Abstract

The discrimination accuracy for human and nonhuman blood is important for customs inspection and forensic applications. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has shown effectiveness in analyzing blood droplets and stains with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. However, the discrimination of liquid whole blood in a vacuum blood tube using Raman spectroscopy, which is a form of noncontact and nondestructive detection, has not been achieved. An excitation wavelength of 532 nm was chosen to avoid the fluorescent background of the blood tube, at the cost of reduced spectroscopic information and discrimination accuracy. To improve the accuracy and true positive rate (TPR) for human blood, a dual-model analysis method is proposed. First, model 1 was used to discriminate human-unlike nonhuman blood. Model 2 was then used to discriminate human-like nonhuman blood from the “human blood” obtained by model 1. A total of 332 Raman spectra from 10 species were used to build and validate the model. A blind test and external validation demonstrated the effectiveness of the model. Compared with the results obtained by the single partial least-squares model, the discrimination performance was improved. The total accuracy and TPR, which are highly important for practical applications, increased to 99.1% and 97.4% from 87.2% and 90.6%, respectively.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  3. L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).
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  5. Y. Y. Shen, X. Chen, and R. W. Murphy, “Assessing DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and data quality control,” PLoS One 8(2), e57125 (2013).
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  7. I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).
  8. H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. E. O. Espinoza, M. A. Kirms, and M. S. Filipek, “Identification and quantitation of source from hemoglobin of blood and blood mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography,” J. Forensic Sci. 41(5), 804–811 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. K. M. Elkins, “Rapid presumptive “Fingerprinting” of Body Fluids and Materials by ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy,” J. Forensic Sci. 56(6), 1580–1587 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis,” Anal. Chem. 81(18), 7773–7777 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood for species identification,” Anal. Chem. 86(23), 11628–11633 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. K. C. Doty and I. K. Lednev, “Differentiation of human blood from animal blood using Raman spectroscopy: A survey of forensically relevant species,” Forensic Sci. Int. 282, 204–210 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. I. Guyon, J. Weston, S. Barnhill, and V. Vapnik, “Gene selection for cancer classification using support vector machines,” Mach. Learn. 46(1/3), 389–422 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  24. L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. Bian and J. Gao, “Error analysis of the spectral shift for partial least squares models in Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8016–8027 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. S. J. Baek, A. Park, Y. J. Ahn, and J. Choo, “Baseline correction using asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares smoothing,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(1), 250–257 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (2)

K. C. Doty and I. K. Lednev, “Differentiation of human blood from animal blood using Raman spectroscopy: A survey of forensically relevant species,” Forensic Sci. Int. 282, 204–210 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bian and J. Gao, “Error analysis of the spectral shift for partial least squares models in Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8016–8027 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

X. Wan, J. Wang, P. X. Liu, and T. T. Zhang, “Identification of animal whole blood based on near infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 36(1), 80–83 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (2)

E. Mistek and I. K. Lednev, “Identification of species’ blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(24), 7435–7442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Baek, A. Park, Y. J. Ahn, and J. Choo, “Baseline correction using asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares smoothing,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(1), 250–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood for species identification,” Anal. Chem. 86(23), 11628–11633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int. 238, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Y. Shen, X. Chen, and R. W. Murphy, “Assessing DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and data quality control,” PLoS One 8(2), e57125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

2012 (1)

N. Suwa, H. Ikegaya, T. Takasaka, K. Nishigaki, and K. Sakurada, “Human blood identification using the genome profiling method,” Leg. Med. (Tokyo) 14(3), 121–125 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

D. L. Dalton and A. Kotze, “DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification in three forensic wildlife cases in South Africa,” Forensic Sci. Int. 207(1-3), e51–e54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Elkins, “Rapid presumptive “Fingerprinting” of Body Fluids and Materials by ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy,” J. Forensic Sci. 56(6), 1580–1587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis,” Anal. Chem. 81(18), 7773–7777 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene,” Forensic Sci. Int. 188(1-3), 1–17 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

I. Guyon, J. Weston, S. Barnhill, and V. Vapnik, “Gene selection for cancer classification using support vector machines,” Mach. Learn. 46(1/3), 389–422 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

E. O. Espinoza, M. A. Kirms, and M. S. Filipek, “Identification and quantitation of source from hemoglobin of blood and blood mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography,” J. Forensic Sci. 41(5), 804–811 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, T.

