Abstract

Significant numbers of liver biopsies fail to yield representative tissue samples. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of LED-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate tumors from liver parenchyma. Ex vivo spectra were acquired from malignant lesions and liver parenchyma of 32 patients who underwent liver resection using a white light source and several LEDs. Integrated spectra of two combined LEDs with emission peaks at 470 nm and 515 nm were classified with 98.4% sensitivity and 99.2% specificity. The promising results could yield to a simple handheld and cost-efficient tool for real-time tissue differentiation implemented in a biopsy needle.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples

Rami Nachabé, Daniel J. Evers, Benno H. W. Hendriks, Gerald W. Lucassen, Marjolein van der Voort, Jelle Wesseling, and Theo J. M. Ruers
Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3) 600-614 (2011)

Prostate cancer detection using combined auto-fluorescence and light reflectance spectroscopy: ex vivo study of human prostates

Vikrant Sharma, Ephrem O. Olweny, Payal Kapur, Jeffrey A. Cadeddu, Claus G. Roehrborn, and Hanli Liu
Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5) 1512-1529 (2014)

Feasibility of near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy on patients undergoing image-guided core-needle biopsy

Bing Yu, Elizabeth S. Burnside, Gale A. Sisney, Josephine M. Harter, Changfang Zhu, Al-Hafeez Dhalla, and Nirmala Ramanujam
Opt. Express 15(12) 7335-7350 (2007)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Ananthakrishnan, V. Gogineni, and K. Saeian, “Epidemiology of Primary and Secondary Liver Cancers,” Semin. Intervent. Radiol. 23(1), 47–63 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  3. L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. van Duijnhoven, M. T. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).
  22. A. Keller, P. Bialecki, and M. Vetter, “Comparison between total photon count and discrete spectral bands-normalization using DRS measurements for differentiation of tissues for liver biopsies,” Int. J. CARS 10(1), 32–33 (2015).
  23. S. Pimenta, E. M. Castanheira, and G. Minas, “Optical microsystem for analysis of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals applied to early gastrointestinal cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(2), 3138–3153 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).
  26. T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Python Software Foundation, “Python Language Reference,” version 2.7.13. http://www.python.org
  28. F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).
  29. E. Jones, T. Oliphant, and P. Peterson, “SciPy: Open source scientific tools for Python,” http://www.scipy.org/
  30. G. C. Cawley and N. L. Talbot, “On Over-fitting in Model Selection and Subsequent Selection Bias in Performance Evaluation,” JMLR 11, 2079–2107 (2010).
  31. R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, M. van der Voort, A. E. Desjardins, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1432–1442 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. van Duijnhoven, M. T. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Keller, P. Bialecki, and M. Vetter, “Comparison between total photon count and discrete spectral bands-normalization using DRS measurements for differentiation of tissues for liver biopsies,” Int. J. CARS 10(1), 32–33 (2015).

S. Pimenta, E. M. Castanheira, and G. Minas, “Optical microsystem for analysis of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals applied to early gastrointestinal cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(2), 3138–3153 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

2010 (3)

G. C. Cawley and N. L. Talbot, “On Over-fitting in Model Selection and Subsequent Selection Bias in Performance Evaluation,” JMLR 11, 2079–2107 (2010).

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, M. van der Voort, A. E. Desjardins, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1432–1442 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

2006 (2)

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ananthakrishnan, V. Gogineni, and K. Saeian, “Epidemiology of Primary and Secondary Liver Cancers,” Semin. Intervent. Radiol. 23(1), 47–63 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aerts, J. G.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ageev, V.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Albrecht, D.

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ananthakrishnan, A.

A. Ananthakrishnan, V. Gogineni, and K. Saeian, “Epidemiology of Primary and Secondary Liver Cancers,” Semin. Intervent. Radiol. 23(1), 47–63 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artyushenko, V.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Babic, D.

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bard, M. P.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, C.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beauvoit, B.

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belikova, V.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Benaron, D. A.

C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

Bhatia, S.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bialecki, P.

A. Keller, P. Bialecki, and M. Vetter, “Comparison between total photon count and discrete spectral bands-normalization using DRS measurements for differentiation of tissues for liver biopsies,” Int. J. CARS 10(1), 32–33 (2015).

