Abstract

Measuring oxygen saturation in capillary vessels could provide valuable information on oxygen transport and tissue viability. Most spectroscopic measurement techniques, however, lack the spatial resolution to account for the small vessel dimensions within a scattering tissue and the steep gradients of oxygen saturation levels. Here, we developed a noninvasive technique for image-guided confocal measurement of the optical absorption spectrum from a small region that is comparable in size to the cross section of a single capillary vessel. A wide range of oxygen saturation levels were measured in a single capillary in a human volunteer, with blood deoxygenation rates of 7.1% per hundred microns. The technique could help in studying oxygen exchange dynamics in tissues and could play a key role in future clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications that require localized functional tissue inspection.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

J. Xia, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: principles and advances,” Electromagn Waves (Camb) 147, 1–22 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. Xia, A. Danielli, Y. Liu, L. Wang, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Calibration-free quantification of absolute oxygen saturation based on the dynamics of photoacoustic signals,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2800–2803 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[PubMed]

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

2011 (2)

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. H. Thiele, J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, Y. Lu, G. T. Gillies, and M. E. Durieux, “Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study,” Anesth. Analg. 112(6), 1353–1357 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

Z. D. Walton, P. A. Kyriacou, D. G. Silverman, and K. H. Shelley, “Measuring venous oxygenation using the photoplethysmograph waveform,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 24(4), 295–303 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (2)

C. A. Lewis, W. Fergusson, T. Eaton, I. Zeng, and J. Kolbe, “Isolated nocturnal desaturation in COPD: prevalence and impact on quality of life and sleep,” Thorax 64(2), 133–138 (2009).
[PubMed]

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34021 (2006).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

1981 (1)

K. P. Ivanov, M. K. Kalinina, and Levkovich YuI, “Blood flow velocity in capillaries of brain and muscles and its physiological significance,” Microvasc. Res. 22(2), 143–155 (1981).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, “Spectrophotometric monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation in the fingertip,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(1), 27–32 (1980).
[PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. B. Hickam and R. Frayser, “Studies of the retinal circulation in man: Observations on vessel diameter, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and mean circulation time,” Arch. Intern. Med. 127, 688–702 (1971).

1947 (1)

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

1942 (1)

G. A. Millikan, “The Oximeter, an Instrument for Measuring Continuously the Oxygen Saturation of Arterial Blood in Man,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 13, 434–444 (1942).

1924 (1)

D. D. Van Slyke and J. M. Neill, “The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric measurement,” J. Biol. Chem. 61, 523–573 (1924).
[PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

Baier, V.

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

Blueschke, G.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

Boico, A.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Burwell, C. S.

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

Buysse, D.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Carley, D.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Charpak, S.

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cheprakov, A. V.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

Danielli, A.

Dewhirst, M.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dexter, L.

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

Disassa, N. M.

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Douglas, N.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Ducros, M.

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

Durieux, M. E.

R. H. Thiele, J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, Y. Lu, G. T. Gillies, and M. E. Durieux, “Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study,” Anesth. Analg. 112(6), 1353–1357 (2011).
[PubMed]

Eaton, T.

C. A. Lewis, W. Fergusson, T. Eaton, I. Zeng, and J. Kolbe, “Isolated nocturnal desaturation in COPD: prevalence and impact on quality of life and sleep,” Thorax 64(2), 133–138 (2009).
[PubMed]

Eppinger, E. C.

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

Evans, J. M.

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

Fergusson, W.

C. A. Lewis, W. Fergusson, T. Eaton, I. Zeng, and J. Kolbe, “Isolated nocturnal desaturation in COPD: prevalence and impact on quality of life and sleep,” Thorax 64(2), 133–138 (2009).
[PubMed]

Fleetham, J.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Flemons, W. W.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Fontanella, A.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Frayser, R.

J. B. Hickam and R. Frayser, “Studies of the retinal circulation in man: Observations on vessel diameter, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and mean circulation time,” Arch. Intern. Med. 127, 688–702 (1971).

Friebel, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34021 (2006).
[PubMed]

Gillies, G. T.

R. H. Thiele, J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, Y. Lu, G. T. Gillies, and M. E. Durieux, “Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study,” Anesth. Analg. 112(6), 1353–1357 (2011).
[PubMed]

Goulam Houssen, Y.

