Abstract

Since contrast sensitivity (CS) relies on the accuracy of stimulus presentation, the reliability of the psychophysical procedure and observer’s attention, the measurement of the CS-function is critical and therefore, a useful threshold contrast measurement was developed. The Tuebingen Contrast Sensitivity Test (TueCST) includes an adaptive staircase procedure and a 16-bit gray-level resolution. In order to validate the CS measurements with the TueCST, measurements were compared with existing tests by inter-test repeatability, test-retest reliability and time. The novel design enables an accurate presentation of the spatial frequency and higher precision, inter-test repeatability and test-retest reliability compared to other existing tests.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

M. Bach and K. Schäfer, “Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

F. Hou, L. Lesmes, P. Bex, M. Dorr, and Z.-L. Lu, “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 15(9), 2 (2015) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

F. Hou, Z.-L. Lu, and C.-B. Huang, “The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision,” J. Vis. 14(13), 9 (2014) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Dorr, L. A. Lesmes, Z.-L. Lu, and P. J. Bex, “Rapid and reliable assessment of the contrast sensitivity function on an iPad,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7266–7273 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010) doi:.
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. Pelli, A. Ingling, R. Murray, and C. Broussard, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3,” Perception 36, 1 (2007).

M. Bach, “The Freiburg Visual Acuity Test-variability unchanged by post-hoc re-analysis,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(7), 965–971 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jäkel and F. A. Wichmann, “Spatial four-alternative forced-choice method is the preferred psychophysical method for naïve observers,” J. Vis. 6(11), 13 (2006) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Effect of positive and negative defocus on contrast sensitivity in myopes and non-myopes,” Vision Res. 44(16), 1869–1878 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Pesudovs, C. A. Hazel, R. M. Doran, and D. B. Elliott, “The usefulness of Vistech and FACT contrast sensitivity charts for cataract and refractive surgery outcomes research,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(1), 11–16 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Burns and B. Corpus, “Randomness and inductions from streaks: “gambler’s fallacy” versus “hot hand”,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 11(1), 179–184 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Klein, “Measuring, estimating, and understanding the psychometric function: a commentary,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1421–1455 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

L. L. Kontsevich and C. W. Tyler, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of psychometric slope and threshold,” Vision Res. 39(16), 2729–2737 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spat. Vis. 10(4), 433–436 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spat. Vis. 10(4), 437–442 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Bach, “The Freiburg Visual Acuity test--automatic measurement of visual acuity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 73(1), 49–53 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

Z.-L. Lu and G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35(19), 2697–2722 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D. V. Cicchetti, “Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology,” Psychol. Assess. 6(4), 284–290 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

D. B. Elliott, J. Gilchrist, and D. Whitaker, “Contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity changes with three types of cataract morphology: are these techniques necessary in a clinical evaluation of cataract?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9(1), 25–30 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Koch, “Glare and contrast sensitivity testing in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15(2), 158–164 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

G. L. Trick, R. M. Burde, M. O. Gordon, J. V. Santiago, and C. Kilo, “The relationship between hue discrimination and contrast sensitivity deficits in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmology 95(5), 693–698 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. Ginsburg, R. Osher, K. Blauvelt, and E. Blosser, “The assessment of contrast and glare sensitivity in patients having cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 397 (1987).

1984 (2)

D. S. Loshin and J. White, “Contrast sensitivity. The visual rehabilitation of the patient with macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1303–1306 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Kupersmith, W. H. Seiple, J. I. Nelson, and R. E. Carr, “Contrast sensitivity loss in multiple sclerosis. Selectivity by eye, orientation, and spatial frequency measured with the evoked potential,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(6), 632–639 (1984).
[PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “Contrast sensitivity at high velocities,” Vision Res. 22(4), 479–484 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. Bradley and R. D. Freeman, “Contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21(3), 467–476 (1981).
[PubMed]

1979 (2)

