Abstract

The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of radial and cylindrical light distributions on the response of vascular tissue during 1470-nm irradiation in ex vivo models. Due to a low irradiance (5.3 W/cm2) and wide light distribution, cylindrically diffusing irradiation yielded uniform thermal coagulation while radial irradiation accompanied delamination of layers in leporine veins. Bovine foot model testing verified that the diffusing irradiation was associated with the steady maximum temperature and no tissue attachment, compared with the radial irradiation. The proposed cylindrical light application can be a feasible way to treat varicose veins in an effective manner.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  24. T. H. Nguyen, Y. H. Rhee, J. C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Circumferential irradiation for interstitial coagulation of urethral stricture,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20829–20840 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. N. Iida, “Physical properties of resistance vessel wall in peripheral blood flow regulation-I. Mathematical model,” J. Biomech. 22(2), 109–117 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. T. M. Proebstle, T. Moehler, D. Gül, and S. Herdemann, “Endovenous treatment of the great saphenous vein using a 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser causes fewer side effects than using a 940 nm diode laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(12), 1678–1683, discussion 1683–1684 (2005).
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

M. S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, S.-C. Noh, and H.-H. Choi, “Thermal characteristics of non-biological vessel phantoms for treatment of varicose veins using high-intensity focused ultrasound,” PLoS One 12(4), e0174922 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Cowpland, A. L. Cleese, and M. S. Whiteley, “Factors affecting optimal linear endovenous energy density for endovenous laser ablation in incompetent lower limb truncal veins - A review of the clinical evidence,” Phlebology 32(5), 299–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

T. F. Fehm, X. L. Deán-Ben, P. Schaur, R. Sroka, and D. Razansky, “Volumetric optoacoustic imaging feedback during endovenous laser therapy - an ex vivo investigation,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 934–941 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

S. J. Goodyear and I. K. Nyamekye, “Radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins: Best practice techniques and evidence,” Phlebology 30(2), 9–17 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Alder and T. Lees, “Foam sclerotherapy,” Phlebology 30(2), 18–23 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hirokawa, T. Ogawa, H. Sugawara, S. Shokoku, and S. Sato, “Comparison of 1470 nm laser and radial 2ring fiber with 980 nm laser and bare-tip fiber in endovenous laser ablation of saphenous varicose veins: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, non-blind study,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 8(4), 282–289 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, Y. H. Rhee, J. C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Circumferential irradiation for interstitial coagulation of urethral stricture,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20829–20840 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Stokbroekx, A. de Boer, R. M. Verdaasdonk, M. E. Vuylsteke, and S. R. Mordon, “Commonly used fiber tips in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): an analysis of technical differences,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 501–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hirokawa and N. Kurihara, “Comparison of bare-tip and radial fiber in endovenous laser ablation with 1470 nm diode laser,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 7(3), 239–245 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. van Ruijven, A. A. Poluektova, M. J. van Gemert, H. A. Neumann, T. Nijsten, and C. W. van der Geld, “Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 431–439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. van den Bos, R. Milleret, M. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Proof-of-principle study of steam ablation as novel thermal therapy for saphenous varicose veins,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(1), 181–186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. Q. Ontario, “Endovascular laser therapy for varicose veins: an evidence-based analysis,” Ont. Health Technol. Assess. Ser. 10(6), 1–92 (2010).
[PubMed]

R. Sroka, K. Weick, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. Steckmeier, and C. G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy--application studies and latest investigations,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 269–276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. D. Raffetto and R. A. Khalil, “Mechanisms of varicose vein formation: valve dysfunction and wall dilation,” Phlebology 23(2), 85–98 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. van den Bos, M. A. Kockaert, H. A. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Technical review of endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 35(1), 88–95 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. E. Zimmet, M. R. Boisseau, M. Kendler, and M. C. Dalsing, “Endovenous laser ablation,” Phlebolymphology 14, 51–58 (2007).

