Abstract

Recent advancements in diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA) have opened the path for noninvasive acquisition of deep tissue microvasculature blood flow. In fact, in addition to blood flow index αDB, the variations of tissue optical absorption μa, reduced scattering coefficients μ s, as well as coherence factor β can modulate temporal fluctuations of speckle patterns. In this study, we use multi-distance and multi-exposure DSCA (MDME-DSCA) to simultaneously extract multiple parameters such as μa, μ s, αDB, and β. The validity of MDME-DSCA has been validated by the simulated data and phantoms experiments. Moreover, as a comparison, the results also show that it is impractical to simultaneously obtain multiple parameters by multi-exposure DSCA (ME-DSCA).

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2017 (1)

J. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Lu, X. Ni, and Z. Shen, “Quantitative model of diffuse speckle contrast analysis for flow measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(7), 076016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yeo, H. C. Park, K. Lee, and C. Song, “Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 93–98 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (8)

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hajjarian and S. K. Nadkarni, “Correction of optical absorption and scattering variations in laser speckle rheology measurements,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6349–6361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Varma, C. P. Valdes, A. K. Kristoffersen, J. P. Culver, and T. Durduran, “Speckle contrast optical tomography: A new method for deep tissue three-dimensional tomography of blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1275–1289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. S. Kazmi, S. Balial, and A. K. Dunn, “Optimization of camera exposure durations for multi-exposure speckle imaging of the microcirculation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2157–2171 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Valdes, H. M. Varma, A. K. Kristoffersen, T. Dragojevic, J. P. Culver, and T. Durduran, “Speckle contrast optical spectroscopy, a non-invasive, diffuse optical method for measuring microvascular blood flow in tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2769–2784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Shen, J. Lu, and X. Ni, “Quantitatively assessing flow velocity by the slope of the inverse square of the contrast values versus camera exposure time,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19327–19336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

R. Bi, J. Dong, and K. Lee, “Deep tissue flowmetry based on diffuse speckle contrast analysis,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1401–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Bi, J. Dong, and K. Lee, “Multi-channel deep tissue flowmetry based on temporal diffuse speckle contrast analysis,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22854–22861 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. S. Kazmi, A. B. Parthasarthy, N. E. Song, T. A. Jones, and A. K. Dunn, “Chronic imaging of cortical blood flow using Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 798–808 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, L. He, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(2), 361–368 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

G. Yu, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 010901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffuse reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(2), 21–28 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

A. B. Parthasarathy, S. M. S. Kazmi, and A. K. Dunn, “Quantitative imaging of ischemic stroke through thinned skull in mice with Multi Exposure Speckle Imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 246–259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “The use of India ink in tissue-simulating phantoms,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26854–26865 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

A. A. Middleton and D. S. Fisher, “Discrete scatterers and autocorrelations of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(7), 5934–5938 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, “Laser doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11(11), 936–944 (1972).
[PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arger, P. H.

Baker, W. B.

Balial, S.

Baribeau, F.

Bénazech-Lavoué, M.

Benedek, G. B.

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, “Laser doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11(11), 936–944 (1972).
[PubMed]

Bérubé-Lauzière, Y.

Bi, R.

Boas, D. A.

Bodnar, O.

Botwicz, M.

Bouchard, J.-P.

Briers, D.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bronzi, D.

Buckley, E. M.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, D. R.

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castellvi, C.

Cen, J.

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, R.

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, N. M.

Cubeddu, R.

Culver, J. P.

Czerniecki, B. J.

Davis, M. A.

Detre, J. A.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devor, A.

Di Ninni, P.

Dong, J.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, L. He, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(2), 361–368 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dragojevic, T.