A. Atkin, I. Bodis-Wollner, M. Wolkstein, A. Moss, and S. M. Podos, “Abnormalities of central contrast sensitivity in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 205–211 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kelly, “Motion and vision. II. Stabilized spatio-temporal threshold surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69(10), 1340–1349 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (4)

G. B. Arden and J. J. Jacobson, “A simple grating test for contrast sensitivity: preliminary results indicate value in screening for glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(1), 23–32 (1978).
[PubMed]

M. S. Banks and P. Salapatek, “Acuity and contrast sensitivity in 1-, 2-, and 3-month-old human infants,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(4), 361–365 (1978).
[PubMed]

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

K. Arundale, “An investigation into the variation of human contrast sensitivity with age and ocular pathology,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 62(4), 213–215 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1977 (3)

J. Sjöstrand and L. Frisén, “Contrast sensitivity in macular disease. A preliminary report,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 55(3), 507–514 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Hess and E. R. Howell, “The threshold contrast sensitivity function in strabismic amblyopia: evidence for a two type classification,” Vision Res. 17(9), 1049–1055 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Regan, R. Silver, and T. J. Murray, “Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis--hidden visual loss: an auxiliary diagnostic test,” Brain 100(3), 563–579 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

J. J. Bartko, “The intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability,” Psychol. Rep. 19(1), 3–11 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

1946 (1)

D. Gabor, “Theory of communication. Part 1: The analysis of information,” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers-Part III: Radio and Communication Engineering 93, 429–441 (1946).

Albright, T. D.

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010) doi:.
[Crossref]

Altman, D. G.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arden, G. B.

G. B. Arden and J. J. Jacobson, “A simple grating test for contrast sensitivity: preliminary results indicate value in screening for glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(1), 23–32 (1978).
[PubMed]

Arundale, K.

K. Arundale, “An investigation into the variation of human contrast sensitivity with age and ocular pathology,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 62(4), 213–215 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

Atkin, A.

A. Atkin, I. Bodis-Wollner, M. Wolkstein, A. Moss, and S. M. Podos, “Abnormalities of central contrast sensitivity in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 205–211 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bach, M.

M. Bach and K. Schäfer, “Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bach, “The Freiburg Visual Acuity Test-variability unchanged by post-hoc re-analysis,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(7), 965–971 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bach, “The Freiburg Visual Acuity test--automatic measurement of visual acuity,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 73(1), 49–53 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J.

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010) doi:.
[Crossref]

Baier, M. L.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcer, L. J.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banks, M. S.

M. S. Banks and P. Salapatek, “Acuity and contrast sensitivity in 1-, 2-, and 3-month-old human infants,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(4), 361–365 (1978).
[PubMed]

Bartko, J. J.

J. J. Bartko, “The intraclass correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability,” Psychol. Rep. 19(1), 3–11 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bex, P.

F. Hou, L. Lesmes, P. Bex, M. Dorr, and Z.-L. Lu, “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 15(9), 2 (2015) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bex, P. J.

M. Dorr, L. A. Lesmes, Z.-L. Lu, and P. J. Bex, “Rapid and reliable assessment of the contrast sensitivity function on an iPad,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7266–7273 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blackwell, H. R.

Bland, J. M.

J. M. Bland and D. G. Altman, “Measuring agreement in method comparison studies,” Stat. Methods Med. Res. 8(2), 135–160 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blauvelt, K.

A. Ginsburg, R. Osher, K. Blauvelt, and E. Blosser, “The assessment of contrast and glare sensitivity in patients having cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 397 (1987).

Blosser, E.

A. Ginsburg, R. Osher, K. Blauvelt, and E. Blosser, “The assessment of contrast and glare sensitivity in patients having cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 397 (1987).

Bodis-Wollner, I.

A. Atkin, I. Bodis-Wollner, M. Wolkstein, A. Moss, and S. M. Podos, “Abnormalities of central contrast sensitivity in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 205–211 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, A.

