Abstract

The failure to accurately define tumor margins during breast conserving surgery (BCS) results in a 20% re-excision rate. The present paper reports the investigation to evaluate the potential of terahertz imaging for breast tissue recognition within the under-explored 300 – 600 GHz range. Such a frequency window matches new BiCMOS technology capabilities and thus opens up the opportunity for near-field terahertz imaging using these devices. To assess the efficacy of this frequency band, data from 16 freshly excised breast tissue samples were collected and analyzed directly after excision. Complex refractive indices have been extracted over the as-mentioned frequency band, and amplitude frequency images show some contrast between tissue types. Principal component analysis (PCA) has also been applied to the data in an attempt to automate tissue classification. Our observations suggest that the dielectric response could potentially provide contrast for breast tissue recognition within the 300 – 600 GHz range. These results open the way for silicon-based terahertz subwavelength near field imager design, efficient up to 600 GHz to address ex vivo life-science applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2018 (1)

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Solid-State Terahertz Superresolution Imaging Device in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(11), 4357–4372 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Bowman, Y. Wu, J. Gauch, L. K. Campbell, and M. El-Shenawee, “Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(6), 766–786 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Grootendorst, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. G. Brouwer de Koning, A. Santaolalla, A. Portieri, M. Van Hemelrijck, M. R. Young, J. Owen, M. Cariati, M. Pepper, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Use of a handheld terahertz pulsed imaging device to differentiate benign and malignant breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2932–2945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, and V. P. Wallace, “Use of finite difference time domain simulations and Debye theory for modelling the terahertz reflection response of normal and tumour breast tissue,” PLoS One 9(7), e99291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the american society of breast surgeons mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Single-channel prototype terahertz endoscopic system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Oh, S.-H. Kim, Y. B. Ji, K. Jeong, Y. Park, J. Yang, D. W. Park, S. K. Noh, S.-G. Kang, Y.-M. Huh, J.-H. Son, and J.-S. Suh, “Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2837–2842 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: A review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417(1-2), 48–60 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

P. H. Siegel and V. Pikov, “Impact of low intensity millimetre waves on cell functions,” Electron. Lett. 46(26), S70 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: A quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid : water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 60–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. U. Jepsen, U. Møller, and H. Merbold, “Investigation of aqueous alcohol and sugar solutions with reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14717–14737 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 351–364, discussion 363–364 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Roman, O. Ichim, L. Sarger, V. Vigneras, and P. Mounaix, “Terahertz dielectric characterisation of polymethacrylimide rigid foam: The perfect sheer plate?” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1167 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abdi, H.

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alavi, K.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Single-channel prototype terahertz endoscopic system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Hamadani, M.

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the american society of breast surgeons mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Ibadi, A.

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Arbab, M. H.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashworth, P. C.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, K.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajwa, N.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balacey, H.

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bauer, T.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennett, D. B.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonn, M.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid : water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 60–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, B.

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowman, T.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bowman, Y. Wu, J. Gauch, L. K. Campbell, and M. El-Shenawee, “Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(6), 766–786 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brouwer de Koning, S. G.

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caddy, C. M.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, L. K.

T. Bowman, Y. Wu, J. Gauch, L. K. Campbell, and M. El-Shenawee, “Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(6), 766–786 (2017).
[Crossref]

Canioni, L.

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cariati, M.

Cassar, Q.

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Chakraborty, A.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chavez, T.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, A.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cromwell, D. A.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Culjat, M. O.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czasch, S.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Degnim, A. C.

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the american society of breast surgeons mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desbarats, P.

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dickey, T. C.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doradla, P.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Single-channel prototype terahertz endoscopic system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Shenawee, M.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bowman, Y. Wu, J. Gauch, L. K. Campbell, and M. El-Shenawee, “Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(6), 766–786 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

M. R. Grootendorst, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. G. Brouwer de Koning, A. Santaolalla, A. Portieri, M. Van Hemelrijck, M. R. Young, J. Owen, M. Cariati, M. Pepper, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Use of a handheld terahertz pulsed imaging device to differentiate benign and malignant breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2932–2945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, and V. P. Wallace, “Use of finite difference time domain simulations and Debye theory for modelling the terahertz reflection response of normal and tumour breast tissue,” PLoS One 9(7), e99291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Flanagan, N.

