated in biological tissues by the flow rate of red blood cells. Averaging a region of interest from a speckle contrast image over time allows for the calculation of a speckleplethysmogram (SPG). Similar to PPG, SPG enables monitoring of heart rate and respiratory rate. A gap in the knowledge base exists as to the precise spatiotemporal relationship between PPG and SPG signals. We have developed an eight-layer tissue model to simulate both PPG and SPG signals in a reflectance geometry via Monte Carlo methods. We modeled PPG by compression of the upper and lower blood nets due to expansion of the larger arterial layer below. The in silico PPG peak-to-peak amplitude percent was greater at 532 nm than at 860 nm (5.6% vs. 3.0%, respectively), which matches trends from the literature. We modeled SPG by changing flow speeds of red blood cells in both the capillaries and arterioles over the cardiac cycle. The in silico SPG peak-to-peak amplitude percent was 24% at 532 nm and 40% at 860 nm. In silico results are similar to in vivo results measured with a two-camera set up for simultaneous imaging of PPG and SPG. Both in silico and in vivo data suggest SPG has a much larger SNR than PPG, which may prove beneficial for noncontact, wide-field optical monitoring of cardiovascular health.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

J. Heredia-Juesas, J. E. Thatcher, Y. Lu, J. J. Squiers, D. King, W. Fan, J. M. Dimaio, and J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, “Non-invasive optical imaging techniques for burn-injured tissue detection for debridement surgery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1809–1826 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Moço, S. Stuijk, and G. de Haan, “New insights into the origin of remote PPG signals in visible light and infrared,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 8501 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Lertsakdadet, B. Y. Yang, C. E. Dunn, A. Ponticorvo, C. Crouzet, N. Bernal, A. J. Durkin, and B. Choi, “Correcting for motion artifact in handheld laser speckle images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3), 1–7 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

M. V. Volkov, N. B. Margaryants, A. V. Potemkin, M. A. Volynsky, I. P. Gurov, O. V. Mamontov, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Video capillaroscopy clarifies mechanism of the photoplethysmographic waveform appearance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13298 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Regan, C. Hayakawa, and B. Choi, “Momentum transfer Monte Carlo for the simulation of laser speckle imaging and its application in the skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5708–5723 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin and N. B. Margaryants, “Origin of Photoplethysmographic Waveform at Green Light,” Phys. Procedia 86, 72–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

M. Ghijsen, B. Choi, A. J. Durkin, S. Gioux, and B. J. Tromberg, “Real-time simultaneous single snapshot of optical properties and blood flow using coherent spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 870–882 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vaz, T. Pereira, E. Figueiras, C. Correia, A. Humeau-Heurtier, and J. Cardoso, “Which wavelength is the best for arterial pulse waveform extraction using laser speckle imaging?” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 25, 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. S. Sidorov, R. V. Romashko, V. T. Koval, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Origin of infrared light modulation in reflectance-mode photoplethysmography,” PLoS One 11(10), e0165413 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “A spectral-spatial fusion model for robust blood pulse waveform extraction in photoplethysmographic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 4874–4885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Spatial probabilistic pulsatility model for enhancing photoplethysmographic imaging systems,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(11), 116010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Moço, S. Stuijk, and G. de Haan, “Motion robust PPG-imaging through color channel mapping,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1737–1754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Moco, S. Stuijk, and G. de Haan, “Ballistocardiographic Artifacts in PPG Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 63(9), 1804–1811 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Crouzet, R. H. Wilson, A. Bazrafkan, M. H. Farahabadi, D. Lee, J. Alcocer, B. J. Tromberg, B. Choi, and Y. Akbari, “Cerebral blood flow is decoupled from blood pressure and linked to EEG bursting after resuscitation from cardiac arrest,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4660–4673 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

C. Regan, B. Y. Yang, K. C. Mayzel, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, P. Wilder-Smith, and B. Choi, “Fiber-Based Laser Speckle Imaging for the Detection of Pulsatile Flow,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(6), 520–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Remer and A. Bilenca, “Laser speckle spatiotemporal variance analysis for noninvasive widefield measurements of blood pulsation and pulse rate on a camera-phone,” J. Biophotonics 8(11-12), 902–907 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10494 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Corral, G. Paez, and M. Strojnik, “A photoplethysmographic imaging system with supplementary capabilities,” Opt. Appl. 44(2), 191–204 (2014).