2005 (1)

T. M. Proebstle, T. Moehler, D. Gül, and S. Herdemann, “Endovenous treatment of the great saphenous vein using a 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser causes fewer side effects than using a 940 nm diode laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(12), 1678–1683, discussion 1683–1684 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. M. Kaplan, M. H. Criqui, J. O. Denenberg, J. Bergan, and A. Fronek, “Quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: San Diego population study,” J. Vasc. Surg. 37(5), 1047–1053 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. J. Smith, M. G. Guest, R. M. Greenhalgh, and A. H. Davies, “Measuring the quality of life in patients with venous ulcers,” J. Vasc. Surg. 31(4), 642–649 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

N. Iida, “Physical properties of resistance vessel wall in peripheral blood flow regulation-I. Mathematical model,” J. Biomech. 22(2), 109–117 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. C.

Alder, G.

G. Alder and T. Lees, “Foam sclerotherapy,” Phlebology 30(2), 18–23 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araujo, W. J. B.

F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Arslan, Ü.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babaryka, G.

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barth, H.

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Belyaev, A. N.

A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergan, J.

R. M. Kaplan, M. H. Criqui, J. O. Denenberg, J. Bergan, and A. Fronek, “Quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: San Diego population study,” J. Vasc. Surg. 37(5), 1047–1053 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blagova, R.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boisseau, M. R.

S. E. Zimmet, M. R. Boisseau, M. Kendler, and M. C. Dalsing, “Endovenous laser ablation,” Phlebolymphology 14, 51–58 (2007).

Bruijninckx, C. M.

A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgmeier, C.

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Çalik, E.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caron, F. C.

F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chabushkin, A. N.

A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H.-H.

M. S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, S.-C. Noh, and H.-H. Choi, “Thermal characteristics of non-biological vessel phantoms for treatment of varicose veins using high-intensity focused ultrasound,” PLoS One 12(4), e0174922 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cleese, A. L.

C. A. Cowpland, A. L. Cleese, and M. S. Whiteley, “Factors affecting optimal linear endovenous energy density for endovenous laser ablation in incompetent lower limb truncal veins - A review of the clinical evidence,” Phlebology 32(5), 299–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comerota, A. J.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowpland, C. A.

C. A. Cowpland, A. L. Cleese, and M. S. Whiteley, “Factors affecting optimal linear endovenous energy density for endovenous laser ablation in incompetent lower limb truncal veins - A review of the clinical evidence,” Phlebology 32(5), 299–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Criqui, M. H.

R. M. Kaplan, M. H. Criqui, J. O. Denenberg, J. Bergan, and A. Fronek, “Quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: San Diego population study,” J. Vasc. Surg. 37(5), 1047–1053 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dag, Ö.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
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S. E. Zimmet, M. R. Boisseau, M. Kendler, and M. C. Dalsing, “Endovenous laser ablation,” Phlebolymphology 14, 51–58 (2007).

Davies, A. H.

J. J. Smith, M. G. Guest, R. M. Greenhalgh, and A. H. Davies, “Measuring the quality of life in patients with venous ulcers,” J. Vasc. Surg. 31(4), 642–649 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Boer, A.

T. Stokbroekx, A. de Boer, R. M. Verdaasdonk, M. E. Vuylsteke, and S. R. Mordon, “Commonly used fiber tips in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): an analysis of technical differences,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 501–507 (2014).
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Deán-Ben, X. L.

T. F. Fehm, X. L. Deán-Ben, P. Schaur, R. Sroka, and D. Razansky, “Volumetric optoacoustic imaging feedback during endovenous laser therapy - an ex vivo investigation,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 934–941 (2016).
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R. M. Kaplan, M. H. Criqui, J. O. Denenberg, J. Bergan, and A. Fronek, “Quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: San Diego population study,” J. Vasc. Surg. 37(5), 1047–1053 (2003).
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P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erkut, B.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
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Fehm, T. F.

T. F. Fehm, X. L. Deán-Ben, P. Schaur, R. Sroka, and D. Razansky, “Volumetric optoacoustic imaging feedback during endovenous laser therapy - an ex vivo investigation,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 934–941 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fourneau, I.

