Abstract

We developed an optical thrombus sensor for a monopivot extracorporeal centrifugal blood pump. In this study, we investigated its quantitative performance for thrombus detection in acute animal experiments of left ventricular assist using the pump on pathogen-free pigs. Optical fibers were set in the driver unit of the pump. The incident light at the near-infrared wavelength of 810 nm was aimed at the pivot bearing, and the resulting scattered light was guided to the optical fibers. The detected signal was analyzed to obtain the thrombus formation level. As a result, real-time and quantitative monitoring of the thrombus surface area on the pivot bearing was achieved with an accuracy of 3.6 ± 2.3 mm2. In addition, the sensing method using the near-infrared light was not influenced by changes in the oxygen saturation and the hematocrit. It is expected that the developed sensor will be useful for optimal anticoagulation management for long-term extracorporeal circulation therapies.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. P. M. Eckman and R. John, “Bleeding and thrombosis in patients with continuous-flow ventricular assist devices,” Circulation 125(24), 3038–3047 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. N. A. Gilotra and G. R. Stevens, “Temporary mechanical circulatory support: a review of the options, indications, and outcomes,” Clin. Med. Insights Cardiol. 8(Suppl 1), 75–85 (2015).
    [PubMed]
  4. K. Shekar, S. D. Gregory, and J. F. Fraser, “Mechanical circulatory support in the new era: an overview,” Crit. Care 20(1), 66 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Saffarzadeh and P. Bonde, “Options for temporary mechanical circulatory support,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(12), 2102–2111 (2015).
    [PubMed]
  6. N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Nosé, “Hemodialysis patients’ deaths in the USA by contaminant suspected heparin originating from China,” Artif. Organs 32(6), 425–426 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Khetani, V. S. Tiwari, A. Harb, and H. Anis, “Monitoring of heparin concentration in serum by Raman spectroscopy within hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15244–15254 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Oshima and Y. Sankai, “Development of optical sensing system for noninvasive and dynamic monitoring of thrombogenic process,” ASAIO J. 56(5), 460–467 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. Sakota, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Optical aggregometry of red blood cells associated with the blood-clotting reaction in extracorporeal circulation support,” J. Artif. Organs 19(3), 241–248 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (1)

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Optical aggregometry of red blood cells associated with the blood-clotting reaction in extracorporeal circulation support,” J. Artif. Organs 19(3), 241–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shekar, S. D. Gregory, and J. F. Fraser, “Mechanical circulatory support in the new era: an overview,” Crit. Care 20(1), 66 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

A. Saffarzadeh and P. Bonde, “Options for temporary mechanical circulatory support,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(12), 2102–2111 (2015).
[PubMed]

N. A. Gilotra and G. R. Stevens, “Temporary mechanical circulatory support: a review of the options, indications, and outcomes,” Clin. Med. Insights Cardiol. 8(Suppl 1), 75–85 (2015).
[PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

P. M. Eckman and R. John, “Bleeding and thrombosis in patients with continuous-flow ventricular assist devices,” Circulation 125(24), 3038–3047 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Khetani, V. S. Tiwari, A. Harb, and H. Anis, “Monitoring of heparin concentration in serum by Raman spectroscopy within hollow core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15244–15254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Oshima and Y. Sankai, “Development of optical sensing system for noninvasive and dynamic monitoring of thrombogenic process,” ASAIO J. 56(5), 460–467 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y. Nosé, “Hemodialysis patients’ deaths in the USA by contaminant suspected heparin originating from China,” Artif. Organs 32(6), 425–426 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akasaka, T.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ako, J.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anis, H.

Annich, G. M.

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arai, H.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asakura, Y.

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahrmann, P.

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behr, J. R.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonde, P.

A. Saffarzadeh and P. Bonde, “Options for temporary mechanical circulatory support,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(12), 2102–2111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Burns, G. L.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandrasekaran, A.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, W. M.

D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eckman, P. M.

