Abstract

Hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (hsSRS) microscopy has recently emerged as a powerful non-destructive technique for the label-free chemical imaging of biological samples. In most hsSRS imaging experiments, the SRS spectral range is limited by the total bandwidth of the excitation laser to ~300 cm−1 and a spectral resolution of ~25 cm−1. Here we present a novel approach for broadband hsSRS microscopy based on parabolic fiber amplification to provide linearly chirped broadened Stokes pulses. This novel hsSRS instrument provides >600 cm−1 spectral coverage and ~10 cm−1 spectral resolution. We further demonstrated broadband hsSRS imaging of the entire Raman fingerprint region for resolving the distribution of major biomolecules in fixed cells. Moreover, we applied broadband hsSRS in imaging amyloid plaques in human brain tissue with Alzheimer’s disease.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (6)

D. Fu, “Quantitative chemical imaging with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 39, 24–31 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, S. Condello, J. Thomes-Pepin, X. Ma, Y. Xia, T. D. Hurley, D. Matei, and J.-X. Cheng, “Lipid Desaturation Is a Metabolic Marker and Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells,” Cell Stem Cell 20(3), 303–314 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Michael, A. Lenferink, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, E. Gelpi, R. I. Barraquer, and C. Otto, “Hyperspectral Raman imaging of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain tissue from Alzheimer’s disease patients,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

S. Yue and J.-X. Cheng, “Deciphering Single Cell Metabolism by Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 33, 46–57 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative, comparable coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy: correcting errors in phase retrieval,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47(4), 408–415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (10)

C.-S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S.-Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J.-X. Cheng, “Microsecond scale vibrational spectroscopic imaging by multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Camp and M. T. Cicerone, “Chemically sensitive bioimaging with coherent Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 9(5), 295–305 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Hu, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Shen, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Vibrational Imaging of Glucose Uptake Activity in Live Cells and Tissues by Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(34), 9821–9825 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kiskis, H. Fink, L. Nyberg, J. Thyr, J.-Y. Li, and A. Enejder, “Plaque-associated lipids in Alzheimer’s diseased brain tissue visualized by nonlinear microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 13489 (2015).
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B. Liu, H. J. Lee, D. Zhang, C.-S. Liao, N. Ji, Y. Xia, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free spectroscopic detection of membrane potential using stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173704 (2015).
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S. Karpf, M. Eibl, W. Wieser, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6784 (2015).
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J. Réhault, F. Crisafi, V. Kumar, G. Ciardi, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, and D. Polli, “Broadband stimulated Raman scattering with Fourier-transform detection,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25235–25246 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

A. F. Pegoraro, A. D. Slepkov, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, and A. Stolow, “Hyperspectral multimodal CARS microscopy in the fingerprint region,” J. Biophotonics 7(1-2), 49–58 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu and X. S. Xie, “Reliable Cell Segmentation Based on Spectral Phasor Analysis of Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Imaging Data,” Anal. Chem. 86(9), 4115–4119 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Fu, J. Zhou, W. S. Zhu, P. W. Manley, Y. K. Wang, T. Hood, A. Wylie, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging the intracellular distribution of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in living cells with quantitative hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Chem. 6(7), 614–622 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C.-C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hong, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, A. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Chen, “Live-Cell Stimulated Raman Scattering Imaging of Alkyne-Tagged Biomolecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(23), 5827–5831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Stender, K. Marchuk, C. Liu, S. Sander, M. W. Meyer, E. A. Smith, B. Neupane, G. Wang, J. Li, J.-X. Cheng, B. Huang, and N. Fang, “Single Cell Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy,” Chem. Rev. 113(4), 2469–2527 (2013).
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D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
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M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. R. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, Label-Free Detection of Brain Tumors with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

