Abstract

Accurate, real-time identification and display of critical anatomic structures, such as the nerve and vasculature structures, are critical for reducing complications and improving surgical outcomes. Human vision is frequently limited in clearly distinguishing and contrasting these structures. We present a novel imaging system, which enables noninvasive visualization of critical anatomic structures during surgical dissection. Peripheral nerves are visualized by a snapshot polarimetry that calculates the anisotropic optical properties. Vascular structures, both venous and arterial, are identified and monitored in real-time using a near-infrared laser-speckle-contrast imaging. We evaluate the system by performing in vivo animal studies with qualitative comparison by contrast-agent-aided fluorescence imaging.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (2)

2016 (5)

E. Waltz, “A spark at the periphery,” Nat. Biotechnol. 34(9), 904–908 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Milstein, C. Ince, S. S. Gisbertz, K. B. Boateng, B. F. Geerts, M. W. Hollmann, M. I. van Berge Henegouwen, and D. P. Veelo, “Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(25), e3875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qi and D. S. Elson, “A high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope for tissue characterisation,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25953 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Tavukçu, O. Aytac, and F. Atug, “Nerve-sparing techniques and results in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy,” Investig. Clin. Urol. 57(Suppl 2), S172–S184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Kennedy, M. T. McMillan, M. H. Sprys, C. Bassi, P. D. Greig, P. D. Hansen, D. R. Jeyarajah, T. S. Kent, G. Malleo, G. Marchegiani, R. M. Minter, and C. M. Vollmer., “The influence of fellowship training on the practice of pancreatoduodenectomy,” HPB 18(12), 965–978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

F. Reeves, P. Preece, J. Kapoor, W. Everaerts, D. G. Murphy, N. M. Corcoran, and A. J. Costello, “Preservation of the neurovascular bundles is associated with improved time to continence after radical prostatectomy but not long-term continence rates: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eur. Urol. 68(4), 692–704 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hallet, B. Gayet, A. Tsung, G. Wakabayashi, P. Pessaux, and 2nd International Consensus Conference on Laparoscopic Liver Resection Group, “Systematic review of the use of pre-operative simulation and navigation for hepatectomy: current status and future perspectives,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Sci. 22(5), 353–362 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. B. He, L. Bai, T. Aji, Y. Jiang, J. M. Zhao, J. H. Zhang, Y. M. Shao, W. Y. Liu, and H. Wen, “Application of 3D reconstruction for surgical treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(35), 10200–10207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, B. R. Hayes-Gill, D. He, Y. Zhu, and S. P. Morgan, “Multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging using a high frame rate CMOS sensor with a field programmable gate array,” Opt. Lett. 40(20), 4587–4590 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cha, A. Shademan, H. N. Le, R. Decker, P. C. Kim, J. U. Kang, and A. Krieger, “Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–257, discussion 257–258 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. T. K. Chin, A. Meijerink, P. T. K. E. D. A. A. Chin, and I. Vitkin, “Interventional Nerve Visualization via the Intrinsic Anisotropic Optical Properties of the Nerves,” Proc. SPIE 9540, Novel Biophotonics Techniques and Applications III, 95400O (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. Watson, C. F. Gainer, N. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, G. M. Lemole, R. Anton, and M. Romanowski, “Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

T. York, L. Kahan, S. P. Lake, and V. Gruev, “Real-time high-resolution measurement of collagen alignment in dynamically loaded soft tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Eriksson, J. Nilsson, G. Lindell, and C. Sturesson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for intraoperative assessment of liver microcirculation: a clinical pilot study,” Med. Devices (Auckl.) 7, 257–261 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mori, T. Chiba, A. Nakamizo, R. Kumashiro, M. Murata, T. Akahoshi, M. Tomikawa, Y. Kikkawa, K. Yoshimoto, M. Mizoguchi, T. Sasaki, and M. Hashizume, “Intraoperative visualization of cerebral oxygenation using hyperspectral image data: a two-dimensional mapping method,” Int. J. CARS 9(6), 1059–1072 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mangano, C. W. Wu, G. D. Lianos, H. Y. Kim, F. Y. Chiang, P. Wang, L. Xiaoli, S. Hui, S. Teksöz, Y. Bukey, G. Dionigi, and S. Rausei, “Evidence-based Analysis on The Clinical Impact of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Thyroid Surgery: State of the Art and Future Perspectives,” Surg. Technol. Int. 25, 91–96 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. W. Wu, G. Dionigi, H. Sun, X. Liu, H. Y. Kim, P. J. Hsiao, K. B. Tsai, H. C. Chen, H. Y. Chen, P. Y. Chang, I. C. Lu, and F. Y. Chiang, “Intraoperative neuromonitoring for the early detection and prevention of RLN traction injury in thyroid surgery: a porcine model,” Surgery 155(2), 329–339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