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. J.

S. J. Baek, A. Park, Y. J. Ahn, and J. Choo, “Baseline correction using asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares smoothing,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(1), 250–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aly, I.

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

Aswad, B. W. E. I.

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

Baek, S. J.

S. J. Baek, A. Park, Y. J. Ahn, and J. Choo, “Baseline correction using asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares smoothing,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(1), 250–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, P.

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

Barnhill, S.

I. Guyon, J. Weston, S. Barnhill, and V. Vapnik, “Gene selection for cancer classification using support vector machines,” Mach. Learn. 46(1/3), 389–422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bian, H.

H. Bian and J. Gao, “Error analysis of the spectral shift for partial least squares models in Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8016–8027 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Y. Y. Shen, X. Chen, and R. W. Murphy, “Assessing DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and data quality control,” PLoS One 8(2), e57125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choo, J.

S. J. Baek, A. Park, Y. J. Ahn, and J. Choo, “Baseline correction using asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares smoothing,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(1), 250–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalton, D. L.

D. L. Dalton and A. Kotze, “DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification in three forensic wildlife cases in South Africa,” Forensic Sci. Int. 207(1-3), e51–e54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diab, T.

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

Doty, K. C.

K. C. Doty and I. K. Lednev, “Differentiation of human blood from animal blood using Raman spectroscopy: A survey of forensically relevant species,” Forensic Sci. Int. 282, 204–210 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood for species identification,” Anal. Chem. 86(23), 11628–11633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int. 238, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekhoff, J. A.

E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elkins, K. M.

K. M. Elkins, “Rapid presumptive “Fingerprinting” of Body Fluids and Materials by ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy,” J. Forensic Sci. 56(6), 1580–1587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Espinoza, E. O.

E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Espinoza, M. A. Kirms, and M. S. Filipek, “Identification and quantitation of source from hemoglobin of blood and blood mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography,” J. Forensic Sci. 41(5), 804–811 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filipek, M. S.

E. O. Espinoza, M. A. Kirms, and M. S. Filipek, “Identification and quantitation of source from hemoglobin of blood and blood mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography,” J. Forensic Sci. 41(5), 804–811 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, Z.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

Fujihara, J.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, Y.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

H. Bian and J. Gao, “Error analysis of the spectral shift for partial least squares models in Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8016–8027 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

Göbel, U. B.

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldenberg, O.

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, K. M.

E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graf, B.

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, Y.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

Guyon, I.

I. Guyon, J. Weston, S. Barnhill, and V. Vapnik, “Gene selection for cancer classification using support vector machines,” Mach. Learn. 46(1/3), 389–422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, S.

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, G.

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikegaya, H.

N. Suwa, H. Ikegaya, T. Takasaka, K. Nishigaki, and K. Sakurada, “Human blood identification using the genome profiling method,” Leg. Med. (Tokyo) 14(3), 121–125 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, H.

H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwasa, M.

H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura-Kataoka, K.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirms, M. A.

E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Espinoza, M. A. Kirms, and M. S. Filipek, “Identification and quantitation of source from hemoglobin of blood and blood mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography,” J. Forensic Sci. 41(5), 804–811 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kotze, A.

D. L. Dalton and A. Kotze, “DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification in three forensic wildlife cases in South Africa,” Forensic Sci. Int. 207(1-3), e51–e54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurata, S.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lednev, I. K.

K. C. Doty and I. K. Lednev, “Differentiation of human blood from animal blood using Raman spectroscopy: A survey of forensically relevant species,” Forensic Sci. Int. 282, 204–210 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Mistek and I. K. Lednev, “Identification of species’ blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(24), 7435–7442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood for species identification,” Anal. Chem. 86(23), 11628–11633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int. 238, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis,” Anal. Chem. 81(18), 7773–7777 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene,” Forensic Sci. Int. 188(1-3), 1–17 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).