Frederique, L.

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gauch, J.

T. Bowman, Y. Wu, J. Gauch, L. K. Campbell, and M. El-Shenawee, “Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(6), 766–786 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giles, R.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Single-channel prototype terahertz endoscopic system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giles, R. H.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyette, T. M.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grootendorst, M. R.

Grundfest, W. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grzyb, J.

J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Solid-State Terahertz Superresolution Imaging Device in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(11), 4357–4372 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Guillet, J. P.

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Guillet, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P.

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ha, T.

He, Y.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heinemann, B.

J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Solid-State Terahertz Superresolution Imaging Device in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(11), 4357–4372 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hillger, P.

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Hochrein, T.

Huang, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hubschman, J.-P. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, Y.-M.

Ichim, O.

C. Roman, O. Ichim, L. Sarger, V. Vigneras, and P. Mounaix, “Terahertz dielectric characterisation of polymethacrylimide rigid foam: The perfect sheer plate?” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jansen, C.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: A quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jeevan, R.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, K.

Jepsen, P. U.

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jördens, C.

Joseph, C.

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Single-channel prototype terahertz endoscopic system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joseph, C. S.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kadlec, F.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kamataki, A.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S.-G.

Kealey, C. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kearins, O.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kempa, M.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khan, K.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid : water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 60–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

Klein, M. B.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: A quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koeberg, M.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid : water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 60–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krumbholz, N.

Kužel, P.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Landercasper, J.

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the american society of breast surgeons mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawrence, G.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacGrogan, G.

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Manek-Hönninger, I.

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mavarani, L.

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Merbold, H.

Miura, Y.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Møller, U.

Mounaix, P.

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Roman, O. Ichim, L. Sarger, V. Vigneras, and P. Mounaix, “Terahertz dielectric characterisation of polymethacrylimide rigid foam: The perfect sheer plate?” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1167 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Mourad, P. D.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neel, V. A.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemec, H.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nishizawa, J.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, S. K.

O’Kelly, P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. J.

Owen, J.

Park, D. W.

Park, Y.

Parrott, E. P. J.

Pashkin, A.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pepper, M.

Pereira, J.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perraud, J.-B. J.-B. B.

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peters, O.

Pfeiffer, U. R.

J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Solid-State Terahertz Superresolution Imaging Device in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(11), 4357–4372 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

S. Fan, E. P. J. Parrott, B. S. Y. Ung, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Calibration method to improve the accuracy of THz imaging and spectroscopy in reflection geometry,” Photon. Res. 4(3), A29–A35 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, and V. P. Wallace, “Use of finite difference time domain simulations and Debye theory for modelling the terahertz reflection response of normal and tumour breast tissue,” PLoS One 9(7), e99291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pikov, V.

P. H. Siegel and V. Pikov, “Impact of low intensity millimetre waves on cell functions,” Electron. Lett. 46(26), S70 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pinder, S.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinder, S. E.

Portieri, A.

Provenzano, E.

Purushotham, A.

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rajaram, N.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Recur, B.

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roman, C.

C. Roman, O. Ichim, L. Sarger, V. Vigneras, and P. Mounaix, “Terahertz dielectric characterisation of polymethacrylimide rigid foam: The perfect sheer plate?” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salhi, M.

Santaolalla, A.

Sarger, L.

C. Roman, O. Ichim, L. Sarger, V. Vigneras, and P. Mounaix, “Terahertz dielectric characterisation of polymethacrylimide rigid foam: The perfect sheer plate?” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, T.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawai, T.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scheller, M.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: A quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: A review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417(1-2), 48–60 (2011).
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Sheppard, C.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siebert, K.

T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, P. H.

P. H. Siegel and V. Pikov, “Impact of low intensity millimetre waves on cell functions,” Electron. Lett. 46(26), S70 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sleiman, J. B. J. B. J. B.