J. M. Crawford, C. Portmann, X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, and J. Clardy, “Small molecule perimeter defense in entomopathogenic bacteria,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(27), 10821–10826 (2012).
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J. L. Suhalim, C.-Y. Chung, M. B. Lilledahl, R. S. Lim, M. Levi, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Characterization of Cholesterol Crystals in Atherosclerotic Plaques Using Stimulated Raman Scattering and Second-Harmonic Generation Microscopy,” Biophys. J. 102(8), 1988–1995 (2012).
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M. T. Cicerone, K. A. Aamer, Y. J. Lee, and E. Vartiainen, “Maximum entropy and time-domain Kramers–Kronig phase retrieval approaches are functionally equivalent for CARS microspectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(5), 637–643 (2012).
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D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
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X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free Live-Cell Imaging of Nucleic Acids using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
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Y. Ozeki, W. Umemura, K. Sumimura, N. Nishizawa, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 431–433 (2012).
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2011 (5)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, G. R. Holtom, B. Xu, M. Dantus, and X. S. Xie, “Highly specific label-free molecular imaging with spectrally tailored excitation stimulated Raman scattering (STE-SRS) microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 103–109 (2011).
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E. R. Andresen, P. Berto, and H. Rigneault, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy by spectral focusing and fiber-generated soliton as Stokes pulse,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2387–2389 (2011).
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H. T. Beier, G. D. Noojin, and B. A. Rockwell, “Stimulated Raman scattering using a single femtosecond oscillator with flexibility for imaging and spectral applications,” Opt. Express 19(20), 18885–18892 (2011).
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J. P. R. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
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W. Min, C. W. Freudiger, S. Lu, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Nonlinear Optical Imaging: Beyond Fluorescence Microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 62(1), 507–530 (2011).
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2009 (4)

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, Y. Jia, J. P. Pezacki, and A. Stolow, “Optimally chirped multimodal CARS microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2984–2996 (2009).
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Y. Deng, C.-Y. Chien, B. G. Fidric, and J. D. Kafka, “Generation of sub-50 fs pulses from a high-power Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3469–3471 (2009).
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W. Langbein, I. Rocha‐Mendoza, and P. Borri, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman micro-spectroscopy using spectral focusing: theory and experiment,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 800–808 (2009).
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C. Finot, J. M. Dudley, B. Kibler, D. J. Richardson, and G. Millot, “Optical Parabolic Pulse Generation and Applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(11), 1482–1489 (2009).
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2008 (3)

I. Rocha-Mendoza, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microspectroscopy using spectral focusing with glass dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 201103 (2008).
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C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
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C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Chemical Imaging for Biology and Medicine,” Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
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2007 (1)

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

H.-J. van Manen, Y. M. Kraan, D. Roos, and C. Otto, “Single-cell Raman and fluorescence microscopy reveal the association of lipid bodies with phagosomes in leukocytes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(29), 10159–10164 (2005).
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2004 (4)

J. R. Baena and B. Lendl, “Raman spectroscopy in chemical bioanalysis,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 8(5), 534–539 (2004).
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J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy: Instrumentation, Theory, and Applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(3), 827–840 (2004).
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T. Hellerer, A. M. K. Enejder, and A. Zumbusch, “Spectral focusing: High spectral resolution spectroscopy with broad-bandwidth laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(1), 25–27 (2004).
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G. Chang, A. Galvanauskas, H. G. Winful, and T. B. Norris, “Dependence of parabolic pulse amplification on stimulated Raman scattering and gain bandwidth,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2647–2649 (2004).
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2003 (2)

N. Uzunbajakava, A. Lenferink, Y. Kraan, E. Volokhina, G. Vrensen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Nonresonant Confocal Raman Imaging of DNA and Protein Distribution in Apoptotic Cells,” Biophys. J. 84(6), 3968–3981 (2003).
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J.-X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, “Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(17), 9826–9830 (2003).
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2002 (3)

2001 (1)

E. Potma, W. P. de Boeij, P. J. M. van Haastert, and D. A. Wiersma, “Real-time visualization of intracellular hydrodynamics in single living cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(4), 1577–1582 (2001).
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2000 (2)

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-Similar Propagation and Amplification of Parabolic Pulses in Optical Fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
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V. I. Kruglov, A. C. Peacock, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation of high-power parabolic pulses in optical fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 25(24), 1753–1755 (2000).
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1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
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1997 (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(7), 1049–1056 (1997).
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1994 (1)

1990 (1)

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
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1989 (1)

L. Yi-Zeng, X. Yu-Long, and Y. Ru-Qin, “Accuracy criteria and optimal wavelength selection for multicomponent spectrophotometric determinations,” Anal. Chim. Acta 222(1), 347–357 (1989).
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1987 (1)

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62(6), 419–421 (1987).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

D. C. Goodwin and J. Brahms, “Form of DNA and the nature of interactions with proteins in chromatin,” Nucleic Acids Res. 5(3), 835–850 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aamer, K. A.