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
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R. M. Kaplan, M. H. Criqui, J. O. Denenberg, J. Bergan, and A. Fronek, “Quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: San Diego population study,” J. Vasc. Surg. 37(5), 1047–1053 (2003).
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P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
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Gloviczki, M. L.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gloviczki, P.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. J. Goodyear and I. K. Nyamekye, “Radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins: Best practice techniques and evidence,” Phlebology 30(2), 9–17 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenhalgh, R. M.

J. J. Smith, M. G. Guest, R. M. Greenhalgh, and A. H. Davies, “Measuring the quality of life in patients with venous ulcers,” J. Vasc. Surg. 31(4), 642–649 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guest, M. G.

J. J. Smith, M. G. Guest, R. M. Greenhalgh, and A. H. Davies, “Measuring the quality of life in patients with venous ulcers,” J. Vasc. Surg. 31(4), 642–649 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gül, D.

T. M. Proebstle, T. Moehler, D. Gül, and S. Herdemann, “Endovenous treatment of the great saphenous vein using a 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser causes fewer side effects than using a 940 nm diode laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(12), 1678–1683, discussion 1683–1684 (2005).
[PubMed]

Herdemann, S.

T. M. Proebstle, T. Moehler, D. Gül, and S. Herdemann, “Endovenous treatment of the great saphenous vein using a 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser causes fewer side effects than using a 940 nm diode laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(12), 1678–1683, discussion 1683–1684 (2005).
[PubMed]

Hirokawa, M.

M. Hirokawa, T. Ogawa, H. Sugawara, S. Shokoku, and S. Sato, “Comparison of 1470 nm laser and radial 2ring fiber with 980 nm laser and bare-tip fiber in endovenous laser ablation of saphenous varicose veins: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, non-blind study,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 8(4), 282–289 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hirokawa and N. Kurihara, “Comparison of bare-tip and radial fiber in endovenous laser ablation with 1470 nm diode laser,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 7(3), 239–245 (2014).
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C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
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F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. W.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
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T. H. Nguyen, Y. H. Rhee, J. C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Circumferential irradiation for interstitial coagulation of urethral stricture,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20829–20840 (2015).
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R. M. Kaplan, M. H. Criqui, J. O. Denenberg, J. Bergan, and A. Fronek, “Quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: San Diego population study,” J. Vasc. Surg. 37(5), 1047–1053 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaygin, M. A.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kendler, M.

S. E. Zimmet, M. R. Boisseau, M. Kendler, and M. C. Dalsing, “Endovenous laser ablation,” Phlebolymphology 14, 51–58 (2007).

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J. D. Raffetto and R. A. Khalil, “Mechanisms of varicose vein formation: valve dysfunction and wall dilation,” Phlebology 23(2), 85–98 (2008).
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A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
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M. S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, S.-C. Noh, and H.-H. Choi, “Thermal characteristics of non-biological vessel phantoms for treatment of varicose veins using high-intensity focused ultrasound,” PLoS One 12(4), e0174922 (2017).
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Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, S.-C. Noh, and H.-H. Choi, “Thermal characteristics of non-biological vessel phantoms for treatment of varicose veins using high-intensity focused ultrasound,” PLoS One 12(4), e0174922 (2017).
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R. R. van den Bos, M. A. Kockaert, H. A. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Technical review of endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 35(1), 88–95 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurihara, N.

M. Hirokawa and N. Kurihara, “Comparison of bare-tip and radial fiber in endovenous laser ablation with 1470 nm diode laser,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 7(3), 239–245 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. L.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. W.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
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Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lohr, J. M.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lyapin, A. A.

A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
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A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinelli, T.

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLafferty, R. B.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meissner, M. H.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meissner, O. A.

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milleret, R.

R. R. van den Bos, R. Milleret, M. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Proof-of-principle study of steam ablation as novel thermal therapy for saphenous varicose veins,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(1), 181–186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moehler, T.

T. M. Proebstle, T. Moehler, D. Gül, and S. Herdemann, “Endovenous treatment of the great saphenous vein using a 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser causes fewer side effects than using a 940 nm diode laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(12), 1678–1683, discussion 1683–1684 (2005).
[PubMed]

Mordon, S.