D. A. Atchison, R. L. Woods, and A. Bradley, “Predicting the effects of optical defocus on human contrast sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(9), 2536–2544 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bradley and R. D. Freeman, “Contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21(3), 467–476 (1981).
[PubMed]

Brainard, D.

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. Pelli, A. Ingling, R. Murray, and C. Broussard, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3,” Perception 36, 1 (2007).

Brainard, D. H.

D. H. Brainard, “The psychophysics toolbox,” Spat. Vis. 10(4), 433–436 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broussard, C.

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. Pelli, A. Ingling, R. Murray, and C. Broussard, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3,” Perception 36, 1 (2007).

Burde, R. M.

G. L. Trick, R. M. Burde, M. O. Gordon, J. V. Santiago, and C. Kilo, “The relationship between hue discrimination and contrast sensitivity deficits in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmology 95(5), 693–698 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, B. D.

B. D. Burns and B. Corpus, “Randomness and inductions from streaks: “gambler’s fallacy” versus “hot hand”,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 11(1), 179–184 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burr, D. C.

D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “Contrast sensitivity at high velocities,” Vision Res. 22(4), 479–484 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calver, R. I.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Effect of positive and negative defocus on contrast sensitivity in myopes and non-myopes,” Vision Res. 44(16), 1869–1878 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carr, R. E.

M. J. Kupersmith, W. H. Seiple, J. I. Nelson, and R. E. Carr, “Contrast sensitivity loss in multiple sclerosis. Selectivity by eye, orientation, and spatial frequency measured with the evoked potential,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(6), 632–639 (1984).
[PubMed]

Cicchetti, D. V.

D. V. Cicchetti, “Guidelines, criteria, and rules of thumb for evaluating normed and standardized assessment instruments in psychology,” Psychol. Assess. 6(4), 284–290 (1994).
[Crossref]

Corpus, B.

B. D. Burns and B. Corpus, “Randomness and inductions from streaks: “gambler’s fallacy” versus “hot hand”,” Psychon. Bull. Rev. 11(1), 179–184 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cutter, G. R.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doran, R. M.

K. Pesudovs, C. A. Hazel, R. M. Doran, and D. B. Elliott, “The usefulness of Vistech and FACT contrast sensitivity charts for cataract and refractive surgery outcomes research,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(1), 11–16 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorr, M.

F. Hou, L. Lesmes, P. Bex, M. Dorr, and Z.-L. Lu, “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 15(9), 2 (2015) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dorr, L. A. Lesmes, Z.-L. Lu, and P. J. Bex, “Rapid and reliable assessment of the contrast sensitivity function on an iPad,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7266–7273 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, D. B.

K. Pesudovs, C. A. Hazel, R. M. Doran, and D. B. Elliott, “The usefulness of Vistech and FACT contrast sensitivity charts for cataract and refractive surgery outcomes research,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(1), 11–16 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Elliott, J. Gilchrist, and D. Whitaker, “Contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity changes with three types of cataract morphology: are these techniques necessary in a clinical evaluation of cataract?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9(1), 25–30 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, R. J.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. D.

A. Bradley and R. D. Freeman, “Contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21(3), 467–476 (1981).
[PubMed]

Frisén, L.

J. Sjöstrand and L. Frisén, “Contrast sensitivity in macular disease. A preliminary report,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 55(3), 507–514 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fründ, I.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “Theory of communication. Part 1: The analysis of information,” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers-Part III: Radio and Communication Engineering 93, 429–441 (1946).

Galetta, S. L.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilchrist, J.

D. B. Elliott, J. Gilchrist, and D. Whitaker, “Contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity changes with three types of cataract morphology: are these techniques necessary in a clinical evaluation of cataract?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9(1), 25–30 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginsburg, A.

A. Ginsburg, R. Osher, K. Blauvelt, and E. Blosser, “The assessment of contrast and glare sensitivity in patients having cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 397 (1987).