M. T. Cicerone, K. A. Aamer, Y. J. Lee, and E. Vartiainen, “Maximum entropy and time-domain Kramers–Kronig phase retrieval approaches are functionally equivalent for CARS microspectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 43(5), 637–643 (2012).
[Crossref]

Agar, N. Y. R.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. R. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, Label-Free Detection of Brain Tumors with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andresen, E. R.

Arndt-Jovin, D. J.

G. J. Puppels, F. F. M. de Mul, C. Otto, J. Greve, M. Robert-Nicoud, D. J. Arndt-Jovin, and T. M. Jovin, “Studying single living cells and chromosomes by confocal Raman microspectroscopy,” Nature 347(6290), 301–303 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baena, J. R.

J. R. Baena and B. Lendl, “Raman spectroscopy in chemical bioanalysis,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 8(5), 534–539 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barraquer, R. I.

R. Michael, A. Lenferink, G. F. J. M. Vrensen, E. Gelpi, R. I. Barraquer, and C. Otto, “Hyperspectral Raman imaging of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain tissue from Alzheimer’s disease patients,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 15603 (2017).
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Basu, S.

F.-K. Lu, S. Basu, V. Igras, M. P. Hoang, M. Ji, D. Fu, G. R. Holtom, V. A. Neel, C. W. Freudiger, D. E. Fisher, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free DNA imaging in vivo with stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(37), 11624–11629 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free Live-Cell Imaging of Nucleic Acids using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beier, H. T.

Ben-Amotz, D.

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, K.

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berto, P.

Bonn, M.

J. P. R. Day, K. F. Domke, G. Rago, H. Kano, H. O. Hamaguchi, E. M. Vartiainen, and M. Bonn, “Quantitative Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 115(24), 7713–7725 (2011).
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E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, “Direct extraction of Raman line-shapes from congested CARS spectra,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3622–3630 (2006).
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Borri, P.

W. Langbein, I. Rocha‐Mendoza, and P. Borri, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman micro-spectroscopy using spectral focusing: theory and experiment,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(7), 800–808 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Rocha-Mendoza, W. Langbein, and P. Borri, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman microspectroscopy using spectral focusing with glass dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 201103 (2008).
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Boyle, J.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brahms, J.

D. C. Goodwin and J. Brahms, “Form of DNA and the nature of interactions with proteins in chromatin,” Nucleic Acids Res. 5(3), 835–850 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brunton, V. G.

W. J. Tipping, M. Lee, A. Serrels, V. G. Brunton, and A. N. Hulme, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy: an emerging tool for drug discovery,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(8), 2075–2089 (2016).
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Calligaris, D.

F.-K. Lu, D. Calligaris, O. I. Olubiyi, I. Norton, W. Yang, S. Santagata, X. S. Xie, A. J. Golby, and N. Y. R. Agar, “Label-Free Neurosurgical Pathology with Stimulated Raman Imaging,” Cancer Res. 76(12), 3451–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camelo-Piragua, S.

