Abstract

Two-color stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy with label-free mapping of lipid/protein distributions has shown promise in virtual histology. Despite previous demonstrations of SRS in tumor delineation and diagnosis, the speed and efficiency of the current technique requires further improvements for practical use. Here, we integrate parallel dual-phase SRS detection with strip mosaicing, which reduces the imaging time of a whole mouse brain section from 70 to 8 minutes. We further verified our method in imaging fresh human surgical tissues, showing its great potential for rapid SRS histology, especially for large scale, large quantity imaging tasks.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).
  18. R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. He, Z. Liu, Y. Xu, W. Huang, H. Ma, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and spectroscopy with a rapid scanning optical delay line,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 659–662 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. L. Zhang, S. Shen, Z. Liu, and M. Ji, “Label-Free, Quantitative Imaging of MoS2-Nanosheets in Live Cells with Simultaneous Stimulated Raman Scattering and Transient Absorption Microscopy,” Advanced Biosystems 1(4), 1700013 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Xu, Q. Liu, R. He, X. Miao, and M. Ji, “Imaging Laser-Triggered Drug Release from Gold Nanocages with Transient Absorption Lifetime Microscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(23), 19653–19661 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. X. Han, R. M. Burke, M. L. Zettel, P. Tang, and E. B. Brown, “Second harmonic properties of tumor collagen: determining the structural relationship between reactive stroma and healthy stroma,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1846–1859 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (7)

Y. Yang, L. Chen, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 11(2), 1730010 (2017).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. He, Z. Liu, Y. Xu, W. Huang, H. Ma, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and spectroscopy with a rapid scanning optical delay line,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, S. Shen, Z. Liu, and M. Ji, “Label-Free, Quantitative Imaging of MoS2-Nanosheets in Live Cells with Simultaneous Stimulated Raman Scattering and Transient Absorption Microscopy,” Advanced Biosystems 1(4), 1700013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, Q. Liu, R. He, X. Miao, and M. Ji, “Imaging Laser-Triggered Drug Release from Gold Nanocages with Transient Absorption Lifetime Microscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(23), 19653–19661 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

X. Han, R. M. Burke, M. L. Zettel, P. Tang, and E. B. Brown, “Second harmonic properties of tumor collagen: determining the structural relationship between reactive stroma and healthy stroma,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1846–1859 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Abeytunge, S.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agar, N. Y.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basu, S.

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bentley, R. T.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

Berner, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boyle, J.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, E. B.

Burke, R. M.

Calligaris, D.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camelo-Piragua, S.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavenee, W. K.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Y. Yang, L. Chen, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 11(2), 1730010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
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Cheng, J.-X.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

De Jager, P. L.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eakins, G.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

Ellison, D. W.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
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Figarella-Branger, D.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
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Fisher, D. E.

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher-Hubbard, A.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freudiger, C. W.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garrard, M.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garton, H. J. L.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilch, P.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Golby, A. J.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, H.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
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Han, X.

Hayashi, M.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, R.

Hervey-Jumper, S. L.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heth, J. A.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoang, M. P.

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hollon, T. C.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtom, G.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holtom, G. R.

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hood, T.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
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Hoppe, P. E.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
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Huang, C. Y.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

Huang, W.

Igras, V.

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, M.

Y. Yang, L. Chen, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 11(2), 1730010 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. He, Z. Liu, Y. Xu, W. Huang, H. Ma, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and spectroscopy with a rapid scanning optical delay line,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 659–662 (2017).
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L. Zhang, S. Shen, Z. Liu, and M. Ji, “Label-Free, Quantitative Imaging of MoS2-Nanosheets in Live Cells with Simultaneous Stimulated Raman Scattering and Transient Absorption Microscopy,” Advanced Biosystems 1(4), 1700013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, Q. Liu, R. He, X. Miao, and M. Ji, “Imaging Laser-Triggered Drug Release from Gold Nanocages with Transient Absorption Lifetime Microscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(23), 19653–19661 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. D.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kesari, S.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kieu, K. Q.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleihues, P.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laimgruber, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Larson, B.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, D.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewis, S.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, A.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, R.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

Liao, C. S.