O. Kuponiyi, D. I. Alleemudder, A. Latunde-Dada, and P. Eedarapalli, “Nerve injuries associated with gynaecological surgery,” The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 16(1), 29–36 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Grinsell and C. P. Keating, “Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction after Injury: A Review of Clinical and Experimental Therapies,” BioMed Res. Int. 2014, 698256 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Qi, M. Ye, M. Singh, N. T. Clancy, and D. S. Elson, “Narrow band 3 × 3 Mueller polarimetric endoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2433–2449 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Vahrmeijer, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, C. J. H. van de Velde, and J. V. Frangioni, “Image-guided cancer surgery using near-infrared fluorescence,” Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 10(9), 507–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sturesson, D. M. Milstein, I. C. Post, A. M. Maas, and T. M. van Gulik, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for assessment of liver microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 87, 34–40 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A review of Indocyanine Green Fluorescent Imaging in Surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 940585 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Gibbs, “Near infrared fluorescence for image-guided surgery,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 2(3), 177–187 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. P. Verbeek, J. R. van der Vorst, B. E. Schaafsma, M. Hutteman, B. A. Bonsing, F. W. van Leeuwen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, R. J. Swijnenburg, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Image-guided hepatopancreatobiliary surgery using near-infrared fluorescent light,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Sci. 19(6), 626–637 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Merolli, L. Mingarelli, and L. Rocchi, “A more detailed mechanism to explain the “bands of Fontana” in peripheral nerves,” Muscle Nerve 46(4), 540–547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Islam, M. C. Oliveira, Y. Wang, F. P. Henry, M. A. Randolph, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. D. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. K. Kuppen, C. W. G. M. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. H. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol. 104(3), 323–332 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rabischong, D. Larraín, P. Rabischong, R. Botchorishvili, G. Fraisse, S. Gallego, P. Gaydier, J. M. Chardigny, and P. Avan, “Laparoscopic implantation of neural electrodes on pelvic nerves: an experimental study on the obturator nerve in a chronic minipig model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(11), 3706–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Feng, J. Qiu, P. Li, X. Sun, C. Yin, W. Luo, S. Chen, and Q. Luo, “Simultaneous automatic arteries-veins separation and cerebral blood flow imaging with single-wavelength laser speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15777–15791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging of cerebral blood flow in humans during neurosurgery: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066030 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Matsui, E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, J. H. Winer, V. Kianzad, S. Gioux, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Real-time intra-operative near-infrared fluorescence identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts using clinically available contrast agents,” Surgery 148(1), 87–95 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Schmidt, O. Turrini, P. Parikh, M. G. House, N. J. Zyromski, A. Nakeeb, T. J. Howard, H. A. Pitt, and K. D. Lillemoe, “Effect of hospital volume, surgeon experience, and surgeon volume on patient outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a single-institution experience,” Arch. Surg. 145(7), 634–640 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ciaramitaro, M. Mondelli, F. Logullo, S. Grimaldi, B. Battiston, A. Sard, C. Scarinzi, G. Migliaretti, G. Faccani, D. Cocito, and Italian Network for Traumatic Neuropathies, “Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries: epidemiological findings, neuropathic pain and quality of life in 158 patients,” J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 15(2), 120–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Bradshaw and A. P. Advincula, “Postoperative Neuropathy in Gynecologic Surgery,” Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 37(3), 451–459 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg. 34(2), 336–343 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

T. Kretschmer, C. W. Heinen, G. Antoniadis, H. P. Richter, and R. W. König, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries,” Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 20(1), 73–90 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Bohrer, M. D. Walters, A. Park, D. Polston, and M. D. Barber, “Pelvic nerve injury following gynecologic surgery: a prospective cohort study,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 201(5), 531.e1–531e7 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhu, I. M. Stockford, J. A. Crowe, and S. P. Morgan, “Experimental and theoretical evaluation of rotating orthogonal polarization imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034006 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hecht, J. Woitzik, J. P. Dreier, and P. Vajkoczy, “Intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow by laser speckle contrast analysis,” Neurosurg. Focus 27(4), E11 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Baima and L. Krivickas, “Evaluation and treatment of peroneal neuropathy,” Curr. Rev. Musculoskelet. Med. 1(2), 147–153 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Rodriguez, O. Melamud, and T. E. Ahlering, “Nerve-sparing techniques in open and laparoscopic prostatectomy,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 8(3), 475–479 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

W. F. Chan and C. Y. Lo, “Pitfalls of intraoperative neuromonitoring for predicting postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve function during thyroidectomy,” World J. Surg. 30(5), 806–812 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Marchettini, M. Lacerenza, E. Mauri, and C. Marangoni, “Painful peripheral neuropathies,” Curr. Neuropharmacol. 4(3), 175–181 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Swami, S. Manhas, P. Buddhiwant, N. Ghosh, A. Uppal, and P. K. Gupta, “Polar decomposition of 3 x 3 Mueller matrix: a tool for quantitative tissue polarimetry,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9324–9337 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Lepor, “A review of surgical techniques for radical prostatectomy,” Rev. Urol. 7(S2), S11–S17 (2005).
[PubMed]