Ginsburg, A. P.

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. O.

G. L. Trick, R. M. Burde, M. O. Gordon, J. V. Santiago, and C. Kilo, “The relationship between hue discrimination and contrast sensitivity deficits in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmology 95(5), 693–698 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haenel, N. V.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hazel, C. A.

K. Pesudovs, C. A. Hazel, R. M. Doran, and D. B. Elliott, “The usefulness of Vistech and FACT contrast sensitivity charts for cataract and refractive surgery outcomes research,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(1), 11–16 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hess, R.

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

Hess, R. F.

R. F. Hess and E. R. Howell, “The threshold contrast sensitivity function in strabismic amblyopia: evidence for a two type classification,” Vision Res. 17(9), 1049–1055 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, N. J.

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, F.

F. Hou, L. Lesmes, P. Bex, M. Dorr, and Z.-L. Lu, “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 15(9), 2 (2015) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hou, Z.-L. Lu, and C.-B. Huang, “The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision,” J. Vis. 14(13), 9 (2014) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howell, E. R.

R. F. Hess and E. R. Howell, “The threshold contrast sensitivity function in strabismic amblyopia: evidence for a two type classification,” Vision Res. 17(9), 1049–1055 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-B.

F. Hou, Z.-L. Lu, and C.-B. Huang, “The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision,” J. Vis. 14(13), 9 (2014) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingling, A.

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. Pelli, A. Ingling, R. Murray, and C. Broussard, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3,” Perception 36, 1 (2007).

Jacobson, J. J.

G. B. Arden and J. J. Jacobson, “A simple grating test for contrast sensitivity: preliminary results indicate value in screening for glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(1), 23–32 (1978).
[PubMed]

Jäkel, F.

F. Jäkel and F. A. Wichmann, “Spatial four-alternative forced-choice method is the preferred psychophysical method for naïve observers,” J. Vis. 6(11), 13 (2006) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, D. H.

Kilo, C.

G. L. Trick, R. M. Burde, M. O. Gordon, J. V. Santiago, and C. Kilo, “The relationship between hue discrimination and contrast sensitivity deficits in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmology 95(5), 693–698 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kingdon, F.

N. Prins and F. Kingdon, “Palamedes: Matlab routines for analyzing psychophysical data,” (2009).

Klein, S. A.

S. A. Klein, “Measuring, estimating, and understanding the psychometric function: a commentary,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1421–1455 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiner, M.

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. Pelli, A. Ingling, R. Murray, and C. Broussard, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3,” Perception 36, 1 (2007).

Koch, D. D.

D. D. Koch, “Glare and contrast sensitivity testing in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15(2), 158–164 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kontsevich, L. L.

L. L. Kontsevich and C. W. Tyler, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of psychometric slope and threshold,” Vision Res. 39(16), 2729–2737 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kupersmith, M. J.

M. J. Kupersmith, W. H. Seiple, J. I. Nelson, and R. E. Carr, “Contrast sensitivity loss in multiple sclerosis. Selectivity by eye, orientation, and spatial frequency measured with the evoked potential,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(6), 632–639 (1984).
[PubMed]

Lesmes, L.

F. Hou, L. Lesmes, P. Bex, M. Dorr, and Z.-L. Lu, “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 15(9), 2 (2015) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lesmes, L. A.

M. Dorr, L. A. Lesmes, Z.-L. Lu, and P. J. Bex, “Rapid and reliable assessment of the contrast sensitivity function on an iPad,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7266–7273 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010) doi:.
[Crossref]

Loshin, D. S.

D. S. Loshin and J. White, “Contrast sensitivity. The visual rehabilitation of the patient with macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1303–1306 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. L.

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010) doi:.
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.-L.