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mordon, S. R.

T. Stokbroekx, A. de Boer, R. M. Verdaasdonk, M. E. Vuylsteke, and S. R. Mordon, “Commonly used fiber tips in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): an analysis of technical differences,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 501–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murad, M. H.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neumann, H. A.

P. W. van Ruijven, A. A. Poluektova, M. J. van Gemert, H. A. Neumann, T. Nijsten, and C. W. van der Geld, “Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 431–439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. van den Bos, M. A. Kockaert, H. A. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Technical review of endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 35(1), 88–95 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neumann, M.

R. R. van den Bos, R. Milleret, M. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Proof-of-principle study of steam ablation as novel thermal therapy for saphenous varicose veins,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(1), 181–186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

Nijsten, T.

P. W. van Ruijven, A. A. Poluektova, M. J. van Gemert, H. A. Neumann, T. Nijsten, and C. W. van der Geld, “Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 431–439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. van den Bos, R. Milleret, M. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Proof-of-principle study of steam ablation as novel thermal therapy for saphenous varicose veins,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(1), 181–186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. van den Bos, M. A. Kockaert, H. A. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Technical review of endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 35(1), 88–95 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S.-C.

M. S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, S.-C. Noh, and H.-H. Choi, “Thermal characteristics of non-biological vessel phantoms for treatment of varicose veins using high-intensity focused ultrasound,” PLoS One 12(4), e0174922 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nyamekye, I. K.

S. J. Goodyear and I. K. Nyamekye, “Radiofrequency ablation of varicose veins: Best practice techniques and evidence,” Phlebology 30(2), 9–17 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, T.

M. Hirokawa, T. Ogawa, H. Sugawara, S. Shokoku, and S. Sato, “Comparison of 1470 nm laser and radial 2ring fiber with 980 nm laser and bare-tip fiber in endovenous laser ablation of saphenous varicose veins: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, non-blind study,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 8(4), 282–289 (2015).
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H. Q. Ontario, “Endovascular laser therapy for varicose veins: an evidence-based analysis,” Ont. Health Technol. Assess. Ser. 10(6), 1–92 (2010).
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Padberg, F. T.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pappas, P. J.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passman, M. A.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, N. T.

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poluektova, A. A.

A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. van Ruijven, A. A. Poluektova, M. J. van Gemert, H. A. Neumann, T. Nijsten, and C. W. van der Geld, “Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 431–439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pongratz, T.

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proebstle, T. M.

T. M. Proebstle, T. Moehler, D. Gül, and S. Herdemann, “Endovenous treatment of the great saphenous vein using a 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser causes fewer side effects than using a 940 nm diode laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(12), 1678–1683, discussion 1683–1684 (2005).
[PubMed]

Raffetto, J. D.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Raffetto and R. A. Khalil, “Mechanisms of varicose vein formation: valve dysfunction and wall dilation,” Phlebology 23(2), 85–98 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razansky, D.

T. F. Fehm, X. L. Deán-Ben, P. Schaur, R. Sroka, and D. Razansky, “Volumetric optoacoustic imaging feedback during endovenous laser therapy - an ex vivo investigation,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 934–941 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhee, Y. H.

Roelens, J.

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanov, K. N.

A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruppert, V.

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryabochkina, P. A.

A. N. Belyaev, A. N. Chabushkin, S. A. Khrushchalina, O. A. Kuznetsova, A. A. Lyapin, K. N. Romanov, and P. A. Ryabochkina, “Investigation of endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins in vitro using 1.885-μm laser radiation,” Lasers Med. Sci. 31(3), 503–510 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadeghi-Azandaryani, M.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sroka, K. Weick, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. Steckmeier, and C. G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy--application studies and latest investigations,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 269–276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, S.

M. Hirokawa, T. Ogawa, H. Sugawara, S. Shokoku, and S. Sato, “Comparison of 1470 nm laser and radial 2ring fiber with 980 nm laser and bare-tip fiber in endovenous laser ablation of saphenous varicose veins: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, non-blind study,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 8(4), 282–289 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaur, P.