F. J. Bianco, E. R. Riedel, C. B. Begg, M. W. Kattan, and P. T. Scardino, “Variations among high volume surgeons in the rate of complications after radical prostatectomy: further evidence that technique matters,” J. Urol. 173(6), 2099–2103 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H. Dralle, C. Sekulla, J. Haerting, W. Timmermann, H. J. Neumann, E. Kruse, S. Grond, H. P. Mühlig, C. Richter, J. Voss, O. Thomusch, H. Lippert, I. Gastinger, M. Brauckhoff, and O. Gimm, “Risk factors of paralysis and functional outcome after recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery,” Surgery 136(6), 1310–1322 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Guloglu, S. Dilege, M. Aksoy, O. Alimoglu, N. Yavuz, M. Mihmanli, and M. Gulmen, “Major retroperitoneal vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy,” J. Laparoendosc. Adv. Surg. Tech. A 14(2), 73–76 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. A. Courtney, K. Duffy, M. G. Serpell, and P. J. O’Dwyer, “Outcome of patients with severe chronic pain following repair of groin hernia,” Br. J. Surg. 89(10), 1310–1314 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. S. Poobalan, J. Bruce, P. M. King, W. A. Chambers, Z. H. Krukowski, and W. C. Smith, “Chronic pain and quality of life following open inguinal hernia repair,” Br. J. Surg. 88(8), 1122–1126 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. D. Sharma, C. L. Parmley, G. Sreeram, and H. P. Grocott, “Peripheral nerve injuries during cardiac surgery: risk factors, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention,” Anesth. Analg. 91(6), 1358–1369 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. London, N. J. London, and S. P. Kay, “Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury,” Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 78(2), 146–150 (1996).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology 101(3), 529–533 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

H. R. Bernard and T. W. Hartman, “Complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg. 165(4), 533–535 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

N. A. Halasz, “Cholecystectomy and hepatic artery injuries,” Arch. Surg. 126(2), 137–138 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

B. de Campos Vidal, M. L. Mello, A. C. Caseiro-Filho, and C. Godo, “Anisotropic properties of the myelin sheath,” Acta Histochem. 66(1), 32–39 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Advincula, A. P.

A. D. Bradshaw and A. P. Advincula, “Postoperative Neuropathy in Gynecologic Surgery,” Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 37(3), 451–459 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahlering, T. E.

E. Rodriguez, O. Melamud, and T. E. Ahlering, “Nerve-sparing techniques in open and laparoscopic prostatectomy,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 8(3), 475–479 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aji, T.

Y. B. He, L. Bai, T. Aji, Y. Jiang, J. M. Zhao, J. H. Zhang, Y. M. Shao, W. Y. Liu, and H. Wen, “Application of 3D reconstruction for surgical treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(35), 10200–10207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akahoshi, T.

M. Mori, T. Chiba, A. Nakamizo, R. Kumashiro, M. Murata, T. Akahoshi, M. Tomikawa, Y. Kikkawa, K. Yoshimoto, M. Mizoguchi, T. Sasaki, and M. Hashizume, “Intraoperative visualization of cerebral oxygenation using hyperspectral image data: a two-dimensional mapping method,” Int. J. CARS 9(6), 1059–1072 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksoy, M.

R. Guloglu, S. Dilege, M. Aksoy, O. Alimoglu, N. Yavuz, M. Mihmanli, and M. Gulmen, “Major retroperitoneal vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy,” J. Laparoendosc. Adv. Surg. Tech. A 14(2), 73–76 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alander, J. T.

J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A review of Indocyanine Green Fluorescent Imaging in Surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 940585 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alimoglu, O.

R. Guloglu, S. Dilege, M. Aksoy, O. Alimoglu, N. Yavuz, M. Mihmanli, and M. Gulmen, “Major retroperitoneal vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy,” J. Laparoendosc. Adv. Surg. Tech. A 14(2), 73–76 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alleemudder, D. I.

O. Kuponiyi, D. I. Alleemudder, A. Latunde-Dada, and P. Eedarapalli, “Nerve injuries associated with gynaecological surgery,” The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 16(1), 29–36 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antaris, A. L.

G. Hong, A. L. Antaris, and H. Dai, “Near-infrared fluorophores for biomedical imaging,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(1), 0010 (2017).
[Crossref]

Anton, R.

J. R. Watson, C. F. Gainer, N. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, G. M. Lemole, R. Anton, and M. Romanowski, “Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–257, discussion 257–258 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoniadis, G.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, C. W. Heinen, G. Antoniadis, H. P. Richter, and R. W. König, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries,” Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 20(1), 73–90 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashitate, Y.