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

Son, J.-H.

Stojadinovic, A.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 351–364, discussion 363–364 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trivella, M.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ung, B. S.

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ung, B. S. Y.

Uzuki, M.

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Meulen, J. H. P.

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Hemelrijck, M.

Vieweg, N.

Vigneras, V.

C. Roman, O. Ichim, L. Sarger, V. Vigneras, and P. Mounaix, “Terahertz dielectric characterisation of polymethacrylimide rigid foam: The perfect sheer plate?” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wallace, V. P.

M. R. Grootendorst, A. J. Fitzgerald, S. G. Brouwer de Koning, A. Santaolalla, A. Portieri, M. Van Hemelrijck, M. R. Young, J. Owen, M. Cariati, M. Pepper, V. P. Wallace, S. E. Pinder, and A. Purushotham, “Use of a handheld terahertz pulsed imaging device to differentiate benign and malignant breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(6), 2932–2945 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, and V. P. Wallace, “Use of finite difference time domain simulations and Debye theory for modelling the terahertz reflection response of normal and tumour breast tissue,” PLoS One 9(7), e99291 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. C. Ashworth, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, E. Provenzano, S. E. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of freshly excised human breast cancer,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12444–12454 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. P. Wallace, A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell, R. J. Pye, P. F. Taday, N. Flanagan, and T. Ha, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of human Basal cell carcinoma,” Appl. Spectrosc. 60(10), 1127–1133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-X. J. X. J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
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Whitacre, E.

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the american society of breast surgeons mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
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Wietzke, S.

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt. 49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: A quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
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H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
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Winebrenner, D. P.

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
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Wu, C.-C.

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid : water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 60–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
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Wu, Y.

T. Bowman, Y. Wu, J. Gauch, L. K. Campbell, and M. El-Shenawee, “Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(6), 766–786 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yaroslavsky, A. N.

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, M. R.

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmer, T.

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

J. Landercasper, E. Whitacre, A. C. Degnim, and M. Al-Hamadani, “Reasons for re-excision after lumpectomy for breast cancer: insight from the american society of breast surgeons mastery(SM) database,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 21(10), 3185–3191 (2014).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, and M. Pepper, “Simulation of terahertz pulse propagation in biological systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(12), 2190–2192 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

BMJ (1)

R. Jeevan, D. A. Cromwell, M. Trivella, G. Lawrence, O. Kearins, J. Pereira, C. Sheppard, C. M. Caddy, and J. H. P. van der Meulen, “Reoperation rates after breast conserving surgery for breast cancer among women in England: retrospective study of hospital episode statistics,” BMJ 345(jul12 2), e4505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Koeberg, C.-C. Wu, D. Kim, and M. Bonn, “THz dielectric relaxation of ionic liquid : water mixtures,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 439(1-3), 60–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

C. Roman, O. Ichim, L. Sarger, V. Vigneras, and P. Mounaix, “Terahertz dielectric characterisation of polymethacrylimide rigid foam: The perfect sheer plate?” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1167 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. H. Siegel and V. Pikov, “Impact of low intensity millimetre waves on cell functions,” Electron. Lett. 46(26), S70 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

P. H. Siegel, “Terahertz technology in biology and medicine,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2438–2447 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Grzyb, B. Heinemann, and U. R. Pfeiffer, “Solid-State Terahertz Superresolution Imaging Device in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS Technology,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 65(11), 4357–4372 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (2)

H. Balacey, B. Recur, J.-B. J.-B. B. Perraud, J. B. J. B. J. B. Sleiman, J.-P. J.-P. P. J.-P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “Advanced Processing Sequence for 3-D THz Imaging,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 6(2), 191–198 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, D. B. Bennett, P. Tewari, C. P. Kealey, N. Bajwa, M. O. Culjat, A. Stojadinovic, H. Lee, J.-P. P. Hubschman, E. R. Brown, and W. S. Grundfest, “THz medical imaging: in vivo hydration sensing,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 201–219 (2011).
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Int. J. Pharm. (1)