C. K. Hayakawa, J. Spanier, and V. Venugopalan, “Comparative analysis of discrete and continuous absorption weighting estimators used in Monte Carlo simulations of radiative transport in turbid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 31(2), 301–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Lin, G. Liu, N. A. Castello, J. J. Yeh, R. Rahimian, G. Lee, V. Tsay, A. J. Durkin, B. Choi, F. M. LaFerla, Z. Chen, K. N. Green, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging in an Alzheimer’s mouse model reveals amyloid-β-dependent vascular impairment,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

D. Berk, Y. Gurkan, A. Kus, H. Ulugol, M. Solak, and K. Toker, “Ultrasound-guided radial arterial cannulation: long axis/in-plane versus short axis/out-of-plane approaches?” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 27(3), 319–324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Garde, W. Karlen, P. Dehkordi, J. M. Ansermino, and G. A. Dumont, “Empirical mode decomposition for respiratory and heart rate estimation from the photoplethysmogram,” Comput. Cardiol. (2010)  40, 799– 802 (2013).

T. B. Rice, E. Kwan, C. K. Hayakawa, A. J. Durkin, B. Choi, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative, depth-resolved determination of particle motion using multi-exposure, spatial frequency domain laser speckle imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2880–2892 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ashraf, Z. Panhwar, S. Habib, M. A. Memon, F. Shamsi, and J. Arif, “Size of radial and ulnar artery in local population,” J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 60(10), 817–819 (2010).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: a first step toward “SpO2 camera” technology,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(8), 1034–1041 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. Choi, B. Majaron, and J. S. Nelson, “Computational model to evaluate port wine stain depth profiling using pulsed photothermal radiometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(2), 299–307 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

1981 (1)

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
[Crossref]

Akbari, Y.

Alcocer, J.

Alger, H. M.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambrosio, G.

B. I. Levy, G. Ambrosio, A. R. Pries, and H. A. J. Struijker-Boudier, “Microcirculation in Hypertension: A New Target for Treatment?” Circulation 104(6), 735–740 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amelard, R.

R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Spatial probabilistic pulsatility model for enhancing photoplethysmographic imaging systems,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(11), 116010 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “A spectral-spatial fusion model for robust blood pulse waveform extraction in photoplethysmographic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 4874–4885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ansermino, J. M.

A. Garde, W. Karlen, P. Dehkordi, J. M. Ansermino, and G. A. Dumont, “Empirical mode decomposition for respiratory and heart rate estimation from the photoplethysmogram,” Comput. Cardiol. (2010)  40, 799– 802 (2013).

Arif, J.

T. Ashraf, Z. Panhwar, S. Habib, M. A. Memon, F. Shamsi, and J. Arif, “Size of radial and ulnar artery in local population,” J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 60(10), 817–819 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ashraf, T.

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Bilenca, A.

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A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
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P. Vaz, T. Pereira, E. Figueiras, C. Correia, A. Humeau-Heurtier, and J. Cardoso, “Which wavelength is the best for arterial pulse waveform extraction using laser speckle imaging?” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 25, 188–195 (2016).
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Choi, B.

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C. Regan, C. Hayakawa, and B. Choi, “Momentum transfer Monte Carlo for the simulation of laser speckle imaging and its application in the skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5708–5723 (2017).
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M. Ghijsen, B. Choi, A. J. Durkin, S. Gioux, and B. J. Tromberg, “Real-time simultaneous single snapshot of optical properties and blood flow using coherent spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 870–882 (2016).
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T. B. Rice, E. Kwan, C. K. Hayakawa, A. J. Durkin, B. Choi, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative, depth-resolved determination of particle motion using multi-exposure, spatial frequency domain laser speckle imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(12), 2880–2892 (2013).
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Clausi, D. A.

R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Spatial probabilistic pulsatility model for enhancing photoplethysmographic imaging systems,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(11), 116010 (2016).
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P. Vaz, T. Pereira, E. Figueiras, C. Correia, A. Humeau-Heurtier, and J. Cardoso, “Which wavelength is the best for arterial pulse waveform extraction using laser speckle imaging?” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 25, 188–195 (2016).
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Crouzet, C.