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

Atug, F.

H. H. Tavukçu, O. Aytac, and F. Atug, “Nerve-sparing techniques and results in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy,” Investig. Clin. Urol. 57(Suppl 2), S172–S184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avan, P.

B. Rabischong, D. Larraín, P. Rabischong, R. Botchorishvili, G. Fraisse, S. Gallego, P. Gaydier, J. M. Chardigny, and P. Avan, “Laparoscopic implantation of neural electrodes on pelvic nerves: an experimental study on the obturator nerve in a chronic minipig model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(11), 3706–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aytac, O.

H. H. Tavukçu, O. Aytac, and F. Atug, “Nerve-sparing techniques and results in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy,” Investig. Clin. Urol. 57(Suppl 2), S172–S184 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, L.

Y. B. He, L. Bai, T. Aji, Y. Jiang, J. M. Zhao, J. H. Zhang, Y. M. Shao, W. Y. Liu, and H. Wen, “Application of 3D reconstruction for surgical treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(35), 10200–10207 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baima, J.

J. Baima and L. Krivickas, “Evaluation and treatment of peroneal neuropathy,” Curr. Rev. Musculoskelet. Med. 1(2), 147–153 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barber, M. D.

J. C. Bohrer, M. D. Walters, A. Park, D. Polston, and M. D. Barber, “Pelvic nerve injury following gynecologic surgery: a prospective cohort study,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 201(5), 531.e1–531e7 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnhardt, N. E.

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bassi, C.

G. T. Kennedy, M. T. McMillan, M. H. Sprys, C. Bassi, P. D. Greig, P. D. Hansen, D. R. Jeyarajah, T. S. Kent, G. Malleo, G. Marchegiani, R. M. Minter, and C. M. Vollmer., “The influence of fellowship training on the practice of pancreatoduodenectomy,” HPB 18(12), 965–978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Battiston, B.

P. Ciaramitaro, M. Mondelli, F. Logullo, S. Grimaldi, B. Battiston, A. Sard, C. Scarinzi, G. Migliaretti, G. Faccani, D. Cocito, and Italian Network for Traumatic Neuropathies, “Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries: epidemiological findings, neuropathic pain and quality of life in 158 patients,” J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 15(2), 120–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Begg, C. B.

F. J. Bianco, E. R. Riedel, C. B. Begg, M. W. Kattan, and P. T. Scardino, “Variations among high volume surgeons in the rate of complications after radical prostatectomy: further evidence that technique matters,” J. Urol. 173(6), 2099–2103 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernard, H. R.

H. R. Bernard and T. W. Hartman, “Complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy,” Am. J. Surg. 165(4), 533–535 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bianco, F. J.

F. J. Bianco, E. R. Riedel, C. B. Begg, M. W. Kattan, and P. T. Scardino, “Variations among high volume surgeons in the rate of complications after radical prostatectomy: further evidence that technique matters,” J. Urol. 173(6), 2099–2103 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boateng, K. B.

D. M. Milstein, C. Ince, S. S. Gisbertz, K. B. Boateng, B. F. Geerts, M. W. Hollmann, M. I. van Berge Henegouwen, and D. P. Veelo, “Laser speckle contrast imaging identifies ischemic areas on gastric tube reconstructions following esophagectomy,” Medicine (Baltimore) 95(25), e3875 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohrer, J. C.

J. C. Bohrer, M. D. Walters, A. Park, D. Polston, and M. D. Barber, “Pelvic nerve injury following gynecologic surgery: a prospective cohort study,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 201(5), 531.e1–531e7 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonsing, B. A.

F. P. Verbeek, J. R. van der Vorst, B. E. Schaafsma, M. Hutteman, B. A. Bonsing, F. W. van Leeuwen, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. van de Velde, R. J. Swijnenburg, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “Image-guided hepatopancreatobiliary surgery using near-infrared fluorescent light,” J. Hepatobiliary Pancreat. Sci. 19(6), 626–637 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botchorishvili, R.

B. Rabischong, D. Larraín, P. Rabischong, R. Botchorishvili, G. Fraisse, S. Gallego, P. Gaydier, J. M. Chardigny, and P. Avan, “Laparoscopic implantation of neural electrodes on pelvic nerves: an experimental study on the obturator nerve in a chronic minipig model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(11), 3706–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradshaw, A. D.

A. D. Bradshaw and A. P. Advincula, “Postoperative Neuropathy in Gynecologic Surgery,” Obstet. Gynecol. Clin. North Am. 37(3), 451–459 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brauckhoff, M.