Y. C. Shen, “Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and imaging for pharmaceutical applications: A review,” Int. J. Pharm. 417(1-2), 48–60 (2011).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

M. H. Arbab, D. P. Winebrenner, T. C. Dickey, A. Chen, M. B. Klein, and P. D. Mourad, “Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 077004 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Doradla, K. Alavi, C. Joseph, and R. Giles, “Single-channel prototype terahertz endoscopic system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bowman, T. Chavez, K. Khan, J. Wu, A. Chakraborty, N. Rajaram, K. Bailey, and M. El-Shenawee, “Pulsed terahertz imaging of breast cancer in freshly excised murine tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(2), 1–13 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, S. Pinder, A. D. Purushotham, P. O’Kelly, P. C. Ashworth, and V. P. Wallace, “Classification of terahertz-pulsed imaging data from excised breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 016005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (2)

T. Bowman, Y. Wu, J. Gauch, L. K. Campbell, and M. El-Shenawee, “Terahertz Imaging of Three-Dimensional Dehydrated Breast Cancer Tumors,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 38(6), 766–786 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. P. Guillet, B. Recur, L. Frederique, B. Bousquet, L. Canioni, I. Manek-Hönninger, P. Desbarats, and P. Mounaix, “Review of terahertz tomography techniques,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(4), 382–411 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Fan, Y. He, B. S. Ung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “The growth of biomedical terahertz research,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(37), 374009 (2014).
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E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, “Biomedical applications of terahertz technology,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(17), R301–R310 (2006).
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M. Scheller, S. Wietzke, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Modelling heterogeneous dielectric mixtures in the terahertz regime: A quasi-static effective medium theory,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(6), 065415 (2009).
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Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

C. S. Joseph, A. N. Yaroslavsky, V. A. Neel, T. M. Goyette, and R. H. Giles, “Continuous wave terahertz transmission imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(6), 457–462 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci (1)

P. F. Taday, “Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 362(1815), 351–364, discussion 363–364 (2004).
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Photon. Res. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y.-X. J. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
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T. Löffler, K. Siebert, S. Czasch, T. Bauer, and H. G. Roskos, “Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3847–3852 (2002).
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PLoS One (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, E. Pickwell-MacPherson, and V. P. Wallace, “Use of finite difference time domain simulations and Debye theory for modelling the terahertz reflection response of normal and tumour breast tissue,” PLoS One 9(7), e99291 (2014).
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Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1)

Y. Miura, A. Kamataki, M. Uzuki, T. Sasaki, J. Nishizawa, and T. Sawai, “Terahertz-wave spectroscopy for precise histopathological imaging of tumor and non-tumor lesions in paraffin sections,” Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 223(4), 291–296 (2011).
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Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. (1)

H. Abdi and L. J. Williams, “Principal component analysis,” Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Comput. Stat. 2(4), 433–459 (2010).
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Other (8)

A. Al-Ibadi, Q. Cassar, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, U. R. Pfeiffer, J. P. Guillet, and P. Mounaix, “THz spectroscopy and imaging for breast cancer detection in the 300-500 GHz range,” in International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz (2017).
[Crossref]

R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing (3rd Edition),” 3Rd Ed. 954 (2008).

L. Mavarani, P. Hillger, J. Grzyb, Q. Cassar, A. Al-Ibadi, T. Zimmer, G. MacGrogan, J. P. P. Guillet, P. Mounaix, and U. R. R. Pfeiffer, “A novel approach of aqueous solution analysis using a fully-integrated terahertz near-field sensor,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz),201742nd International Conference on (IEEE, 2017), pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

G. S. Park, Y. H. Kim, H. Han, J. K. Han, J. Ahn, J. H. Son, W. Y. Park, and Y. U. Jeong, Convergence of Terahertz Sciences in Biomedical Systems (Springer, 2012).
[Crossref]

H. Ballacey, A. Al-Ibadi, G. Macgrogan, J. P. P. Guillet, E. Macpherson, and P. Mounaix, “Automated data and image processing for biomedical sample analysis,” in Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz),201641st International Conference on (IEEE, 2016), Vol. 2016–Novem, pp. 1–2.
[Crossref]

P. Hillger, R. Jain, J. Grzyb, L. Mavarani, B. Heinemann, G. MacGrogan, P. Mounaix, T. Zimmer, and U. Pfeiffer, “A 128-pixel 0.56THz sensing array for real-time near-field imaging in 0.13μm SiGe BiCMOS,” in IEEE International Solid - State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC) (2018).