Cuccia, D.

Cuccia, D. J.

Cushman, M.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Das, S. R.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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A. Garde, W. Karlen, P. Dehkordi, J. M. Ansermino, and G. A. Dumont, “Empirical mode decomposition for respiratory and heart rate estimation from the photoplethysmogram,” Comput. Cardiol. (2010)  40, 799– 802 (2013).

Deo, R.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Dimaio, J. M.

Dimartino, J.

A. Roederer, J. Weimer, J. Dimartino, J. Gutsche, and I. Lee, “Robust Monitoring of Hypovolemia in Intensive Care Patients using Photoplethysmogram Signals,” in 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) (2015), pp. 1504–1507.
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Dumont, G. A.

A. Garde, W. Karlen, P. Dehkordi, J. M. Ansermino, and G. A. Dumont, “Empirical mode decomposition for respiratory and heart rate estimation from the photoplethysmogram,” Comput. Cardiol. (2010)  40, 799– 802 (2013).

Duncan, D. D.

Dunn, A. K.

Dunn, C. E.

B. Lertsakdadet, B. Y. Yang, C. E. Dunn, A. Ponticorvo, C. Crouzet, N. Bernal, A. J. Durkin, and B. Choi, “Correcting for motion artifact in handheld laser speckle images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3), 1–7 (2018).
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Durkin, A. J.

Eberhardt, R. T.

A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
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A. A. Kamshilin, E. Nippolainen, I. S. Sidorov, P. V. Vasilev, N. P. Erofeev, N. P. Podolian, and R. V. Romashko, “A new look at the essence of the imaging photoplethysmography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 10494 (2015).
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Fan, W.

Farahabadi, M. H.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher and J. D. Briers, “Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Commun. 37(5), 326–330 (1981).
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Figueiras, E.

P. Vaz, T. Pereira, E. Figueiras, C. Correia, A. Humeau-Heurtier, and J. Cardoso, “Which wavelength is the best for arterial pulse waveform extraction using laser speckle imaging?” Biomed. Signal Process. Control 25, 188–195 (2016).
[Crossref]

Floyd, J.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Fornage, M.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Gao, Y.

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garde, A.

A. Garde, W. Karlen, P. Dehkordi, J. M. Ansermino, and G. A. Dumont, “Empirical mode decomposition for respiratory and heart rate estimation from the photoplethysmogram,” Comput. Cardiol. (2010)  40, 799– 802 (2013).

Gardner, A.

Ghijsen, M.

Gibbons, G.

A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillespie, C.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Giniatullin, R.

I. S. Sidorov, R. V. Romashko, V. T. Koval, R. Giniatullin, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Origin of infrared light modulation in reflectance-mode photoplethysmography,” PLoS One 11(10), e0165413 (2016).
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Gioux, S.

Gokce, N.

A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
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Green, K. N.

A. J. Lin, G. Liu, N. A. Castello, J. J. Yeh, R. Rahimian, G. Lee, V. Tsay, A. J. Durkin, B. Choi, F. M. LaFerla, Z. Chen, K. N. Green, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging in an Alzheimer’s mouse model reveals amyloid-β-dependent vascular impairment,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011005 (2014).
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Grimaldi, D.

Y. Kurylyak, F. Lamonaca, and D. Grimaldi, “A Neural Network-Based Method for Continuous Blood Pressure Estimation From a PPG Signal,” in IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC) (2013), pp. 280–283.
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Gurkan, Y.

D. Berk, Y. Gurkan, A. Kus, H. Ulugol, M. Solak, and K. Toker, “Ultrasound-guided radial arterial cannulation: long axis/in-plane versus short axis/out-of-plane approaches?” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 27(3), 319–324 (2013).
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Gurov, I. P.

M. V. Volkov, N. B. Margaryants, A. V. Potemkin, M. A. Volynsky, I. P. Gurov, O. V. Mamontov, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Video capillaroscopy clarifies mechanism of the photoplethysmographic waveform appearance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13298 (2017).
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Gutsche, J.