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

Hamilton, K.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Hammer, M.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

Hanna, G.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Haynes, F. W.

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

Hickam, J. B.

J. B. Hickam and R. Frayser, “Studies of the retinal circulation in man: Observations on vessel diameter, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and mean circulation time,” Arch. Intern. Med. 127, 688–702 (1971).

Hoffmann, K.

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

Irwin, D.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Ivanov, K. P.

K. P. Ivanov, M. K. Kalinina, and Levkovich YuI, “Blood flow velocity in capillaries of brain and muscles and its physiological significance,” Microvasc. Res. 22(2), 143–155 (1981).
[PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kalinina, M. K.

K. P. Ivanov, M. K. Kalinina, and Levkovich YuI, “Blood flow velocity in capillaries of brain and muscles and its physiological significance,” Microvasc. Res. 22(2), 143–155 (1981).
[PubMed]

Kellam, K.

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

Kolbe, J.

C. A. Lewis, W. Fergusson, T. Eaton, I. Zeng, and J. Kolbe, “Isolated nocturnal desaturation in COPD: prevalence and impact on quality of life and sleep,” Thorax 64(2), 133–138 (2009).
[PubMed]

Königsdörffer, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kraft, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kuppe, H.

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kyriacou, P. A.

Z. D. Walton, P. A. Kyriacou, D. G. Silverman, and K. H. Shelley, “Measuring venous oxygenation using the photoplethysmograph waveform,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 24(4), 295–303 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lebedev, A. Y.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

Lecoq, J.

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

Levkovich YuI,

K. P. Ivanov, M. K. Kalinina, and Levkovich YuI, “Blood flow velocity in capillaries of brain and muscles and its physiological significance,” Microvasc. Res. 22(2), 143–155 (1981).
[PubMed]

Levy, P.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Lewis, C. A.

C. A. Lewis, W. Fergusson, T. Eaton, I. Zeng, and J. Kolbe, “Isolated nocturnal desaturation in COPD: prevalence and impact on quality of life and sleep,” Thorax 64(2), 133–138 (2009).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lu, Y.

R. H. Thiele, J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, Y. Lu, G. T. Gillies, and M. E. Durieux, “Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study,” Anesth. Analg. 112(6), 1353–1357 (2011).
[PubMed]

Maslov, K.

McMahon, T.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

McNicolas, W.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Meinke, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34021 (2006).
[PubMed]

Millikan, G. A.

G. A. Millikan, “The Oximeter, an Instrument for Measuring Continuously the Oxygen Saturation of Arterial Blood in Man,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 13, 434–444 (1942).

Müller, G.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34021 (2006).
[PubMed]

Neill, J. M.

D. D. Van Slyke and J. M. Neill, “The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric measurement,” J. Biol. Chem. 61, 523–573 (1924).
[PubMed]

Oack, A.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Palmer, G.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Parpaleix, A.

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

Piantadosi, C. A.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Pries, A. R.

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Radiloff, D. R.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Redline, S.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Reglin, B.

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Reuther, T.

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

Roggan, A.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34021 (2006).
[PubMed]

Romaniuk, J.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Roussakis, E.

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sakadzic, S.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

Schmidt-Nowarra, W.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Schroeder, T.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Schweitzer, D.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

Secomb, T. W.

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Seibel, R. E.

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

Shan, S.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shelley, K. H.

Z. D. Walton, P. A. Kyriacou, D. G. Silverman, and K. H. Shelley, “Measuring venous oxygenation using the photoplethysmograph waveform,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 24(4), 295–303 (2010).
[PubMed]

Shimada, Y.

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, “Spectrophotometric monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation in the fingertip,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(1), 27–32 (1980).
[PubMed]

Silverman, D. G.

Z. D. Walton, P. A. Kyriacou, D. G. Silverman, and K. H. Shelley, “Measuring venous oxygenation using the photoplethysmograph waveform,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 24(4), 295–303 (2010).
[PubMed]

Strobel, J.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

Strohl, K.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Stücker, M.

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

Styp-Rekowska, B.

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, “Spectrophotometric monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation in the fingertip,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(1), 27–32 (1980).
[PubMed]

Thamm, E.

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

Thiele, R. H.