H. Dralle, C. Sekulla, J. Haerting, W. Timmermann, H. J. Neumann, E. Kruse, S. Grond, H. P. Mühlig, C. Richter, J. Voss, O. Thomusch, H. Lippert, I. Gastinger, M. Brauckhoff, and O. Gimm, “Risk factors of paralysis and functional outcome after recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery,” Surgery 136(6), 1310–1322 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, V.

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruce, J.

A. S. Poobalan, J. Bruce, P. M. King, W. A. Chambers, Z. H. Krukowski, and W. C. Smith, “Chronic pain and quality of life following open inguinal hernia repair,” Br. J. Surg. 88(8), 1122–1126 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buddhiwant, P.

Bukey, Y.

A. Mangano, C. W. Wu, G. D. Lianos, H. Y. Kim, F. Y. Chiang, P. Wang, L. Xiaoli, S. Hui, S. Teksöz, Y. Bukey, G. Dionigi, and S. Rausei, “Evidence-based Analysis on The Clinical Impact of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Thyroid Surgery: State of the Art and Future Perspectives,” Surg. Technol. Int. 25, 91–96 (2014).
[PubMed]

Caseiro-Filho, A. C.

B. de Campos Vidal, M. L. Mello, A. C. Caseiro-Filho, and C. Godo, “Anisotropic properties of the myelin sheath,” Acta Histochem. 66(1), 32–39 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, J.

J. Cha, A. Shademan, H. N. Le, R. Decker, P. C. Kim, J. U. Kang, and A. Krieger, “Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chambers, W. A.

A. S. Poobalan, J. Bruce, P. M. King, W. A. Chambers, Z. H. Krukowski, and W. C. Smith, “Chronic pain and quality of life following open inguinal hernia repair,” Br. J. Surg. 88(8), 1122–1126 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, W. F.

W. F. Chan and C. Y. Lo, “Pitfalls of intraoperative neuromonitoring for predicting postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve function during thyroidectomy,” World J. Surg. 30(5), 806–812 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, P. Y.

C. W. Wu, G. Dionigi, H. Sun, X. Liu, H. Y. Kim, P. J. Hsiao, K. B. Tsai, H. C. Chen, H. Y. Chen, P. Y. Chang, I. C. Lu, and F. Y. Chiang, “Intraoperative neuromonitoring for the early detection and prevention of RLN traction injury in thyroid surgery: a porcine model,” Surgery 155(2), 329–339 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chardigny, J. M.

B. Rabischong, D. Larraín, P. Rabischong, R. Botchorishvili, G. Fraisse, S. Gallego, P. Gaydier, J. M. Chardigny, and P. Avan, “Laparoscopic implantation of neural electrodes on pelvic nerves: an experimental study on the obturator nerve in a chronic minipig model,” Surg. Endosc. 25(11), 3706–3712 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. C.

C. W. Wu, G. Dionigi, H. Sun, X. Liu, H. Y. Kim, P. J. Hsiao, K. B. Tsai, H. C. Chen, H. Y. Chen, P. Y. Chang, I. C. Lu, and F. Y. Chiang, “Intraoperative neuromonitoring for the early detection and prevention of RLN traction injury in thyroid surgery: a porcine model,” Surgery 155(2), 329–339 (2014).
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Chen, H. Y.

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J. Cha, A. Shademan, H. N. Le, R. Decker, P. C. Kim, J. U. Kang, and A. Krieger, “Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106001 (2015).
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M. Hope-Ross, L. A. Yannuzzi, E. S. Gragoudas, D. R. Guyer, J. S. Slakter, J. A. Sorenson, S. Krupsky, D. A. Orlock, and C. A. Puliafito, “Adverse reactions due to indocyanine green,” Ophthalmology 101(3), 529–533 (1994).
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J. T. Alander, I. Kaartinen, A. Laakso, T. Pätilä, T. Spillmann, V. V. Tuchin, M. Venermo, and P. Välisuo, “A review of Indocyanine Green Fluorescent Imaging in Surgery,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 2012, 940585 (2012).
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P. Marchettini, M. Lacerenza, E. Mauri, and C. Marangoni, “Painful peripheral neuropathies,” Curr. Neuropharmacol. 4(3), 175–181 (2006).
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T. York, L. Kahan, S. P. Lake, and V. Gruev, “Real-time high-resolution measurement of collagen alignment in dynamically loaded soft tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(6), 066011 (2014).
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O. Kuponiyi, D. I. Alleemudder, A. Latunde-Dada, and P. Eedarapalli, “Nerve injuries associated with gynaecological surgery,” The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 16(1), 29–36 (2014).
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A. Matsui, E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, J. H. Winer, V. Kianzad, S. Gioux, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Real-time intra-operative near-infrared fluorescence identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts using clinically available contrast agents,” Surgery 148(1), 87–95 (2010).
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J. Cha, A. Shademan, H. N. Le, R. Decker, P. C. Kim, J. U. Kang, and A. Krieger, “Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106001 (2015).
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N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–257, discussion 257–258 (2015).
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C. M. Schmidt, O. Turrini, P. Parikh, M. G. House, N. J. Zyromski, A. Nakeeb, T. J. Howard, H. A. Pitt, and K. D. Lillemoe, “Effect of hospital volume, surgeon experience, and surgeon volume on patient outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a single-institution experience,” Arch. Surg. 145(7), 634–640 (2010).
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Y. B. He, L. Bai, T. Aji, Y. Jiang, J. M. Zhao, J. H. Zhang, Y. M. Shao, W. Y. Liu, and H. Wen, “Application of 3D reconstruction for surgical treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(35), 10200–10207 (2015).
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C. W. Wu, G. Dionigi, H. Sun, X. Liu, H. Y. Kim, P. J. Hsiao, K. B. Tsai, H. C. Chen, H. Y. Chen, P. Y. Chang, I. C. Lu, and F. Y. Chiang, “Intraoperative neuromonitoring for the early detection and prevention of RLN traction injury in thyroid surgery: a porcine model,” Surgery 155(2), 329–339 (2014).
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J. London, N. J. London, and S. P. Kay, “Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury,” Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 78(2), 146–150 (1996).
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London, N. J.