A. Roederer, J. Weimer, J. Dimartino, J. Gutsche, and I. Lee, “Robust Monitoring of Hypovolemia in Intensive Care Patients using Photoplethysmogram Signals,” in 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) (2015), pp. 1504–1507.
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Thiagarajan, R. R.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
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E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Ulugol, H.

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Voeks, J. H.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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M. V. Volkov, N. B. Margaryants, A. V. Potemkin, M. A. Volynsky, I. P. Gurov, O. V. Mamontov, and A. A. Kamshilin, “Video capillaroscopy clarifies mechanism of the photoplethysmographic waveform appearance,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 13298 (2017).
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Wang, H.

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
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Watkins, M. T.

A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
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Weimer, J.

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Wells-Gray, E. M.

Wieringa, F. P.

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: a first step toward “SpO2 camera” technology,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(8), 1034–1041 (2005).
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Wilder-Smith, P.

C. Regan, B. Y. Yang, K. C. Mayzel, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, P. Wilder-Smith, and B. Choi, “Fiber-Based Laser Speckle Imaging for the Detection of Pulsatile Flow,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(6), 520–525 (2015).
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Wilkins, J. T.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Willey, J. Z.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Wilson, R. H.

Wong, A.

R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “A spectral-spatial fusion model for robust blood pulse waveform extraction in photoplethysmographic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 4874–4885 (2016).
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R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “Spatial probabilistic pulsatility model for enhancing photoplethysmographic imaging systems,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(11), 116010 (2016).
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Wong, S. S.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Woodson, J.

A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
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Wu, J. H. Y.

E. J. Benjamin, M. J. Blaha, S. E. Chiuve, M. Cushman, S. R. Das, R. Deo, S. D. de Ferranti, J. Floyd, M. Fornage, C. Gillespie, C. R. Isasi, M. C. Jiménez, L. C. Jordan, S. E. Judd, D. Lackland, J. H. Lichtman, L. Lisabeth, S. Liu, C. T. Longenecker, R. H. Mackey, K. Matsushita, D. Mozaffarian, M. E. Mussolino, K. Nasir, R. W. Neumar, L. Palaniappan, D. K. Pandey, R. R. Thiagarajan, M. J. Reeves, M. Ritchey, C. J. Rodriguez, G. A. Roth, W. D. Rosamond, C. Sasson, A. Towfighi, C. W. Tsao, M. B. Turner, S. S. Virani, J. H. Voeks, J. Z. Willey, J. T. Wilkins, J. H. Y. Wu, H. M. Alger, S. S. Wong, and P. Muntner, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association,” Circulation 135(10), e146–e603 (2017).
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Xu, L.

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
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Yang, B. Y.

B. Lertsakdadet, B. Y. Yang, C. E. Dunn, A. Ponticorvo, C. Crouzet, N. Bernal, A. J. Durkin, and B. Choi, “Correcting for motion artifact in handheld laser speckle images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3), 1–7 (2018).
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C. Regan, B. Y. Yang, K. C. Mayzel, J. C. Ramirez-San-Juan, P. Wilder-Smith, and B. Choi, “Fiber-Based Laser Speckle Imaging for the Detection of Pulsatile Flow,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(6), 520–525 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, J. J.

A. J. Lin, G. Liu, N. A. Castello, J. J. Yeh, R. Rahimian, G. Lee, V. Tsay, A. J. Durkin, B. Choi, F. M. LaFerla, Z. Chen, K. N. Green, and B. J. Tromberg, “Optical imaging in an Alzheimer’s mouse model reveals amyloid-β-dependent vascular impairment,” Neurophotonics 1(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, J. S.

Yu, Y.

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

L. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Zhu, Y. Gao, Z. Luo, H. Wang, Z. Zhu, Y. Yu, H. Shi, and H. Bao, “To clarify features of photoplethysmography in monitoring balanced anesthesia, compared with Cerebral State Index,” Med. Sci. Monit. 20, 481–486 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng. (1)

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: a first step toward “SpO2 camera” technology,” Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33(8), 1034–1041 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1)

A. L. Huang, A. E. Silver, E. Shvenke, D. W. Schopfer, E. Jahangir, M. A. Titas, A. Shpilman, J. O. Menzoian, M. T. Watkins, J. D. Raffetto, G. Gibbons, J. Woodson, P. M. Shaw, M. Dhadly, R. T. Eberhardt, J. F. Keaney, N. Gokce, and J. A. Vita, “Predictive Value of Reactive Hyperemia for Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease Undergoing Vascular Surgery,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27(10), 2113–2119 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (8)