T. F. Fehm, X. L. Deán-Ben, P. Schaur, R. Sroka, and D. Razansky, “Volumetric optoacoustic imaging feedback during endovenous laser therapy - an ex vivo investigation,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 934–941 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmedt, C.

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schmedt, C. G.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. Steckmeier, and C. G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy--application studies and latest investigations,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 269–276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmedt, C.-G.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seme, C.

F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shokoku, S.

M. Hirokawa, T. Ogawa, H. Sugawara, S. Shokoku, and S. Sato, “Comparison of 1470 nm laser and radial 2ring fiber with 980 nm laser and bare-tip fiber in endovenous laser ablation of saphenous varicose veins: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, non-blind study,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 8(4), 282–289 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegrist, K.

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. J.

J. J. Smith, M. G. Guest, R. M. Greenhalgh, and A. H. Davies, “Measuring the quality of life in patients with venous ulcers,” J. Vasc. Surg. 31(4), 642–649 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sroka, I.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sroka, R.

T. F. Fehm, X. L. Deán-Ben, P. Schaur, R. Sroka, and D. Razansky, “Volumetric optoacoustic imaging feedback during endovenous laser therapy - an ex vivo investigation,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 934–941 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sroka, K. Weick, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. Steckmeier, and C. G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy--application studies and latest investigations,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 269–276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steckmaier, B.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steckmaier, S.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steckmeier, B.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. Steckmeier, and C. G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy--application studies and latest investigations,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 269–276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steckmeier, B. M.

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stokbroekx, T.

T. Stokbroekx, A. de Boer, R. M. Verdaasdonk, M. E. Vuylsteke, and S. R. Mordon, “Commonly used fiber tips in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): an analysis of technical differences,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 501–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugawara, H.

M. Hirokawa, T. Ogawa, H. Sugawara, S. Shokoku, and S. Sato, “Comparison of 1470 nm laser and radial 2ring fiber with 980 nm laser and bare-tip fiber in endovenous laser ablation of saphenous varicose veins: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, non-blind study,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 8(4), 282–289 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tekin, A. I.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Timi, J. R. R.

F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tort, M.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van den Bos, R. R.

R. R. van den Bos, R. Milleret, M. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Proof-of-principle study of steam ablation as novel thermal therapy for saphenous varicose veins,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(1), 181–186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. van den Bos, M. A. Kockaert, H. A. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Technical review of endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 35(1), 88–95 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Geld, C. W.

A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. van Ruijven, A. A. Poluektova, M. J. van Gemert, H. A. Neumann, T. Nijsten, and C. W. van der Geld, “Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 431–439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, J.

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

P. W. van Ruijven, A. A. Poluektova, M. J. van Gemert, H. A. Neumann, T. Nijsten, and C. W. van der Geld, “Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 431–439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Ruijven, P. W.

P. W. van Ruijven, A. A. Poluektova, M. J. van Gemert, H. A. Neumann, T. Nijsten, and C. W. van der Geld, “Optical-thermal mathematical model for endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 431–439 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasquez, M. A.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verdaasdonk, R. M.

T. Stokbroekx, A. de Boer, R. M. Verdaasdonk, M. E. Vuylsteke, and S. R. Mordon, “Commonly used fiber tips in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): an analysis of technical differences,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 501–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vuylsteke, M. E.

T. Stokbroekx, A. de Boer, R. M. Verdaasdonk, M. E. Vuylsteke, and S. R. Mordon, “Commonly used fiber tips in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA): an analysis of technical differences,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 501–507 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Poluektova, W. S. Malskat, M. J. van Gemert, M. E. Vuylsteke, C. M. Bruijninckx, H. A. Neumann, and C. W. van der Geld, “Some controversies in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins addressed by optical-thermal mathematical modeling,” Lasers Med. Sci. 29(2), 441–452 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wakefield, T. W.

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weick, K.

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sroka, K. Weick, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. Steckmeier, and C. G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy--application studies and latest investigations,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 269–276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whiteley, M. S.

C. A. Cowpland, A. L. Cleese, and M. S. Whiteley, “Factors affecting optimal linear endovenous energy density for endovenous laser ablation in incompetent lower limb truncal veins - A review of the clinical evidence,” Phlebology 32(5), 299–306 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yildiz, Z.