J. London, N. J. London, and S. P. Kay, “Iatrogenic accessory nerve injury,” Ann. R. Coll. Surg. Engl. 78(2), 146–150 (1996).
[PubMed]

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B. E. Schaafsma, J. S. D. Mieog, M. Hutteman, J. R. van der Vorst, P. J. K. Kuppen, C. W. G. M. Löwik, J. V. Frangioni, C. J. H. van de Velde, and A. L. Vahrmeijer, “The clinical use of indocyanine green as a near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent for image-guided oncologic surgery,” J. Surg. Oncol. 104(3), 323–332 (2011).
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Luo, W.

Maas, A. M.

C. Sturesson, D. M. Milstein, I. C. Post, A. M. Maas, and T. M. van Gulik, “Laser speckle contrast imaging for assessment of liver microcirculation,” Microvasc. Res. 87, 34–40 (2013).
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G. T. Kennedy, M. T. McMillan, M. H. Sprys, C. Bassi, P. D. Greig, P. D. Hansen, D. R. Jeyarajah, T. S. Kent, G. Malleo, G. Marchegiani, R. M. Minter, and C. M. Vollmer., “The influence of fellowship training on the practice of pancreatoduodenectomy,” HPB 18(12), 965–978 (2016).
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A. Mangano, C. W. Wu, G. D. Lianos, H. Y. Kim, F. Y. Chiang, P. Wang, L. Xiaoli, S. Hui, S. Teksöz, Y. Bukey, G. Dionigi, and S. Rausei, “Evidence-based Analysis on The Clinical Impact of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Thyroid Surgery: State of the Art and Future Perspectives,” Surg. Technol. Int. 25, 91–96 (2014).
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Manhas, S.

Marangoni, C.

P. Marchettini, M. Lacerenza, E. Mauri, and C. Marangoni, “Painful peripheral neuropathies,” Curr. Neuropharmacol. 4(3), 175–181 (2006).
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G. T. Kennedy, M. T. McMillan, M. H. Sprys, C. Bassi, P. D. Greig, P. D. Hansen, D. R. Jeyarajah, T. S. Kent, G. Malleo, G. Marchegiani, R. M. Minter, and C. M. Vollmer., “The influence of fellowship training on the practice of pancreatoduodenectomy,” HPB 18(12), 965–978 (2016).
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P. Marchettini, M. Lacerenza, E. Mauri, and C. Marangoni, “Painful peripheral neuropathies,” Curr. Neuropharmacol. 4(3), 175–181 (2006).
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J. R. Watson, C. F. Gainer, N. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, G. M. Lemole, R. Anton, and M. Romanowski, “Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–257, discussion 257–258 (2015).
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A. Matsui, E. Tanaka, H. S. Choi, J. H. Winer, V. Kianzad, S. Gioux, R. G. Laurence, and J. V. Frangioni, “Real-time intra-operative near-infrared fluorescence identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts using clinically available contrast agents,” Surgery 148(1), 87–95 (2010).
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P. Marchettini, M. Lacerenza, E. Mauri, and C. Marangoni, “Painful peripheral neuropathies,” Curr. Neuropharmacol. 4(3), 175–181 (2006).
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G. T. Kennedy, M. T. McMillan, M. H. Sprys, C. Bassi, P. D. Greig, P. D. Hansen, D. R. Jeyarajah, T. S. Kent, G. Malleo, G. Marchegiani, R. M. Minter, and C. M. Vollmer., “The influence of fellowship training on the practice of pancreatoduodenectomy,” HPB 18(12), 965–978 (2016).
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A. D. Sharma, C. L. Parmley, G. Sreeram, and H. P. Grocott, “Peripheral nerve injuries during cardiac surgery: risk factors, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention,” Anesth. Analg. 91(6), 1358–1369 (2000).
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J. C. Bohrer, M. D. Walters, A. Park, D. Polston, and M. D. Barber, “Pelvic nerve injury following gynecologic surgery: a prospective cohort study,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 201(5), 531.e1–531e7 (2009).
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F. Reeves, P. Preece, J. Kapoor, W. Everaerts, D. G. Murphy, N. M. Corcoran, and A. J. Costello, “Preservation of the neurovascular bundles is associated with improved time to continence after radical prostatectomy but not long-term continence rates: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eur. Urol. 68(4), 692–704 (2015).
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M. S. Islam, M. C. Oliveira, Y. Wang, F. P. Henry, M. A. Randolph, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056012 (2012).
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Rath, S. A.