D. A. Orringer, B. Pandian, Y. S. Niknafs, T. C. Hollon, J. Boyle, S. Lewis, M. Garrard, S. L. Hervey-Jumper, H. J. L. Garton, C. O. Maher, J. A. Heth, O. Sagher, D. A. Wilkinson, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, S. H. Ramkissoon, K. A. McFadden, A. Fisher-Hubbard, A. P. Lieberman, T. D. Johnson, X. S. Xie, J. K. Trautman, C. W. Freudiger, and S. Camelo-Piragua, “Rapid intraoperative histology of unprocessed surgical specimens via fibre-laser-based stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 1(2), 0027 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, S. Lewis, S. Camelo-Piragua, S. H. Ramkissoon, M. Snuderl, S. Venneti, A. Fisher-Hubbard, M. Garrard, D. Fu, A. C. Wang, J. A. Heth, C. O. Maher, N. Sanai, T. D. Johnson, C. W. Freudiger, O. Sagher, X. S. Xie, and D. A. Orringer, “Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 7(309), 309ra163(2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ji, D. A. Orringer, C. W. Freudiger, S. Ramkissoon, X. Liu, D. Lau, A. J. Golby, I. Norton, M. Hayashi, N. Y. R. Agar, G. S. Young, C. Spino, S. Santagata, S. Camelo-Piragua, K. L. Ligon, O. Sagher, and X. S. Xie, “Rapid, Label-Free Detection of Brain Tumors with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Sci. Transl. Med. 5(201), 201ra119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camp, C. H.

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, and M. T. Cicerone, “Quantitative, comparable coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy: correcting errors in phase retrieval,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 47(4), 408–415 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Camp and M. T. Cicerone, “Chemically sensitive bioimaging with coherent Raman scattering,” Nat. Photonics 9(5), 295–305 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. H. Camp, Y. J. Lee, J. M. Heddleston, C. M. Hartshorn, A. R. Hight Walker, J. N. Rich, J. D. Lathia, and M. T. Cicerone, “High-speed coherent Raman fingerprint imaging of biological tissues,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 627–634 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, T. Zwerdling, S. M. Lane, K. Ihara, and T. Huser, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy detects individual neoplastic and normal hematopoietic cells,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 648–656 (2006).
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Chang, G.

Chen, T.

S. Hong, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, A. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Chen, “Live-Cell Stimulated Raman Scattering Imaging of Alkyne-Tagged Biomolecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(23), 5827–5831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

S. Hong, T. Chen, Y. Zhu, A. Li, Y. Huang, and X. Chen, “Live-Cell Stimulated Raman Scattering Imaging of Alkyne-Tagged Biomolecules,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(23), 5827–5831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

B. Figueroa, Y. Chen, K. Berry, A. Francis, and D. Fu, “Label-Free Chemical Imaging of Latent Fingerprints with Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Anal. Chem. 89(8), 4468–4473 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Francis, K. Berry, Y. Chen, B. Figueroa, and D. Fu, “Label-free pathology by spectrally sliced femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy,” PLoS One 12(5), e0178750 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

F. Hu, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Shen, L. Wei, and W. Min, “Vibrational Imaging of Glucose Uptake Activity in Live Cells and Tissues by Stimulated Raman Scattering,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 54(34), 9821–9825 (2015).
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L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C.-C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
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Cheng, J.-X.

J. Li, S. Condello, J. Thomes-Pepin, X. Ma, Y. Xia, T. D. Hurley, D. Matei, and J.-X. Cheng, “Lipid Desaturation Is a Metabolic Marker and Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells,” Cell Stem Cell 20(3), 303–314 (2017).
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S. Yue and J.-X. Cheng, “Deciphering Single Cell Metabolism by Coherent Raman Scattering Microscopy,” Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 33, 46–57 (2016).
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J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging of living systems: An emerging platform for biology and medicine,” Science 350(6264), aaa8870 (2015).
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B. Liu, H. J. Lee, D. Zhang, C.-S. Liao, N. Ji, Y. Xia, and J.-X. Cheng, “Label-free spectroscopic detection of membrane potential using stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(17), 173704 (2015).
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C.-S. Liao, M. N. Slipchenko, P. Wang, J. Li, S.-Y. Lee, R. A. Oglesbee, and J.-X. Cheng, “Microsecond scale vibrational spectroscopic imaging by multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e265 (2015).
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Hamaguchi, H. O.

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A. C. Peacock, R. J. Kruhlak, J. D. Harvey, and J. M. Dudley, “Solitary pulse propagation in high gain optical fiber amplifiers with normal group velocity dispersion,” Opt. Commun. 206(1), 171–177 (2002).
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L. Wei, F. Hu, Y. Shen, Z. Chen, Y. Yu, C.-C. Lin, M. C. Wang, and W. Min, “Live-cell imaging of alkyne-tagged small biomolecules by stimulated Raman scattering,” Nat. Methods 11(4), 410–412 (2014).
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Yue, S.