F. Hou, L. Lesmes, P. Bex, M. Dorr, and Z.-L. Lu, “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 15(9), 2 (2015) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hou, Z.-L. Lu, and C.-B. Huang, “The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision,” J. Vis. 14(13), 9 (2014) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Dorr, L. A. Lesmes, Z.-L. Lu, and P. J. Bex, “Rapid and reliable assessment of the contrast sensitivity function on an iPad,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7266–7273 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-L. Lu and G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35(19), 2697–2722 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maguire, M. G.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moss, A.

A. Atkin, I. Bodis-Wollner, M. Wolkstein, A. Moss, and S. M. Podos, “Abnormalities of central contrast sensitivity in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 205–211 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, R.

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. Pelli, A. Ingling, R. Murray, and C. Broussard, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3,” Perception 36, 1 (2007).

Murray, T. J.

D. Regan, R. Silver, and T. J. Murray, “Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis--hidden visual loss: an auxiliary diagnostic test,” Brain 100(3), 563–579 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. I.

M. J. Kupersmith, W. H. Seiple, J. I. Nelson, and R. E. Carr, “Contrast sensitivity loss in multiple sclerosis. Selectivity by eye, orientation, and spatial frequency measured with the evoked potential,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(6), 632–639 (1984).
[PubMed]

O’Leary, D. J.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Effect of positive and negative defocus on contrast sensitivity in myopes and non-myopes,” Vision Res. 44(16), 1869–1878 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osher, R.

A. Ginsburg, R. Osher, K. Blauvelt, and E. Blosser, “The assessment of contrast and glare sensitivity in patients having cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 397 (1987).

Pardhan, S.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Effect of positive and negative defocus on contrast sensitivity in myopes and non-myopes,” Vision Res. 44(16), 1869–1878 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelak, V. S.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelli, D.

M. Kleiner, D. Brainard, D. Pelli, A. Ingling, R. Murray, and C. Broussard, “What’s new in Psychtoolbox-3,” Perception 36, 1 (2007).

Pelli, D. G.

D. G. Pelli, “The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: transforming numbers into movies,” Spat. Vis. 10(4), 437–442 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pesudovs, K.

K. Pesudovs, C. A. Hazel, R. M. Doran, and D. B. Elliott, “The usefulness of Vistech and FACT contrast sensitivity charts for cataract and refractive surgery outcomes research,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(1), 11–16 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podos, S. M.

A. Atkin, I. Bodis-Wollner, M. Wolkstein, A. Moss, and S. M. Podos, “Abnormalities of central contrast sensitivity in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 205–211 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prins, N.

N. Prins and F. Kingdon, “Palamedes: Matlab routines for analyzing psychophysical data,” (2009).

Radhakrishnan, H.

H. Radhakrishnan, S. Pardhan, R. I. Calver, and D. J. O’Leary, “Effect of positive and negative defocus on contrast sensitivity in myopes and non-myopes,” Vision Res. 44(16), 1869–1878 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regan, D.

D. Regan, R. Silver, and T. J. Murray, “Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis--hidden visual loss: an auxiliary diagnostic test,” Brain 100(3), 563–579 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ross, J.

D. C. Burr and J. Ross, “Contrast sensitivity at high velocities,” Vision Res. 22(4), 479–484 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salapatek, P.

M. S. Banks and P. Salapatek, “Acuity and contrast sensitivity in 1-, 2-, and 3-month-old human infants,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(4), 361–365 (1978).
[PubMed]

Santiago, J. V.

G. L. Trick, R. M. Burde, M. O. Gordon, J. V. Santiago, and C. Kilo, “The relationship between hue discrimination and contrast sensitivity deficits in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmology 95(5), 693–698 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfer, K.

M. Bach and K. Schäfer, “Visual Acuity Testing: Feedback Affects Neither Outcome nor Reproducibility, but Leaves Participants Happier,” PLoS One 11(1), e0147803 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seiple, W. H.

M. J. Kupersmith, W. H. Seiple, J. I. Nelson, and R. E. Carr, “Contrast sensitivity loss in multiple sclerosis. Selectivity by eye, orientation, and spatial frequency measured with the evoked potential,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(6), 632–639 (1984).
[PubMed]

Shuwairi, S.