J. Bou-Sleiman, J.-B. J.-B. Perraud, B. Bousquet, J.-P. J.-P. Guillet, N. Palka, and P. Mounaix, “Discrimination and identification of RDX/PETN explosives by chemometrics applied to terahertz time-domain spectral imaging,” in Millimetre Wave and Terahertz Sensors and Technology VIII (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015), Vol. 9651, p. 965109.

A. M. Hassan, D. C. D. C. Hufnagle, M. El-Shenawee, and G. E. G. E. Pacey, “Terahertz imaging for margin assessment of breast cancer tumors,” in Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT),2012IEEE MTT-S International (IEEE, 2012), Vol. 12, pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic view of the reflection geometry system. The THz pulses are focused onto the sapphire substrate which carries the biological sample. The maximum incident angle of pulse is θ = 10°. PM stands for planar mirror and KERAPM stands for knife-edge right-angle prism mirror.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the biological sample (red) between the two sapphire windows (grey). The two main reflected peaks. The so-called lower reflection peak (1) arises from the air-sapphire interface while the upper reflection peak (2) is reflected from the sapphire-sample interface.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A) Measured (blue) and simulated (solid red) refractive index of water. Results are obtained over 13 independent measurements. The mean percentage error between 0.2 – 1 THz is 5%. B) Measured (blue) and simulated (solid red) absorption coefficient of water. Results are obtained from 8 independent measurements. The mean percentage error between 0.2 – 1 THz is 10%. The values of parameters used in simulation were ε = 3.2, εs = 78.4, ε1 = 4.9, τ1 = 8.0ps and τ2 = 0.18ps.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between histology slides and corresponding THz-images at 300, 400, 500 and 600 GHz for the J-I (top) and K-I (down) samples, respectively. Adipose is purged out during paraffinization and it is then not visible in histology sections. On J-I sample (top) some interesting features between the histology slide and the THz-images are highlighted through dashed regions. Frequencies ranging from 300 GHz to 400 GHz exhibit the most intriguing demarcations between cancerous regions and healthy fibers. K-I sample images (down) suffer from the tissue topology, presenting several hills and valleys.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Additional set of samples THz-imaged. For each sample, from left to right: 5 µm stained tissue slice; optical photograph; THz-image at 500 GHz. Each section contains a healthy region and a malignant one (dashed area on histology slides).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Principal component analysis over the entire FFT amplitude image. From left to right: visible view of I-II sample; first principal component image within the 300 – 600 GHz band; second principal component image within the 300 – 600 GHz band.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 From left to right: FFT amplitude at 390 GHz. The squared area is the region over which the PCA has been performed; score plot of PC1 and PC2, for the 182 pixels contained in the PCA model. A clustering between adipose and fibrous tissue is delineated by a dashed line.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of the 16 freshly excised tissues analyzed. Samples having the same letter reference code belong to the same patient and have been excised simultaneously. Excision column refers to the different tissue types: adipose (A), cancerous (C) and fibers (F). Denom. stands for the denomination of the cancer type associated to its grade. Single-point measurement (SPM) and Image column refers to the experimentation done.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive index table of the freshly excised analyzed tissues. Each sample has been probed at least 3 different spatial locations. Each location has been measured 3 times in a row, with a 5 minutes time lapse between each. A spectrum averaging of 100 was used. The region of interest (RoI) refers to the tissue type mixture area we scanned. The presence of the 570 GHz water vapor absorption peak induces for some results a higher refractive index at 600 GHz than at 500 GHz.

Equations (2)

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Q(x,y,ω)= F[ E s (x,y,t) ] F[ E R (x,y,t) ]
ε c = ε + ε s ε 1 1+iω τ D + ε 1 ε 1+iω τ 2

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