Blondel, M.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Bogomolov, A.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Botstein, D.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, J. Q.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, P. O.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brucher, M.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Buhr, H. J.

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgers, J. A.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bydlon, T. M.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carlini, G.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Castanheira, E. M.

S. Pimenta, E. M. Castanheira, and G. Minas, “Optical microsystem for analysis of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals applied to early gastrointestinal cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(2), 3138–3153 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cawley, G. C.

G. C. Cawley and N. L. Talbot, “On Over-fitting in Model Selection and Subsequent Selection Bias in Performance Evaluation,” JMLR 11, 2079–2107 (2010).

Chance, B.

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, S. T.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cournapeau, D.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Cova, M.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

de Boer, L. L.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. van Duijnhoven, M. T. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Jong, J.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De Pauw, F. F.

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

Desjardins, A. E.

Dionigi, P.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Dubourg, V.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Duchesnay, É.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Dudoit, S.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duin, R. P.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Evers, D. J.

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S. T.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feliksberger, E.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Ferrari, C.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Francque, S. M.

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

Fu, H. L.

Gaspari, A.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Geradts, J.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germer, C. T.

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gogineni, V.

A. Ananthakrishnan, V. Gogineni, and K. Saeian, “Epidemiology of Primary and Secondary Liver Cancers,” Semin. Intervent. Radiol. 23(1), 47–63 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramfort, A.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Grisel, O.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Hales, J.

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendriks, B. H.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, M. van der Voort, A. E. Desjardins, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1432–1442 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. van Duijnhoven, M. T. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Higgins, J.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hompes, D.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoogsteden, H. C.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. P.

C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Isbert, C.

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, E. D.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, J.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, M.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Józwiak, K.

Keller, A.

A. Keller, P. Bialecki, and M. Vetter, “Comparison between total photon count and discrete spectral bands-normalization using DRS measurements for differentiation of tissues for liver biopsies,” Int. J. CARS 10(1), 32–33 (2015).

Kennedy, S. A.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirsanov, D.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Kitai, T.

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klomp, H. M.

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuech, T. F.

Kuhlmann, K.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, K. M.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lo, J. Y.

Loo, C. E.

Lucassen, G. W.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, M. A.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, M. A. J.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meshkovsky, I.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Michel, V.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Michielsen, P. P.

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

Minas, G.

S. Pimenta, E. M. Castanheira, and G. Minas, “Optical microsystem for analysis of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals applied to early gastrointestinal cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(2), 3138–3153 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minet, O.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Miwa, M.

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrison, G.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nachabé, R.

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, M. van der Voort, A. E. Desjardins, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1432–1442 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ng, I. O.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noordhoek Hegt, V.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, H. S.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palmer, G. M.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parachikov, I. H.

C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passos, A.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Pedregosa, F.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Peeters, M. J.

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peeters-Baas, M. T.

Pelckmans, P. A.

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

Perrot, M.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Pimenta, S.

S. Pimenta, E. M. Castanheira, and G. Minas, “Optical microsystem for analysis of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals applied to early gastrointestinal cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(2), 3138–3153 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prettenhofer, P.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Prevoo, W.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Priore, R.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Pully, V. V.

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Racadio, J. M.

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ragheb, J.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lo, B. Yu, H. L. Fu, J. E. Bender, G. M. Palmer, T. F. Kuech, and N. Ramanujam, “A strategy for quantitative spectral imaging of tissue absorption and scattering using light emitting diodes and photodiodes,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1372–1384 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razavi, M. K.

C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ritz, J. P.

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roggan, A.

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rottenberg, S.

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruers, T. J.

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruers, T. J. M.

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. van Duijnhoven, M. T. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutgers, E. J.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saeian, K.

A. Ananthakrishnan, V. Gogineni, and K. Saeian, “Epidemiology of Primary and Secondary Liver Cancers,” Semin. Intervent. Radiol. 23(1), 47–63 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandberg, D. I.

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanders, J.

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schierling, R.

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulte, F.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Skurichina, M.