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silver, R.

D. Regan, R. Silver, and T. J. Murray, “Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis--hidden visual loss: an auxiliary diagnostic test,” Brain 100(3), 563–579 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sjöstrand, J.

J. Sjöstrand and L. Frisén, “Contrast sensitivity in macular disease. A preliminary report,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 55(3), 507–514 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sperling, G.

Z.-L. Lu and G. Sperling, “The functional architecture of human visual motion perception,” Vision Res. 35(19), 2697–2722 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trick, G. L.

G. L. Trick, R. M. Burde, M. O. Gordon, J. V. Santiago, and C. Kilo, “The relationship between hue discrimination and contrast sensitivity deficits in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmology 95(5), 693–698 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tyler, C. W.

L. L. Kontsevich and C. W. Tyler, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of psychometric slope and threshold,” Vision Res. 39(16), 2729–2737 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, R. Ward, and J. Zou, “Contrast enhancement for enlarged images based on edge sharpening,” in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2005, (IEEE, 2005), 762–765.
[Crossref]

Ward, R.

Q. Wang, R. Ward, and J. Zou, “Contrast enhancement for enlarged images based on edge sharpening,” in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2005, (IEEE, 2005), 762–765.
[Crossref]

Whitaker, D.

D. B. Elliott, J. Gilchrist, and D. Whitaker, “Contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity changes with three types of cataract morphology: are these techniques necessary in a clinical evaluation of cataract?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9(1), 25–30 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J.

D. S. Loshin and J. White, “Contrast sensitivity. The visual rehabilitation of the patient with macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1303–1306 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wichmann, F. A.

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jäkel and F. A. Wichmann, “Spatial four-alternative forced-choice method is the preferred psychophysical method for naïve observers,” J. Vis. 6(11), 13 (2006) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. A. Wichmann and N. J. Hill, “The psychometric function: I. Fitting, sampling, and goodness of fit,” Percept. Psychophys. 63(8), 1293–1313 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolkstein, M.

A. Atkin, I. Bodis-Wollner, M. Wolkstein, A. Moss, and S. M. Podos, “Abnormalities of central contrast sensitivity in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 205–211 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woo, G.

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

Woods, R. L.

Zou, J.

Q. Wang, R. Ward, and J. Zou, “Contrast enhancement for enlarged images based on edge sharpening,” in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing 2005, (IEEE, 2005), 762–765.
[Crossref]

Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) (1)

J. Sjöstrand and L. Frisén, “Contrast sensitivity in macular disease. A preliminary report,” Acta Ophthalmol. (Copenh.) 55(3), 507–514 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Atkin, I. Bodis-Wollner, M. Wolkstein, A. Moss, and S. M. Podos, “Abnormalities of central contrast sensitivity in glaucoma,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 88(2), 205–211 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. S. Loshin and J. White, “Contrast sensitivity. The visual rehabilitation of the patient with macular degeneration,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 102(9), 1303–1306 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

K. Arundale, “An investigation into the variation of human contrast sensitivity with age and ocular pathology,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 62(4), 213–215 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Pesudovs, C. A. Hazel, R. M. Doran, and D. B. Elliott, “The usefulness of Vistech and FACT contrast sensitivity charts for cataract and refractive surgery outcomes research,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 88(1), 11–16 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brain (1)

D. Regan, R. Silver, and T. J. Murray, “Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in multiple sclerosis--hidden visual loss: an auxiliary diagnostic test,” Brain 100(3), 563–579 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. P. Ginsburg, “Contrast sensitivity: determining the visual quality and function of cataract, intraocular lenses and refractive surgery,” Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 17(1), 19–26 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. Bach, “The Freiburg Visual Acuity Test-variability unchanged by post-hoc re-analysis,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 245(7), 965–971 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (7)

A. Ginsburg, R. Osher, K. Blauvelt, and E. Blosser, “The assessment of contrast and glare sensitivity in patients having cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 28, 397 (1987).