P. M. Eckman and R. John, “Bleeding and thrombosis in patients with continuous-flow ventricular assist devices,” Circulation 125(24), 3038–3047 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Endo, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, M.

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Figulla, H. R.

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzgerald, P. J.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, J. F.

K. Shekar, S. D. Gregory, and J. F. Fraser, “Mechanical circulatory support in the new era: an overview,” Crit. Care 20(1), 66 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuse, T.

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garton, H. J.

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilotra, N. A.

N. A. Gilotra and G. R. Stevens, “Temporary mechanical circulatory support: a review of the options, indications, and outcomes,” Clin. Med. Insights Cardiol. 8(Suppl 1), 75–85 (2015).
[PubMed]

Godin, M.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, S. D.

K. Shekar, S. D. Gregory, and J. F. Fraser, “Mechanical circulatory support in the new era: an overview,” Crit. Care 20(1), 66 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanayama, N.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harb, A.

Hayashi, H.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hervey-Jumper, S. L.

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heusch, G.

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirata, K.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honda, Y.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, C. S.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irisawa, Y.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itatani, K.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jikuya, T.

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

John, R.

P. M. Eckman and R. John, “Bleeding and thrombosis in patients with continuous-flow ventricular assist devices,” Circulation 125(24), 3038–3047 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kato, H.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawamoto, T.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawamura, H.

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khetani, A.

Kim, J.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kitamura, T.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, B. K.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosaka, R.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Optical aggregometry of red blood cells associated with the blood-clotting reaction in extracorporeal circulation support,” J. Artif. Organs 19(3), 241–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kume, T.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuwana, K.

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madden, K. P.

D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maher, C. O.

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruyama, O.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Optical aggregometry of red blood cells associated with the blood-clotting reaction in extracorporeal circulation support,” J. Artif. Organs 19(3), 241–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milovic, N. M.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitsui, T.

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyaji, K.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyoshi, N.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mizuno, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohammad, S. F.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murashige, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muraszko, K. M.

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neishi, Y.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishida, M.

D. Sakota, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Optical aggregometry of red blood cells associated with the blood-clotting reaction in extracorporeal circulation support,” J. Artif. Organs 19(3), 241–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nosé, Y.

Y. Nosé, “Hemodialysis patients’ deaths in the USA by contaminant suspected heparin originating from China,” Artif. Organs 32(6), 425–426 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogasawara, D.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogasawara, Y.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, M.

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohuchi, K.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oi, K.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oka, N.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Olsen, D. B.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ono, M.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oshima, S.

S. Oshima and Y. Sankai, “Development of optical sensing system for noninvasive and dynamic monitoring of thrombogenic process,” ASAIO J. 56(5), 460–467 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otake, H.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouchi, K.

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pantalos, G. M.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payer, K. R.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Y.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pitt, W. G.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poerner, T. C.

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reynolds, L. O.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, D.

D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russo, P. R.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadahira, Y.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saffarzadeh, A.

A. Saffarzadeh and P. Bonde, “Options for temporary mechanical circulatory support,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(12), 2102–2111 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sakota, D.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Optical aggregometry of red blood cells associated with the blood-clotting reaction in extracorporeal circulation support,” J. Artif. Organs 19(3), 241–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandset, P. M.

D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sankai, Y.

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oshima and Y. Sankai, “Development of optical sensing system for noninvasive and dynamic monitoring of thrombogenic process,” ASAIO J. 56(5), 460–467 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sapkota, A.

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sasisekharan, R.

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawada, T.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seki, M.

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shekar, K.

K. Shekar, S. D. Gregory, and J. F. Fraser, “Mechanical circulatory support in the new era: an overview,” Crit. Care 20(1), 66 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shibata, M.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shigeta, O.

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shinke, T.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiraishi, Y.

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shite, J.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solen, K. A.

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevens, G. R.

N. A. Gilotra and G. R. Stevens, “Temporary mechanical circulatory support: a review of the options, indications, and outcomes,” Clin. Med. Insights Cardiol. 8(Suppl 1), 75–85 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sugawara, M.