Li, H.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).

Li, Y.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

Liang, Y. Z.

Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).

Lindley, N. C.

E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, P. X.

X. Wan, J. Wang, P. X. Liu, and T. T. Zhang, “Identification of animal whole blood based on near infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 36(1), 80–83 (2016).
[PubMed]

Maeno, Y.

H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marjoram, G.

O. Goldenberg, S. Herrmann, T. Adam, G. Marjoram, G. Hong, U. B. Göbel, and B. Graf, “Use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography for rapid detection and identification of seven Candida species,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 43(12), 5912–5915 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masound, B. M.

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

McLaughlin, G.

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int. 238, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood for species identification,” Anal. Chem. 86(23), 11628–11633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mistek, E.

E. Mistek and I. K. Lednev, “Identification of species’ blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(24), 7435–7442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moharm, I. M.

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

Murphy, R. W.

Y. Y. Shen, X. Chen, and R. W. Murphy, “Assessing DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and data quality control,” PLoS One 8(2), e57125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishigaki, K.

N. Suwa, H. Ikegaya, T. Takasaka, K. Nishigaki, and K. Sakurada, “Human blood identification using the genome profiling method,” Leg. Med. (Tokyo) 14(3), 121–125 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishimoto, N.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, A.

S. J. Baek, A. Park, Y. J. Ahn, and J. Choo, “Baseline correction using asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares smoothing,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(1), 250–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakurada, K.

N. Suwa, H. Ikegaya, T. Takasaka, K. Nishigaki, and K. Sakurada, “Human blood identification using the genome profiling method,” Leg. Med. (Tokyo) 14(3), 121–125 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Shen, X. Chen, and R. W. Murphy, “Assessing DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and data quality control,” PLoS One 8(2), e57125 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, M.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

Suwa, N.

N. Suwa, H. Ikegaya, T. Takasaka, K. Nishigaki, and K. Sakurada, “Human blood identification using the genome profiling method,” Leg. Med. (Tokyo) 14(3), 121–125 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takabe, F.

H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takasaka, T.

N. Suwa, H. Ikegaya, T. Takasaka, K. Nishigaki, and K. Sakurada, “Human blood identification using the genome profiling method,” Leg. Med. (Tokyo) 14(3), 121–125 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takenaka, O.

H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeshita, H.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takinami, Y.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Y.

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vapnik, V.

I. Guyon, J. Weston, S. Barnhill, and V. Vapnik, “Gene selection for cancer classification using support vector machines,” Mach. Learn. 46(1/3), 389–422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Virkler, K.

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis,” Anal. Chem. 81(18), 7773–7777 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene,” Forensic Sci. Int. 188(1-3), 1–17 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, X.

X. Wan, J. Wang, P. X. Liu, and T. T. Zhang, “Identification of animal whole blood based on near infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 36(1), 80–83 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wan, J. Wang, P. X. Liu, and T. T. Zhang, “Identification of animal whole blood based on near infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 36(1), 80–83 (2016).
[PubMed]

Wang, N.

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

Weston, J.

I. Guyon, J. Weston, S. Barnhill, and V. Vapnik, “Gene selection for cancer classification using support vector machines,” Mach. Learn. 46(1/3), 389–422 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, T.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, W.

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, T.

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

H. Bian, P. Wang, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, P. Bai, X. Wu, N. Wang, Y. Tang, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using Raman spectroscopy with self-reference algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(9), 1–7 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zalat, R.

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, ““Optimal wavelength selection for visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy discriminating human and nonhuman blood species,” Anal,” Methods-UK 8(2), 381–385 (2016).

L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).

Zhang, S.

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T. T.

X. Wan, J. Wang, P. X. Liu, and T. T. Zhang, “Identification of animal whole blood based on near infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 36(1), 80–83 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhang, Z. M.

Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, M.

L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

E. Mistek and I. K. Lednev, “Identification of species’ blood by attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 407(24), 7435–7442 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

E. O. Espinoza, N. C. Lindley, K. M. Gordon, J. A. Ekhoff, and M. A. Kirms, “Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analysis of blood for differentiation of species,” Anal. Biochem. 268(2), 252–261 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis,” Anal. Chem. 81(18), 7773–7777 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Raman spectroscopy of blood for species identification,” Anal. Chem. 86(23), 11628–11633 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Lett. (1)

P. Bai, J. Wang, H. Yin, Y. Tian, W. Yao, and J. Gao, “Discrimination of Human and Nonhuman Blood by Raman Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis,” Anal. Lett. 50(2), 379–388 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anal. Methods-UK (1)

L. Zhang, M. Zhou, X. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Anal. Methods-UK 6(23), 9419–9423 (2014).

Analyst (Lond.) (2)

Z. M. Zhang, S. Chen, and Y. Z. Liang, “Baseline correction using adaptive iteratively reweighted penalized least squares,” Analyst (Lond.) 135(5), 1138–1146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Baek, A. Park, Y. J. Ahn, and J. Choo, “Baseline correction using asymmetrically reweighted penalized least squares smoothing,” Analyst (Lond.) 140(1), 250–257 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forensic Sci. Int. (4)

G. McLaughlin, K. C. Doty, and I. K. Lednev, “Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy,” Forensic Sci. Int. 238, 91–95 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Virkler and I. K. Lednev, “Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene,” Forensic Sci. Int. 188(1-3), 1–17 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Dalton and A. Kotze, “DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification in three forensic wildlife cases in South Africa,” Forensic Sci. Int. 207(1-3), e51–e54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Doty and I. K. Lednev, “Differentiation of human blood from animal blood using Raman spectroscopy: A survey of forensically relevant species,” Forensic Sci. Int. 282, 204–210 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi (1)

X. Wan, J. Wang, P. X. Liu, and T. T. Zhang, “Identification of animal whole blood based on near infrared transmission spectroscopy,” Guangpuxue Yu Guangpu Fenxi 36(1), 80–83 (2016).
[PubMed]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (2)

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, Z. Wang, H. Li, Y. Li, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Blood species identification using Near-Infrared diffuse transmitted spectra and PLS-DA method,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 76, 587–591 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Zhang, M. Sun, H. Li, Y. Li, Z. Fu, Y. Guan, G. Li, and L. Lin, “Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 81, 210–214 (2017).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Legal Med. (2)

J. Fujihara, Y. Fujita, T. Yamamoto, N. Nishimoto, K. Kimura-Kataoka, S. Kurata, Y. Takinami, T. Yasuda, and H. Takeshita, “Blood identification and discrimination between human and nonhuman blood using portable Raman spectroscopy,” Int. J. Legal Med. 131(2), 319–322 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Inoue, F. Takabe, O. Takenaka, M. Iwasa, and Y. Maeno, “Species identification of blood and bloodstains by high-performance liquid chromatography,” Int. J. Legal Med. 104(1), 9–12 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. (1)

I. Aly, R. Zalat, B. W. E. I. Aswad, I. M. Moharm, B. M. Masound, and T. Diab, “Novel nanomagnetic beads based–latex agglutination assay for rapid diagnosis of human schistosomiasis haematobium,” Int. J. Med. Health Biomed. Pharm. Eng. 7(12), 642–647 (2013).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Raman spectra of blood originating from different species.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Flow charts of the (a) single-model and (b) dual-model methods.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Predicted value obtained by model 1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Predicted value obtained by model 2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Predicted value of the blind test and external validation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Predicted value obtained by the traditional PLS model.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 ROC curves of human blood versus nonhuman blood. (a) Result obtained by the dual-model analysis method (area under the ROC curve is 0.998). (b) Result obtained by the traditional single-model analysis method (area under the ROC curve is 0.947).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Blind Test and External Validation

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of Dual-Model and Traditional Single-Model Methods

Metrics