A. Bradley and R. D. Freeman, “Contrast sensitivity in anisometropic amblyopia,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 21(3), 467–476 (1981).
[PubMed]

M. J. Kupersmith, W. H. Seiple, J. I. Nelson, and R. E. Carr, “Contrast sensitivity loss in multiple sclerosis. Selectivity by eye, orientation, and spatial frequency measured with the evoked potential,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25(6), 632–639 (1984).
[PubMed]

M. S. Banks and P. Salapatek, “Acuity and contrast sensitivity in 1-, 2-, and 3-month-old human infants,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(4), 361–365 (1978).
[PubMed]

R. Hess and G. Woo, “Vision through cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(5), 428–435 (1978).
[PubMed]

G. B. Arden and J. J. Jacobson, “A simple grating test for contrast sensitivity: preliminary results indicate value in screening for glaucoma,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 17(1), 23–32 (1978).
[PubMed]

M. Dorr, L. A. Lesmes, Z.-L. Lu, and P. J. Bex, “Rapid and reliable assessment of the contrast sensitivity function on an iPad,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(12), 7266–7273 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

D. D. Koch, “Glare and contrast sensitivity testing in cataract patients,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 15(2), 158–164 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. (5)

F. Hou, Z.-L. Lu, and C.-B. Huang, “The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision,” J. Vis. 14(13), 9 (2014) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Jäkel and F. A. Wichmann, “Spatial four-alternative forced-choice method is the preferred psychophysical method for naïve observers,” J. Vis. 6(11), 13 (2006) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Fründ, N. V. Haenel, and F. A. Wichmann, “Inference for psychometric functions in the presence of nonstationary behavior,” J. Vis. 11(6), 16 (2011) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hou, L. Lesmes, P. Bex, M. Dorr, and Z.-L. Lu, “Using 10AFC to further improve the efficiency of the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 15(9), 2 (2015) doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Lesmes, Z. L. Lu, J. Baek, and T. D. Albright, “Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: the quick CSF method,” J. Vis. 10(3), 17 (2010) doi:.
[Crossref]

Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers-Part III: Radio and Communication Engineering (1)

D. Gabor, “Theory of communication. Part 1: The analysis of information,” Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers-Part III: Radio and Communication Engineering 93, 429–441 (1946).

Mult. Scler. (1)

L. J. Balcer, M. L. Baier, V. S. Pelak, R. J. Fox, S. Shuwairi, S. L. Galetta, G. R. Cutter, and M. G. Maguire, “New low-contrast vision charts: reliability and test characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Mult. Scler. 6(3), 163–171 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

D. B. Elliott, J. Gilchrist, and D. Whitaker, “Contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity changes with three types of cataract morphology: are these techniques necessary in a clinical evaluation of cataract?” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 9(1), 25–30 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The Ψ (psi) method estimates the threshold contrast (red x) after 50 trials. Closed circles indicate correct responses and open circles an incorrect response. Stimulus intensity is defined in Michelson contrast.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Mean and standard deviation (SD) of contrast sensitivity measurements in log CS for TueCST, FrACT and qCSF for a luminance of L = 40 cd/m2, and for F.A.C.T for L = 85 cd/m2.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Mean and standard deviation (SD) for the FrACT, F.A.C.T., TueCST and qCSF using repeated contrast sensitivity measurements in log CS

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Table 2 Coefficient of repeatability (COR) for the FrACT, F.A.C.T., TueCST and qCSF using repeated contrast sensitivity measurements in log CS

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Table 3 The Intra-class correlation (ICC) for the FrACT, F.A.C.T., TueCST and qCSF using repeated contrast sensitivity measurements

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Table 4 The Ψ (psi) method: arguments pro and contra

Equations (1)

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NG= 1 (1 d n D) 1 (1(e+e')S')

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