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sukmawan, R.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tahara, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takei, M.

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanino, Y.

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiwari, V. S.

Tomoyasu, T.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torii, S.

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyota, E.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voss, A.

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, N.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werner, G. S.

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamane, T.

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamazaki, H.

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yambe, T.

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yancon, A. R.

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, K.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zivin, J. A.

D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Cardiol. (1)

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artif. Organs (6)

T. Yamane, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, O. Maruyama, Y. Yamamoto, K. Kuwana, H. Kawamura, Y. Shiraishi, T. Yambe, Y. Sankai, and T. Tsutsui, “Enhancement of hemocompatibility of the MERA monopivot centrifugal pump: toward medium-term use,” Artif. Organs 37(2), 217–221 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, K. Kuwana, H. Yamazaki, and O. Maruyama, “Development of an optical detector of thrombus formation on the pivot bearing of a rotary blood pump,” Artif. Organs 40(9), 834–841 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fujiwara, D. Sakota, K. Ohuchi, S. Endo, T. Tahara, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, K. Oi, T. Mizuno, O. Maruyama, and H. Arai, “Optical dynamic analysis of thrombus inside a centrifugal blood pump during extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support in a porcine model,” Artif. Organs 41(10), 893–903 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nosé, “Hemodialysis patients’ deaths in the USA by contaminant suspected heparin originating from China,” Artif. Organs 32(6), 425–426 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Feasibility of the optical imaging of thrombus formation in a rotary blood pump by near-infrared light,” Artif. Organs 38(9), 733–740 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Real-time observation of thrombus growth process in an impeller of a hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Artif. Organs 39(8), 714–719 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ASAIO J. (3)

K. A. Solen, S. F. Mohammad, G. L. Burns, G. M. Pantalos, J. Kim, Y. Peng, W. G. Pitt, L. O. Reynolds, and D. B. Olsen, “Markers of thromboembolization in a bovine ex vivo left ventricular assist device model,” ASAIO J. 40(3), M602–M608 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sankai, T. Tsutsui, T. Jikuya, O. Shigeta, M. Ohta, and T. Mitsui, “Method of noninvasive and continuous hemolysis/thrombogenesis measurement by laser photometry during artificial heart development,” ASAIO J. 43(5), M686 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oshima and Y. Sankai, “Development of optical sensing system for noninvasive and dynamic monitoring of thrombogenic process,” ASAIO J. 56(5), 460–467 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (2)

P. Bahrmann, G. S. Werner, G. Heusch, M. Ferrari, T. C. Poerner, A. Voss, and H. R. Figulla, “Detection of coronary microembolization by Doppler ultrasound in patients with stable angina pectoris undergoing elective percutaneous coronary interventions,” Circulation 115(5), 600–608 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Eckman and R. John, “Bleeding and thrombosis in patients with continuous-flow ventricular assist devices,” Circulation 125(24), 3038–3047 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Med. Insights Cardiol. (1)

N. A. Gilotra and G. R. Stevens, “Temporary mechanical circulatory support: a review of the options, indications, and outcomes,” Clin. Med. Insights Cardiol. 8(Suppl 1), 75–85 (2015).
[PubMed]

Crit. Care (1)

K. Shekar, S. D. Gregory, and J. F. Fraser, “Mechanical circulatory support in the new era: an overview,” Crit. Care 20(1), 66 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flow Meas. Instrum. (1)

A. Sapkota, T. Fuse, M. Seki, O. Maruyama, M. Sugawara, and M. Takei, “Application of electrical resistance tomography for thrombus visualization in blood,” Flow Meas. Instrum. 46(B), 334–340 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Artif. Organs (3)