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C.-S.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

Lieberman, A. P.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ligon, K. L.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, P.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

Liu, Q.

Y. Xu, Q. Liu, R. He, X. Miao, and M. Ji, “Imaging Laser-Triggered Drug Release from Gold Nanocages with Transient Absorption Lifetime Microscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(23), 19653–19661 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

L. Zhang, S. Shen, Z. Liu, and M. Ji, “Label-Free, Quantitative Imaging of MoS2-Nanosheets in Live Cells with Simultaneous Stimulated Raman Scattering and Transient Absorption Microscopy,” Advanced Biosystems 1(4), 1700013 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. He, Z. Liu, Y. Xu, W. Huang, H. Ma, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy and spectroscopy with a rapid scanning optical delay line,” Opt. Lett. 42(4), 659–662 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Louis, D. N.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F. K.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, F.-K.

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, H.

Ma, S.

Maher, C. O.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malone, C. J.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manley, P. W.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McFadden, K. A.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miao, X.

Y. Xu, Q. Liu, R. He, X. Miao, and M. Ji, “Imaging Laser-Triggered Drug Release from Gold Nanocages with Transient Absorption Lifetime Microscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(23), 19653–19661 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millard, A. C.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, W.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohler, W. A.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neel, V. A.

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X.

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niknafs, Y. S.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norton, I.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oglesbee, R. A.

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohgaki, H.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olubiyi, O. I.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orringer, D. A.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ottoboni, L.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pandian, B.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pernik, D. R.

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, A.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfannl, R.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Philbert, M. A.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ploetz, E.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramkissoon, S.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramkissoon, S. H.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichman, J.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reifenberger, G.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruvkun, G.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sagher, O.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanai, N.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santagata, S.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, S.

L. Zhang, S. Shen, Z. Liu, and M. Ji, “Label-Free, Quantitative Imaging of MoS2-Nanosheets in Live Cells with Simultaneous Stimulated Raman Scattering and Transient Absorption Microscopy,” Advanced Biosystems 1(4), 1700013 (2017).
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Sims, J. R.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Slipchenko, M. N.

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snuderl, M.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spino, C.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. M.

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, P.

Terasaki, M.

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
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S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
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Trautman, J. K.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Venneti, S.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

von Deimling, A.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waeber, C.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A. C.

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M. C.

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
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Wang, P.

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y. K.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, Y.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiestler, O. D.

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, D. A.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wylie, A.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Yan, C.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, L. Chen, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 11(2), 1730010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ye, D.

Young, G. S.

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, Q.

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, S.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettel, M. L.

Zhang, B.

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

R. He, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, S. Ma, X. Wang, D. Ye, and M. Ji, “Dual-phase stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for real-time two-color imaging,” Optica 4(1), 44–47 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, S. Shen, Z. Liu, and M. Ji, “Label-Free, Quantitative Imaging of MoS2-Nanosheets in Live Cells with Simultaneous Stimulated Raman Scattering and Transient Absorption Microscopy,” Advanced Biosystems 1(4), 1700013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W. S.

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinth, W.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Y. Xu, Q. Liu, R. He, X. Miao, and M. Ji, “Imaging Laser-Triggered Drug Release from Gold Nanocages with Transient Absorption Lifetime Microscopy,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(23), 19653–19661 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

C.-S. Liao, P. Wang, C. Y. Huang, P. Lin, G. Eakins, R. T. Bentley, R. Liang, and J.-X. Cheng, “In vivo and in situ spectroscopic imaging by a handheld stimulated Raman scattering microscope,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 947–954 (2017).