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, S.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, S. K.

C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spliethoff, J. W.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, M. van der Voort, A. E. Desjardins, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1432–1442 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. van Duijnhoven, M. T. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talbot, N. L.

G. C. Cawley and N. L. Talbot, “On Over-fitting in Model Selection and Subsequent Selection Bias in Performance Evaluation,” JMLR 11, 2079–2107 (2010).

Tanis, E.

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thirion, B.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Toms, S. A.

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trotta, F.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Usenov, I.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

van Coevorden, F.

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van De Rijn, M.

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van de Vijver, K.

Van den Steen, G. H.

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

van der Hage, J. A.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Voort, M.

van Duijnhoven, F.

Van Marck, E. A.

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

van Sandick, J. W.

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Velthuysen, M. L.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanderplas, J.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Varoquaux, G.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Vetter, M.

A. Keller, P. Bialecki, and M. Vetter, “Comparison between total photon count and discrete spectral bands-normalization using DRS measurements for differentiation of tissues for liver biopsies,” Int. J. CARS 10(1), 32–33 (2015).

Vranken Peeters, M. J.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiss, R.

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

Wesseling, J.

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Effect of bile absorption coefficients on the estimation of liver tissue optical properties and related implications in discriminating healthy and tumorous samples,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 600–614 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilke, L. G.

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wouters, M. W.

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, C.

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, X.

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaoka, Y.

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, B.

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zabarylo, U.

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Zhang, J.

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zonta, C.

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. (1)

S. M. Francque, F. F. De Pauw, G. H. Van den Steen, E. A. Van Marck, P. A. Pelckmans, and P. P. Michielsen, “Biopsy of focal liver lesions: guidelines, comparison of techniques and cost-analysis,” Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 66(2), 160–165 (2003).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, M. J. Vranken Peeters, J. A. van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, E. J. Rutgers, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: towards clinical application in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 137(1), 155–165 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

J. Q. Brown, L. G. Wilke, J. Geradts, S. A. Kennedy, G. M. Palmer, and N. Ramanujam, “Quantitative optical spectroscopy: a robust tool for direct measurement of breast cancer vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin content in vivo,” Cancer Res. 69(7), 2919–2926 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chest (1)

M. P. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. Noordhoek Hegt, R. P. Duin, H. J. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. Aerts, “Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree,” Chest 129(4), 995–1001 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Lung Cancer (1)

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (1)

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, M. L. van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IJLM (1)

R. Priore, F. Trotta, G. Carlini, C. Zonta, A. Gaspari, C. Ferrari, M. Cova, and P. Dionigi, “A spectroscopy based procedure for in-vivo detection of liver metastasis in a rat model,” IJLM 3(2), 1–14 (2008).

Int. J. CARS (1)

A. Keller, P. Bialecki, and M. Vetter, “Comparison between total photon count and discrete spectral bands-normalization using DRS measurements for differentiation of tissues for liver biopsies,” Int. J. CARS 10(1), 32–33 (2015).

Invest. Radiol. (1)

R. Nachabé, B. H. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions. Feasibility study in woodchucks,” Invest. Radiol. 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. Sterenborg, B. H. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 97004 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, S. Oh, and J. Ragheb, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo pediatric brain tumor detection,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061709 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. C. Lin, D. I. Sandberg, S. Bhatia, M. Johnson, G. Morrison, and J. Ragheb, “Optical spectroscopy for in-vitro differentiation of pediatric neoplastic and epileptogenic brain lesions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014028 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Nachabé, D. J. Evers, B. H. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, E. J. Rutgers, M. J. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. (1)

Y. Yu, C. Xiao, K. Chen, J. Zheng, J. Zhang, X. Zhao, and X. Xue, “Different optical properties between human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and non-tumorous hepatic tissues in vitro,” J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technolog. Med. Sci. 31(4), 515–519 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. (1)

C. P. Hsu, M. K. Razavi, S. K. So, I. H. Parachikov, and D. A. Benaron, “Liver Tumor Gross Margin Identification and Ablation Monitoring during Liver Radiofrequency Treatment,” J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 16(11), 1473–1478 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

JMLR (2)

F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. Weiss, V. Dubourg, J. Vanderplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, and É. Duchesnay, “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” JMLR 12, 2825–2830 (2011).