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
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F. Reeves, P. Preece, J. Kapoor, W. Everaerts, D. G. Murphy, N. M. Corcoran, and A. J. Costello, “Preservation of the neurovascular bundles is associated with improved time to continence after radical prostatectomy but not long-term continence rates: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eur. Urol. 68(4), 692–704 (2015).
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Richards, L. M.

A. B. Parthasarathy, E. L. Weber, L. M. Richards, D. J. Fox, and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging of cerebral blood flow in humans during neurosurgery: a pilot clinical study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 066030 (2010).
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H. Dralle, C. Sekulla, J. Haerting, W. Timmermann, H. J. Neumann, E. Kruse, S. Grond, H. P. Mühlig, C. Richter, J. Voss, O. Thomusch, H. Lippert, I. Gastinger, M. Brauckhoff, and O. Gimm, “Risk factors of paralysis and functional outcome after recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery,” Surgery 136(6), 1310–1322 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, H. P.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, C. W. Heinen, G. Antoniadis, H. P. Richter, and R. W. König, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries,” Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am. 20(1), 73–90 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
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F. J. Bianco, E. R. Riedel, C. B. Begg, M. W. Kattan, and P. T. Scardino, “Variations among high volume surgeons in the rate of complications after radical prostatectomy: further evidence that technique matters,” J. Urol. 173(6), 2099–2103 (2005).
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A. Merolli, L. Mingarelli, and L. Rocchi, “A more detailed mechanism to explain the “bands of Fontana” in peripheral nerves,” Muscle Nerve 46(4), 540–547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, E.

E. Rodriguez, O. Melamud, and T. E. Ahlering, “Nerve-sparing techniques in open and laparoscopic prostatectomy,” Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 8(3), 475–479 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanowski, M.

N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–257, discussion 257–258 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Watson, C. F. Gainer, N. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, G. M. Lemole, R. Anton, and M. Romanowski, “Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106002 (2015).
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P. Ciaramitaro, M. Mondelli, F. Logullo, S. Grimaldi, B. Battiston, A. Sard, C. Scarinzi, G. Migliaretti, G. Faccani, D. Cocito, and Italian Network for Traumatic Neuropathies, “Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries: epidemiological findings, neuropathic pain and quality of life in 158 patients,” J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 15(2), 120–127 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasaki, T.

M. Mori, T. Chiba, A. Nakamizo, R. Kumashiro, M. Murata, T. Akahoshi, M. Tomikawa, Y. Kikkawa, K. Yoshimoto, M. Mizoguchi, T. Sasaki, and M. Hashizume, “Intraoperative visualization of cerebral oxygenation using hyperspectral image data: a two-dimensional mapping method,” Int. J. CARS 9(6), 1059–1072 (2014).
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Scardino, P. T.

F. J. Bianco, E. R. Riedel, C. B. Begg, M. W. Kattan, and P. T. Scardino, “Variations among high volume surgeons in the rate of complications after radical prostatectomy: further evidence that technique matters,” J. Urol. 173(6), 2099–2103 (2005).
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P. Ciaramitaro, M. Mondelli, F. Logullo, S. Grimaldi, B. Battiston, A. Sard, C. Scarinzi, G. Migliaretti, G. Faccani, D. Cocito, and Italian Network for Traumatic Neuropathies, “Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries: epidemiological findings, neuropathic pain and quality of life in 158 patients,” J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst. 15(2), 120–127 (2010).
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Schmidt, C. M.

C. M. Schmidt, O. Turrini, P. Parikh, M. G. House, N. J. Zyromski, A. Nakeeb, T. J. Howard, H. A. Pitt, and K. D. Lillemoe, “Effect of hospital volume, surgeon experience, and surgeon volume on patient outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a single-institution experience,” Arch. Surg. 145(7), 634–640 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekulla, C.