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmet, S. E.

S. E. Zimmet, M. R. Boisseau, M. Kendler, and M. C. Dalsing, “Endovenous laser ablation,” Phlebolymphology 14, 51–58 (2007).

ALTEX (1)

R. Sroka, K. Weick, S. Steckmaier, B. Steckmaier, R. Blagova, I. Sroka, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, J. Maier, and C.-G. Schmedt, “The ox-foot-model for investigating endoluminal thermal treatment modalities of varicosis vein diseases,” ALTEX 29(4), 403–410 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Vasc. Dis. (2)

M. Hirokawa, T. Ogawa, H. Sugawara, S. Shokoku, and S. Sato, “Comparison of 1470 nm laser and radial 2ring fiber with 980 nm laser and bare-tip fiber in endovenous laser ablation of saphenous varicose veins: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, non-blind study,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 8(4), 282–289 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hirokawa and N. Kurihara, “Comparison of bare-tip and radial fiber in endovenous laser ablation with 1470 nm diode laser,” Ann. Vasc. Dis. 7(3), 239–245 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Vasc. Surg. (1)

Ü. Arslan, E. Çalık, M. Tort, Z. Yıldız, A. İ. Tekin, H. K. Limandal, M. A. Kaygın, Ö. Dağ, and B. Erkut, “More Successful Results with Less Energy in Endovenous Laser Ablation Treatment: Long-term Comparison of Bare-tip Fiber 980 nm Laser and Radial-tip Fiber 1470 nm Laser Application,” Ann. Vasc. Surg. 45, 166–172 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

T. M. Proebstle, T. Moehler, D. Gül, and S. Herdemann, “Endovenous treatment of the great saphenous vein using a 1,320 nm Nd:YAG laser causes fewer side effects than using a 940 nm diode laser,” Dermatol. Surg. 31(12), 1678–1683, discussion 1683–1684 (2005).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. (2)

R. R. van den Bos, M. A. Kockaert, H. A. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Technical review of endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 35(1), 88–95 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Vuylsteke, T. Martinelli, J. Van Dorpe, J. Roelens, S. Mordon, and I. Fourneau, “Endovenous laser ablation: the role of intraluminal blood,” Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 42(1), 120–126 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. (1)

N. Iida, “Physical properties of resistance vessel wall in peripheral blood flow regulation-I. Mathematical model,” J. Biomech. 22(2), 109–117 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. T. Pham, S. L. Lee, S. Park, Y. W. Lee, and H. W. Kang, “Real-time temperature monitoring with fiber Bragg grating sensor during diffuser-assisted laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 045008 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (2)

T. F. Fehm, X. L. Deán-Ben, P. Schaur, R. Sroka, and D. Razansky, “Volumetric optoacoustic imaging feedback during endovenous laser therapy - an ex vivo investigation,” J. Biophotonics 9(9), 934–941 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sroka, K. Weick, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. Steckmeier, and C. G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy--application studies and latest investigations,” J. Biophotonics 3(5-6), 269–276 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Bras. (1)

F. L. Erzinger, W. J. B. Araujo, N. Junior, C. Seme, F. C. Caron, and J. R. R. Timi, “Comparative study of great saphenous vein ablation in the thigh, with and without tumescence,” J. Vasc. Bras. 15, 217–223 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Vasc. Surg. (5)