A. A. Kamshilin, S. Miridonov, V. Teplov, R. Saarenheimo, and E. Nippolainen, “Photoplethysmographic imaging of high spatial resolution,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 996–1006 (2011).
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M. Ghijsen, B. Choi, A. J. Durkin, S. Gioux, and B. J. Tromberg, “Real-time simultaneous single snapshot of optical properties and blood flow using coherent spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI),” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 870–882 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Moço, S. Stuijk, and G. de Haan, “Motion robust PPG-imaging through color channel mapping,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1737–1754 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Crouzet, R. H. Wilson, A. Bazrafkan, M. H. Farahabadi, D. Lee, J. Alcocer, B. J. Tromberg, B. Choi, and Y. Akbari, “Cerebral blood flow is decoupled from blood pressure and linked to EEG bursting after resuscitation from cardiac arrest,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(11), 4660–4673 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amelard, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong, “A spectral-spatial fusion model for robust blood pulse waveform extraction in photoplethysmographic imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 4874–4885 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Regan, C. Hayakawa, and B. Choi, “Momentum transfer Monte Carlo for the simulation of laser speckle imaging and its application in the skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5708–5723 (2017).
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J. Heredia-Juesas, J. E. Thatcher, Y. Lu, J. J. Squiers, D. King, W. Fan, J. M. Dimaio, and J. A. Martinez-Lorenzo, “Non-invasive optical imaging techniques for burn-injured tissue detection for debridement surgery,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(4), 1809–1826 (2018).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 During systole, the flow speed through the artery increases when compared with diastole. This increased speed causes the artery to expand, which in turn compresses the upper and lower blood nets. SPG is sensitive to the change in flow speed, and PPG is sensitive to the change in optical properties due to compression.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The experimental setup used two cameras and two light sources for imaging. The coherent NIR source remained constant, while the green source was switched between a coherent and incoherent source for PPG and SPG measurements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The simulated results for PPG and (b) SPG. The PPG signal increases in amplitude percent as the arterial layer thickness increases, with the green wavelength having the highest sensitivity. The SPG signal at the three wavelengths increases in amplitude percent as the flow speed increases, and the NIR wavelength has the largest dynamic range. The SPG signals at all wavelengths have a much larger range than the PPG signals at all wavelengths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Green PPG and NIR SPG results from a representative subject from the two neighboring ROIs. (b) The green PPG signal experiences a 180° phase shift from one region to the next, while (c) the NIR SPG signal does not. In the corresponding frequency spectrums for the orange ROI before (left) and after (right) AC/DC processing, the heart rate peak has a smaller amplitude in the (d) PPG spectrum than the (e) SPG spectrum after processing. (f) The SPG has a much larger amplitude and peaks before the PPG from the same orange ROI.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SPG results taken from the same ROI simultaneously using the green and NIR coherent sources. The amplitude of the NIR source is larger. The two wavelengths peak at the same time.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) NIR SPG amplitude percent is larger than the green SPG amplitude percent (p<0.001) and the green PPG amplitude percent (p<0.001). The green SPG amplitude percent is larger than the green PPG amplitude percent (p<0.001). (b) The in silico amplitude percent ranges closely match the corresponding values across the subjects measured in vivo. For in silico green PPG, the peak-to-peak amplitude was 2.7%, compared to the in vivo peak-to-peak amplitude for green PPG of 0.88%. The in silico green SPG peak-to-peak amplitude was 24%, compared to the in vivo peak-to-peak amplitude of 23%. The in silico peak-to-peak amplitude for NIR SPG was 37%, compared to the in vivo peak-to-peak amplitude of 35%.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Eight-layer model with initial layer thickness and blood volume fraction

Equations (2)

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g 1 ( τ )= 0 P( Y ) 0 1 P( y )[ Y k 2 ( y ) Δ r 1 2 ( τ ) +( 1y ) Δ r 2 2 ( τ ) 3 ] dydY
K 2 = 2β T 0 T ( 1 τ T ) | g 1 ( τ ) g 1 ( 0 ) | 2 dτ

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