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D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
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D. Fu, G. Holtom, C. Freudiger, X. Zhang, and X. S. Xie, “Hyperspectral Imaging with Stimulated Raman Scattering by Chirped Femtosecond Lasers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 117(16), 4634–4640 (2013).
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D. Fu, F.-K. Lu, X. Zhang, C. Freudiger, D. R. Pernik, G. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Quantitative Chemical Imaging with Multiplex Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(8), 3623–3626 (2012).
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X. Zhang, M. B. J. Roeffaers, S. Basu, J. R. Daniele, D. Fu, C. W. Freudiger, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free Live-Cell Imaging of Nucleic Acids using Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy,” ChemPhysChem 13(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
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Anal. Chem. (3)

D. Zhang, P. Wang, M. N. Slipchenko, D. Ben-Amotz, A. M. Weiner, and J.-X. Cheng, “Quantitative Vibrational Imaging by Hyperspectral Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy and Multivariate Curve Resolution Analysis,” Anal. Chem. 85(1), 98–106 (2013).
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Cell Stem Cell (1)

J. Li, S. Condello, J. Thomes-Pepin, X. Ma, Y. Xia, T. D. Hurley, D. Matei, and J.-X. Cheng, “Lipid Desaturation Is a Metabolic Marker and Therapeutic Target of Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells,” Cell Stem Cell 20(3), 303–314 (2017).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the hsSRS imaging setup based on a femtosecond dual beam laser system. Abbreviations: GS, grating-stretcher; HWP, half waveplate; WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; EOM, electro-optical modulator; QWP, quarter waveplate; DM, dichroic mirror; PD, photodiode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A) The optical spectra of the Stokes pulse in a parabolic fiber amplifier as a function of launched pump power. B) The bandwidth at FWHM (red) and pulse width (blue) of the amplified pulse after the 36 cm of glass rods as a function of launched pump power. C) Output power characteristics of the parabolic fiber amplifier.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (A) SRS spectra of organic solvents using 60 cm of high dispersion glass rods and pump wavelength of 916 nm. (B) SRS spectrum of organic solvents using stretcher-grating pair and Yb-doped fiber amplifier pumped at 7 W. IP and IS = 40 mW.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (A) Stitched SRS spectra of organic solvents covering the entire fingerprint region using two pump wavelengths: 949 nm and 912 nm and the Yb-doped fiber amplifier pumped at 4.5 W and 3.5 W, respectively. IP and IS = 40 mW. (B) Spontaneous Raman spectra of organic solvents. Green: oleic acid, red: nitrobenzene, blue: benzonitrile, magenta: methanol.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (A) SRS frame at 2930 cm−1 of two fixed cells using unamplified Stokes pulse. (B) SRS spectra at four individual pixels A, B, C, D and E with neglible water signal in the area surrounding the fixed cells. (C) SRS frame at 2930 cm−1 with amplified Stokes pulse by pumping the amplifier at 2.5 W. (D) SRS spectra of four individual pixels A, B, C, D, and E. Images are acquired at 8 μs pixel dwell time. IP and IS = 40 mW.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (A) SRS frame at 1090 cm−1 of two fixed cells using unamplified Stokes pulse. (B) SRS spectra at four individual pixels A, B, C, and D. (C) SRS frame at 1090 cm−1 with amplified Stokes pulse by pumping the amplifier at 4.5 W. (D) SRS spectra of four individual pixels A, B, C, and D. Images are acquired at 8 μs pixel dwell time.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (A) SRS spectra of dissolved insulin (black) and insulin fibrils (gold). (B) Hyperspectral imaging frame at 1673 cm−1 of insulin fibrils. (C) SRS spectra of cortex uninvolved with plaque (blue) and Aβ fibrils (gold), one of the main components of AD induced plaques. (D) Spectrally separated uninvolved tissue and plaques through a non-negative least squares algorithm. The areas of Aβ are highlighted (gold) in the background of the brain cortex (blue).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Sensitivity of SRS based on parabolic pulse amplification. Images are acquired at 4 μs pixel dwell time. IP and IS = 15 mW.