R. H. Thiele, J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, Y. Lu, G. T. Gillies, and M. E. Durieux, “Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study,” Anesth. Analg. 112(6), 1353–1357 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tucker-Schwartz, J. M.

R. H. Thiele, J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, Y. Lu, G. T. Gillies, and M. E. Durieux, “Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study,” Anesth. Analg. 112(6), 1353–1357 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ulm, L.

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Van Slyke, D. D.

D. D. Van Slyke and J. M. Neill, “The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric measurement,” J. Biol. Chem. 61, 523–573 (1924).
[PubMed]

Vinogradov, S. A.

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

Walton, Z. D.

Z. D. Walton, P. A. Kyriacou, D. G. Silverman, and K. H. Shelley, “Measuring venous oxygenation using the photoplethysmograph waveform,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 24(4), 295–303 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wang, L.

Wang, L. V.

Wheatley, J.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

White, D.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Wilson, D. F.

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

Xia, J.

Yao, J.

J. Xia, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: principles and advances,” Electromagn Waves (Camb) 147, 1–22 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yoshiya, I.

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, “Spectrophotometric monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation in the fingertip,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(1), 27–32 (1980).
[PubMed]

Young, T.

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Zeng, I.

C. A. Lewis, W. Fergusson, T. Eaton, I. Zeng, and J. Kolbe, “Isolated nocturnal desaturation in COPD: prevalence and impact on quality of life and sleep,” Thorax 64(2), 133–138 (2009).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. Y. Lebedev, A. V. Cheprakov, S. Sakadzić, D. A. Boas, D. F. Wilson, and S. A. Vinogradov, “Dendritic Phosphorescent Probes for Oxygen Imaging in Biological Systems,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1(6), 1292–1304 (2009).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. (1)

G. Hanna, A. Fontanella, G. Palmer, S. Shan, D. R. Radiloff, Y. Zhao, D. Irwin, K. Hamilton, A. Boico, C. A. Piantadosi, G. Blueschke, M. Dewhirst, T. McMahon, and T. Schroeder, “Automated measurement of blood flow velocity and direction and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the rat lung using intravital microscopy,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 304(2), L86–L91 (2013).
[PubMed]

Anesth. Analg. (1)

R. H. Thiele, J. M. Tucker-Schwartz, Y. Lu, G. T. Gillies, and M. E. Durieux, “Transcutaneous regional venous oximetry: a feasibility study,” Anesth. Analg. 112(6), 1353–1357 (2011).
[PubMed]

Arch. Intern. Med. (1)

J. B. Hickam and R. Frayser, “Studies of the retinal circulation in man: Observations on vessel diameter, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and mean circulation time,” Arch. Intern. Med. 127, 688–702 (1971).

Electromagn Waves (Camb) (1)

J. Xia, J. Yao, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic tomography: principles and advances,” Electromagn Waves (Camb) 147, 1–22 (2014).
[PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

D. Schweitzer, M. Hammer, J. Kraft, E. Thamm, E. Königsdörffer, and J. Strobel, “In vivo measurement of the oxygen saturation of retinal vessels in healthy volunteers,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 46(12), 1454–1465 (1999).
[PubMed]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

D. D. Van Slyke and J. M. Neill, “The determination of gases in blood and other solutions by vacuum extraction and manometric measurement,” J. Biol. Chem. 61, 523–573 (1924).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 34021 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Clin. Invest. (1)

L. Dexter, F. W. Haynes, C. S. Burwell, E. C. Eppinger, R. E. Seibel, and J. M. Evans, “Studies of congenital heart disease. I. Technique of venous catheterization as a diagnostic procedure,” J. Clin. Invest. 26, 547–553 (1947).