H. Dralle, C. Sekulla, J. Haerting, W. Timmermann, H. J. Neumann, E. Kruse, S. Grond, H. P. Mühlig, C. Richter, J. Voss, O. Thomusch, H. Lippert, I. Gastinger, M. Brauckhoff, and O. Gimm, “Risk factors of paralysis and functional outcome after recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery,” Surgery 136(6), 1310–1322 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serpell, M. G.

C. A. Courtney, K. Duffy, M. G. Serpell, and P. J. O’Dwyer, “Outcome of patients with severe chronic pain following repair of groin hernia,” Br. J. Surg. 89(10), 1310–1314 (2002).
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J. Cha, A. Shademan, H. N. Le, R. Decker, P. C. Kim, J. U. Kang, and A. Krieger, “Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106001 (2015).
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Y. B. He, L. Bai, T. Aji, Y. Jiang, J. M. Zhao, J. H. Zhang, Y. M. Shao, W. Y. Liu, and H. Wen, “Application of 3D reconstruction for surgical treatment of hepatic alveolar echinococcosis,” World J. Gastroenterol. 21(35), 10200–10207 (2015).
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Sharma, A. D.

A. D. Sharma, C. L. Parmley, G. Sreeram, and H. P. Grocott, “Peripheral nerve injuries during cardiac surgery: risk factors, diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention,” Anesth. Analg. 91(6), 1358–1369 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siclovan, T. M.

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

Siegel, C.

J. L. Figueiredo, C. Siegel, M. Nahrendorf, and R. Weissleder, “Intraoperative near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC) in mouse models of bile duct injury,” World J. Surg. 34(2), 336–343 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

Skoch, J.

J. R. Watson, C. F. Gainer, N. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, G. M. Lemole, R. Anton, and M. Romanowski, “Augmented microscopy: real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 106002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. L. Martirosyan, J. Skoch, J. R. Watson, G. M. Lemole, M. Romanowski, and R. Anton, “Integration of indocyanine green videoangiography with operative microscope: augmented reality for interactive assessment of vascular structures and blood flow,” Neurosurgery 11(Suppl 2), 252–257, discussion 257–258 (2015).
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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Real-time perfusion imaging of the small bowel in a rat
» Visualization 2       Subsurface blood flow monitoring using an LSCI
» Visualization 3       Femoral nerve, vein and artery in a rat

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout and implementation of the proposed system using a surgical microscope. a. Photo of the system implementation. b. Optical design. BS1, BS2, BS3: virtual beam-splitters; E1&2: eye pieces; L1: plano-concave lens; LF: laser line filter; LP&BP: long-pass filter and band-pass filter; LP1&2: linear polarizers; OA: observation arm; Obj.: main objective lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The overall processing framework of image analysis based on a graphics processing unit. CPU: central Processing Unit; CUDA: parallel computing platform; GPU: graphics processing unit; NIR: near-infrared.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Graphical user interface (imaging mode options: color, LSCI, polarization, and fluorescence; image field of view; camera selection and control; multimodal image alignment using the openGL function). LSCI: laser-speckle-contrast-imaging

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarimetric imaging for subsurface pattern extraction. (a) Color photo taken with the color camera. (b) Representative Retaradance map from birefringence imaging; pelvic nerve branches, with individual fascicles, are highlighted by the intrinsic zig-zag spiral patterns of ‘Bands-of-Fontana’. Please note that sub-surface fascicles within pelvic nerve are identified and differentiated. White bars: 1 cm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging of sciatic nerve in rats. (a) Color image of sciatic nerve in a rat. The spiral pattern is barely seen. (b) BMB injected fluorescence image. (c) Polarimetric kernel processed image highlighting ‘Bands-of-Fontana’. (d) Overlay image. White bars: 5 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Real-time perfusion imaging of the small bowel in a rat. (a) A color photo taken from our imaging system. (b) A comparative LSCI image. (c) Overlay image onto color image. (d) Intravenous injection of ICG and fluorescence image overlay onto color image. (e) A still image of artery visualization with fluorescence signals. (f) A still image of vein visualization. (see Visualization 1). All white bars: 2 cm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Subsurface blood flow monitoring using an LSCI. (a) A color photo of the liver hilum in a live pig. (b) Real-time visualization of subsurface hepatic arteries. Hidden branches are highlighted by arrows and circles. (see Visualization 2). White bars: 3 cm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Femoral nerve, vein, and artery in a rat. (a) A standard color photo of femoral area in live rat. (b) LSCI imaging mode highlighting femoral vasculatures colored in red. Please note that unseen vessels were also highlighted and femoral nerve is not visible (c) Polarimetric processed image highlighting femoral nerve. (see Visualization 3 for real time multimodal imaging). Asterisk indicates femoral nerve, yellow arrow heads indicate femoral vein and white arrows are vasculatures. All white bars: 1 cm.

Equations (1)

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δ= COS 1 ( ( M R 22+ M R 33 ) 2 + ( M R 23 M R 32 ) 2 1)