G. C. Cawley and N. L. Talbot, “On Over-fitting in Model Selection and Subsequent Selection Bias in Performance Evaluation,” JMLR 11, 2079–2107 (2010).

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

C. T. Germer, A. Roggan, J. P. Ritz, C. Isbert, D. Albrecht, G. Müller, and H. J. Buhr, “Optical properties of native and coagulated human liver tissue and liver metastases in the near infrared range,” Lasers Surg. Med. 23(4), 194–203 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Tanis, D. J. Evers, J. W. Spliethoff, V. V. Pully, K. Kuhlmann, F. van Coevorden, B. H. Hendriks, J. Sanders, W. Prevoo, and T. J. Ruers, “In vivo tumor identification of colorectal liver metastases with diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 48(9), 820–827 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lung Cancer (2)

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. A. Burgers, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Spectral sensing for tissue diagnosis during lung biopsy procedures: The importance of an adequate internal reference and real-time feedback,” Lung Cancer 98, 62–68 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabé, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Biol. Cell (1)

X. Chen, S. T. Cheung, S. So, S. T. Fan, C. Barry, J. Higgins, K. M. Lai, J. Ji, S. Dudoit, I. O. Ng, M. Van De Rijn, D. Botstein, and P. O. Brown, “Gene expression patterns in human liver cancers,” Mol. Biol. Cell 13(6), 1929–1939 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

W. C. Lin, S. A. Toms, M. Johnson, E. D. Jansen, and A. Mahadevan-Jansen, “In vivo brain tumor demarcation using optical spectroscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 73(4), 396–402 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

T. Kitai, M. Miwa, H. Liu, B. Beauvoit, B. Chance, and Y. Yamaoka, “Application of near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy to rat liver--a preliminary report for surgical application,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44(8), 2049–2061 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Bogomolov, V. Ageev, U. Zabarylo, I. Usenov, F. Schulte, D. Kirsanov, V. Belikova, O. Minet, E. Feliksberger, I. Meshkovsky, and V. Artyushenko, “LED-based near infrared sensors for cancer diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE 9715, 971510 (2015).

Semin. Intervent. Radiol. (1)

A. Ananthakrishnan, V. Gogineni, and K. Saeian, “Epidemiology of Primary and Secondary Liver Cancers,” Semin. Intervent. Radiol. 23(1), 47–63 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

S. Pimenta, E. M. Castanheira, and G. Minas, “Optical microsystem for analysis of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence signals applied to early gastrointestinal cancer detection,” Sensors (Basel) 15(2), 3138–3153 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. Jones, T. Oliphant, and P. Peterson, “SciPy: Open source scientific tools for Python,” http://www.scipy.org/

Python Software Foundation, “Python Language Reference,” version 2.7.13. http://www.python.org

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance spectra of white light source (solid line, integration time 45 ms) and ten different high power LEDs (dashed lines, integration time 100 ms) measured with a reflectance standard.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative example of a resected liver with two malign lesions which are metastases from rectal cancer. The colored markers in a and b describe the 6 measurement sites on tumorous tissue. The remaining measurement sites in c are defined on liver parenchyma.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean diffuse reflectance spectra of liver parenchyma (solid line) and tumorous tissue (dashed line) using a broadband light source in the VIS and NIR spectral range before (top) and after (bottom) normalization. The hatched (liver parenchyma) and grey (tumor) areas indicate the standard deviation of each type of tissue.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Classification accuracy obtained from Leave-One-Patient-Out CV procedure based on SVM using integrated diffuse reflectance spectra of single LEDs and paired LED combinations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatterplot of integrated photon counts from LED02 and LED03 of liver tissue (red spots) and malignant lesions (blue crosses).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Receiver operating characteristic curve of discriminating results based on integrated reflectance spectra values of LED02 and LED03. area: area under ROC curve

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specification of liver tumors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Per patient classification based on SVM with Leave-One-Patient-Out CV of DRS with selected LED combination, white source and normalized white source measurements.