Acta Neuropathol. (1)

D. N. Louis, A. Perry, G. Reifenberger, A. von Deimling, D. Figarella-Branger, W. K. Cavenee, H. Ohgaki, O. D. Wiestler, P. Kleihues, and D. W. Ellison, “The 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system:A summary,” Acta Neuropathol. 131(6), 803–820 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Advanced Biosystems (1)

L. Zhang, S. Shen, Z. Liu, and M. Ji, “Label-Free, Quantitative Imaging of MoS2-Nanosheets in Live Cells with Simultaneous Stimulated Raman Scattering and Transient Absorption Microscopy,” Advanced Biosystems 1(4), 1700013 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87(3), 389–393 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, “Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,” Biophys. J. 82(1 Pt 1), 493–508 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

F. K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. Fu, F. K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative chemical imaging with multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. Abeytunge, Y. Li, B. Larson, R. Toledo-Crow, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Rapid confocal imaging of large areas of excised tissue with strip mosaicing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. (1)

Y. Yang, L. Chen, and M. Ji, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for rapid brain tumor histology,” J. Innov. Opt. Health Sci. 11(2), 1730010 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral imaging with stimulated Raman scattering by chirped femtosecond lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lab. Invest. (1)

C. W. Freudiger, R. Pfannl, D. A. Orringer, B. G. Saar, M. Ji, Q. Zeng, L. Ottoboni, Y. Wei, C. Waeber, J. R. Sims, P. L. De Jager, O. Sagher, M. A. Philbert, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, and G. S. Young, “Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging,” Lab. Invest. 92(10), 1492–1502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

C. S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S. Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J. X. Cheng, “Microsecond Scale Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging by Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Phys. (1)

F.-K. Lu, M. Ji, D. Fu, X. Ni, C. W. Freudiger, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” Mol. Phys. 110(15-16), 1927–1932 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat Biomed Eng (1)

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat Biomed Eng 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1356–1360 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Chem. (1)

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

M. C. Wang, W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, G. Ruvkun, and X. S. Xie, “RNAi screening for fat regulatory genes with SRS microscopy,” Nat. Methods 8(2), 135–138 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Yang, G. R. Holtom, N. Peyghambarian, X. S. Xie, and K. Q. Kieu, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with a Robust Fibre Laser Source,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 153–159 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

F. K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Transl. Med. (2)

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, label-free detection of brain tumors with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (4)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, C. W. Freudiger, J. Reichman, C. M. Stanley, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Video-rate molecular imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering,” Science 330(6009), 1368–1370 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Li, H. Gong, B. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Yan, J. Wu, Q. Liu, S. Zeng, and Q. Luo, “Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography to Obtain a High-Resolution Atlas of the Mouse Brain,” Science 330(6009), 1404–1408 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Optical layout of the experiment setup. (b) Pulse profiles of the pump and two Stokes beams in dual-phase SRS. (c) Frame trigger and sample stage velocity. (d) Illustration of sequential tiling for two Raman frequencies. (e) Illustration of parallel strip mosaicing. SF57: dispersive glass rods; EOM: electro-optical modulator; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; DL: delay line; λ/2:half wave plate; P:polarizer; DM: dichroic mirror; SP: short pass filter; PD: photodiode; LIA: lock-in amplifier.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Two-color SRS images of a mouse brain coronal section imaged with tiling (a) and strip mosaicing (b). Zoomed-in regions of hippocampus and white matter (c, e), and cortext (e, f). Lipids are false colored in green and proteins in blue. Scale bar: 500 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a-c) Composite SRS images of human liver tissue taken with SRS strip mosaicing at different scales. (d, e) Human chondrosarcoma tissue imaged with SRS strip mosaicing. Dashed rectangles indicate the zoomed-in areas. Green: lipids; blue: proteins.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Multi-modal imaging of a large-area human meningioma tissue with SRS and SHG. (a) Large-scale image of the tissue imaged with strip mosaicing, and zoomed-in regions of the meningioma cells (b) and the boundary with collagen proliferation. Green: lipids; blue: proteins; red: collagen.

Equations (1)

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V= W T f = W 2 N 2 t p .

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