C.-G. Schmedt, O. A. Meissner, K. Hunger, G. Babaryka, V. Ruppert, M. Sadeghi-Azandaryani, B. M. Steckmeier, and R. Sroka, “Evaluation of endovenous radiofrequency ablation and laser therapy with endoluminal optical coherence tomography in an ex vivo model,” J. Vasc. Surg. 45(5), 1047–1058 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Gloviczki, A. J. Comerota, M. C. Dalsing, B. G. Eklof, D. L. Gillespie, M. L. Gloviczki, J. M. Lohr, R. B. McLafferty, M. H. Meissner, M. H. Murad, F. T. Padberg, P. J. Pappas, M. A. Passman, J. D. Raffetto, M. A. Vasquez, and T. W. Wakefield, “The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(5), 2S–48S (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Kaplan, M. H. Criqui, J. O. Denenberg, J. Bergan, and A. Fronek, “Quality of life in patients with chronic venous disease: San Diego population study,” J. Vasc. Surg. 37(5), 1047–1053 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Smith, M. G. Guest, R. M. Greenhalgh, and A. H. Davies, “Measuring the quality of life in patients with venous ulcers,” J. Vasc. Surg. 31(4), 642–649 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. van den Bos, R. Milleret, M. Neumann, and T. Nijsten, “Proof-of-principle study of steam ablation as novel thermal therapy for saphenous varicose veins,” J. Vasc. Surg. 53(1), 181–186 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci. (4)

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Opt. Express (1)

Phlebologie (1)

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, K. Siegrist, C. Burgmeier, H. Barth, and C. Schmedt, “Endovenous Laser Application,” Phlebologie 42(03), 121–129 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phlebology (4)

C. A. Cowpland, A. L. Cleese, and M. S. Whiteley, “Factors affecting optimal linear endovenous energy density for endovenous laser ablation in incompetent lower limb truncal veins - A review of the clinical evidence,” Phlebology 32(5), 299–306 (2017).
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PLoS One (1)

M. S. Kim, J.-Y. Kim, S.-C. Noh, and H.-H. Choi, “Thermal characteristics of non-biological vessel phantoms for treatment of varicose veins using high-intensity focused ultrasound,” PLoS One 12(4), e0174922 (2017).
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S. R. Mordon and M. E. Vuylsteke, “Varicose veins: endovenous laser treatment,” in Laser and IPL Technology in Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine (Springer, 2011), pp. 211–225.

R. Sroka, T. Pongratz, A. Esipova, S. Dikic, S. Demhasaj, F. Comsa, and C.-G. Schmedt, “Endovenous laser therapy for occlusion of incompetent saphenous veins using 1940nm,” in European Conference on Biomedical Optics(Optical Society of America, Munich, Germany, 2015), p. 95420D.

M. F. Somunyudan, N. Topaloglu, M. U. Ergenoglu, and M. Gulsoy, “Endovenous laser ablation with Tm-Fiber laser,” in Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXII (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), p. 789707.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of ex vivo 1470-nm laser irradiation on leporine veins (T: tip of radial fiber; P: proximal and D: distal tips of diffusing fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparative evaluations of spatial light distribution from radial and diffusing fibers: (a) He-Ne images, (b) longitudinal emissions, and (c) azimuthal angles (T: tip of radial fiber; P: proximal and D: distal tips of diffusing fiber).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Thermal profiles obtained from IR images in leporine veins (P = 5 W, no pull-back, and 7-s after irradiation): (a) 3D temperature profile (top: radial and bottom: diffusing; T: tip of radial fiber; P: proximal and D: distal tips of diffusing fiber) and (b) normalized temperature (TN) along longitudinal (top) and radial directions (bottom).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Temporal development of (a) temperature in leporine veins at P = 5 W and speed = 1.5 mm/s and 2D thermal images of (b) radial and (c) diffusing irradiation (black point = measured point; T: tip of radial fiber; P: proximal and D: distal tips of diffusing fiber; N = 5).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Thermal response of leporine vein tissues after 5-W 1470-nm laser irradiation: (a) mechanical deformation, (b) histology images and (c) shrinkage rates of area and axial length after EVLA (L: Lumen, M: tunica media, and A: tunica adventitia; N = 5; *: p < 0.05).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Thermal responses of bovine foot veins during 1470-nm EVLA (P = 6 W and speed = 1 mm/s): (a) captured IR images for radial (left) and diffusing (right) irradiation and (b) comparison of maximum temperature (N = 4; *: p < 0.05).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Evaluations of post-EVLA on bovine foot veins: (a) images of coagulated vein tissue and (b) quantitative comparison of flow rates among control (normal vein), radial-, and diffusing-treated veins (N = 4; *: p < 0.05 vs. control).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of treatment conditions for two ex-vivo models

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