J. Clin. Monit. Comput. (1)

Z. D. Walton, P. A. Kyriacou, D. G. Silverman, and K. H. Shelley, “Measuring venous oxygenation using the photoplethysmograph waveform,” J. Clin. Monit. Comput. 24(4), 295–303 (2010).
[PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

I. Yoshiya, Y. Shimada, and K. Tanaka, “Spectrophotometric monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation in the fingertip,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 18(1), 27–32 (1980).
[PubMed]

Microcirculation (1)

B. Styp-Rekowska, N. M. Disassa, B. Reglin, L. Ulm, H. Kuppe, T. W. Secomb, and A. R. Pries, “An Imaging Spectroscopy Approach for Measurement of Oxygen Saturation and Hematocrit During Intravital Microscopy,” Microcirculation 14(3), 207–221 (2007).
[PubMed]

Microvasc. Res. (2)

K. P. Ivanov, M. K. Kalinina, and Levkovich YuI, “Blood flow velocity in capillaries of brain and muscles and its physiological significance,” Microvasc. Res. 22(2), 143–155 (1981).
[PubMed]

M. Stücker, V. Baier, T. Reuther, K. Hoffmann, K. Kellam, and P. Altmeyer, “Capillary blood cell velocity in human skin capillaries located perpendicularly to the skin surface: measured by a new laser Doppler anemometer,” Microvasc. Res. 52(2), 188–192 (1996).
[PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

J. Lecoq, A. Parpaleix, E. Roussakis, M. Ducros, Y. Goulam Houssen, S. A. Vinogradov, and S. Charpak, “Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels,” Nat. Med. 17(7), 893–898 (2011).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. A. Millikan, “The Oximeter, an Instrument for Measuring Continuously the Oxygen Saturation of Arterial Blood in Man,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 13, 434–444 (1942).

Sleep (1)

W. W. Flemons, D. Buysse, S. Redline, A. Oack, K. Strohl, J. Wheatley, T. Young, N. Douglas, P. Levy, W. McNicolas, J. Fleetham, D. White, W. Schmidt-Nowarra, D. Carley, and J. Romaniuk, “Sleep-related breathing disorders in adults: recommendations for syndrome definition and measurement techniques in clinical research. The Report of an American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force,” Sleep 22(5), 667–689 (1999).
[PubMed]

Thorax (1)

C. A. Lewis, W. Fergusson, T. Eaton, I. Zeng, and J. Kolbe, “Isolated nocturnal desaturation in COPD: prevalence and impact on quality of life and sleep,” Thorax 64(2), 133–138 (2009).
[PubMed]

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A. C. Guyton and J. E. Hall, Textbook of Medical Physiology (Elsevier, 2010).

H. Komatsu, M. Ikawa, K. Karita, and S. Fukumoto, Measurement of Tissue Oxygenation Level in Human Lip, Interface Oral Health Science (Springer, 2012).

S. Jacques and S. Prahl, “Tabulated Molar Extinction Coefficient for Hemoglobin in Water” (1998), retrieved http://omlc.org/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Blood flow in a counter-clockwise direction is verified by observing a single leucocyte visible as a small gap in the dark erythrocyte flow. Scale bar represents 25 microns.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of the optical setup for spatially incoherent confocal point spectroscopy. L1..L4 – Achromatic lenses. BP – bandpass filter. LP – linear polarizer. DM1, DM2 – dichroic mirrors. (b) Lateral and axial cross-sections of the measured point-spread function (PSF). Circles – total reflection measurement. Dashed curve – best fit to a Gaussian function.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Widefield image of a target vessel (marked by an arrow) with six measurement locations marked by white circles. (b) Reflection spectra from the six points. Bold curve corresponds to location #4 on the vessel. (c) Absorption spectrum (black solid line) calculated using spectrum #4 with spectrum #1 as reference. Curve fit (red dashed line) resulted in estimated saturation value of 0.70 with r-squared value of 0.97.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Oxygen saturation measurements using SICS at four locations on a capillary loop. Top-left inset: widefield image of the target vessel. I-IV: approximate measurement locations. Plots I-IV: calculated oxygen saturation values (black dots) and the corresponding r-squared values (blue dots) for the spectra captured from each location. Dashed line in the r-squared plots denote the threshold values below which the corresponding oxygen saturation values (red dots) were excluded from the calculations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Blood oxygen loss from a capillary loop. (a) Oxygen saturation values interpolated between six measurement points. (b) Measured saturation level as function of blood flow path length. Error bars represent standard deviations. Linear curve fit (dashed line) indicate average oxygen saturation loss of 7.1% per 100 μm.

Equations (3)

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a( λ )= log 10 I 4 ( λ ) I 1 ( λ ) ,
a( λ )=A+B μ Hb O 2 ( λ )+C μ HbR ( λ )+D λ 1.47 ,
S O 2 = B B+C .

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