D. Sakota, R. Kosaka, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Optical aggregometry of red blood cells associated with the blood-clotting reaction in extracorporeal circulation support,” J. Artif. Organs 19(3), 241–248 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Inoue, T. Kitamura, S. Torii, N. Hanayama, N. Oka, K. Itatani, T. Tomoyasu, Y. Irisawa, M. Shibata, H. Hayashi, M. Ono, and K. Miyaji, “Five-week use of a monopivot centrifugal blood pump as a right ventricular assist device in severe dilated cardiomyopathy,” J. Artif. Organs 17(1), 95–98 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Asakura, A. Sapkota, O. Maruyama, R. Kosaka, T. Yamane, and M. Takei, “Relative permittivity measurement during the thrombus formation process using the dielectric relaxation method for various hematocrit values,” J. Artif. Organs 18(4), 346–353 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biorheol. (1)

D. Sakota, T. Murashige, R. Kosaka, T. Fujiwara, K. Ouchi, M. Nishida, and O. Maruyama, “Noninvasive optical imaging of thrombus formation in mechanical circulatory support devices,” J. Biorheol. 30(1), 6–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. (1)

S. L. Hervey-Jumper, G. M. Annich, A. R. Yancon, H. J. Garton, K. M. Muraszko, and C. O. Maher, “Neurological complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children,” J. Neurosurg. Pediatr. 7(4), 338–344 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Thorac. Dis. (1)

A. Saffarzadeh and P. Bonde, “Options for temporary mechanical circulatory support,” J. Thorac. Dis. 7(12), 2102–2111 (2015).
[PubMed]

JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. (1)

H. Otake, J. Shite, J. Ako, T. Shinke, Y. Tanino, D. Ogasawara, T. Sawada, N. Miyoshi, H. Kato, B. K. Koo, Y. Honda, P. J. Fitzgerald, and K. Hirata, “Local determinants of thrombus formation following sirolimus-eluting stent implantation assessed by optical coherence tomography,” JACC Cardiovasc. Interv. 2(5), 459–466 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

N. M. Milović, J. R. Behr, M. Godin, C. S. Hou, K. R. Payer, A. Chandrasekaran, P. R. Russo, R. Sasisekharan, and S. R. Manalis, “Monitoring of heparin and its low-molecular-weight analogs by silicon field effect,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(36), 13374–13379 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stroke (1)

D. Russell, K. P. Madden, W. M. Clark, P. M. Sandset, and J. A. Zivin, “Detection of arterial emboli using Doppler ultrasound in rabbits,” Stroke 22(2), 253–258 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Basic principle of how to detect thrombus formation in blood using visible and near-infrared light. The optical properties of a thrombus significantly differ from those of surrounding blood due to the difference in red blood cell (RBC) density caused by RBCs escaping from the fibrin network by blood flow.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical thrombus sensor for MERA centrifugal blood pump.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) module. (a) Incident system. (b) Detection system. (c) Photos of the WDM module in use.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic of the back side of impeller and measurement, and the typical frequency spectrum of detected light intensity obtained by STFT at 2400 rpm (40 Hz) when the impeller is rotated in porcine blood and when using the 810 nm wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Concept of thrombus formation level (TFL).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Photo of the animal experiment. (b) Pivot of the pump used in animal experiments. Epoxy bonding agent thinly put on the gap between the SUS ball and impeller to promote thrombus formation. Note that the experimental results in this study does not show the actual antithrombogenicity of the MERA HCF-MP23.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) TFL at 520 nm with respect to HCT and SaO2. (b) TFLs at 650 nm and 810 nm with respect to HCT and SaO2.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Photos of pumps after the animal experiments. In P2-3, thrombi formed in both the male (P2-3) and female (*P2-3) bearings.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Results of TFL monitoring after the animal experiments.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 3D data of the pivot and thrombus. In P2-3, thrombi formed in both the male (P2-3) and female (*P2-3) bearings.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Relationship between TFL and calculated thrombus surface area.

Equations (1)

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TFL=  TFL t TFL t=0 = { F( ω ) F( 4ω ) } t { F(ω) F(4ω) } t=0 .

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