Duncan, D. D.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

S. M. S. Kazmi, E. Faraji, M. A. Davis, Y.-Y. Huang, X. J. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Flux or speed? Examining speckle contrast imaging of vascular flows,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2588–2608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. S. Kazmi, S. Balial, and A. K. Dunn, “Optimization of camera exposure durations for multi-exposure speckle imaging of the microcirculation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2157–2171 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. S. Kazmi, A. B. Parthasarthy, N. E. Song, T. A. Jones, and A. K. Dunn, “Chronic imaging of cortical blood flow using Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 798–808 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, S. M. S. Kazmi, and A. K. Dunn, “Quantitative imaging of ischemic stroke through thinned skull in mice with Multi Exposure Speckle Imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 246–259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, “Efficient processing of laser speckle contrast images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(12), 1728–1738 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yuan, A. Devor, D. A. Boas, and A. K. Dunn, “Determination of optimal exposure time for imaging of blood flow changes with laser speckle contrast imaging,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1823–1830 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

P. Farzam and T. Durduran, “Multidistance diffuse correlation spectroscopy for simultaneous estimation of blood flow index and optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 055001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Dragojević, D. Bronzi, H. M. Varma, C. P. Valdes, C. Castellvi, F. Villa, A. Tosi, C. Justicia, F. Zappa, and T. Durduran, “High-speed multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging with a single-photon counting camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2865–2876 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Valdes, H. M. Varma, A. K. Kristoffersen, T. Dragojevic, J. P. Culver, and T. Durduran, “Speckle contrast optical spectroscopy, a non-invasive, diffuse optical method for measuring microvascular blood flow in tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2769–2784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Varma, C. P. Valdes, A. K. Kristoffersen, J. P. Culver, and T. Durduran, “Speckle contrast optical tomography: A new method for deep tissue three-dimensional tomography of blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1275–1289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durian, D. J.

Edlow, B. L.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elster, C.

Eucker, S. A.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraji, E.

Farina, A.

Farzam, P.

P. Farzam and T. Durduran, “Multidistance diffuse correlation spectroscopy for simultaneous estimation of blood flow index and optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 055001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, T.-C.

Fisher, D. S.

A. A. Middleton and D. S. Fisher, “Discrete scatterers and autocorrelations of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(7), 5934–5938 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Floyd, T. F.

Foschum, F.

Frangos, S.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friess, S. H.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallant, P.

Gong, H.

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopal, A.

Grady, M. S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajjarian, Z.

Haskell, R. C.

Hayes-Gill, B. R.

He, D.

He, L.

L. Dong, L. He, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(2), 361–368 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirst, E.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, H.-C.

Huang, Y.-Y.

Hurt, H. H.

Ichord, R. N.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irwin, D.

Jones, T. A.

S. M. S. Kazmi, A. B. Parthasarthy, N. E. Song, T. A. Jones, and A. K. Dunn, “Chronic imaging of cortical blood flow using Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 798–808 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Justicia, C.

Kacprzak, M.

Kazmi, S. M. S.

Khoptyar, D.

Kienle, A.

Kim, J. G.

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. N.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klauenberg, K.

Kofke, W. A.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristoffersen, A. K.

Kudrimoti, M.

Larsson, M.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leclair, S.

Lee, K.

Lemieux, P.-A.

Lesage, F.

Levine, J. M.

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Licht, D. J.

Liebert, A.

Lin, Y.

L. Dong, L. He, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(2), 361–368 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Lu, J.

Luo, Q.

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mai, P. M.

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maloney-Wilensky, E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margulies, S. S.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Mazurenka, M.

McAdams, M. S.

Mermut, O.

Mesquita, R. C.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michels, R.

Middleton, A. A.

A. A. Middleton and D. S. Fisher, “Discrete scatterers and autocorrelations of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 43(7), 5934–5938 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milej, D.

Morgan, S. P.

Moss, H. E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

Ni, X.

Noiseux, I.

Park, H. C.

Parthasarathy, A. B.

Parthasarthy, A. B.

S. M. S. Kazmi, A. B. Parthasarthy, N. E. Song, T. A. Jones, and A. K. Dunn, “Chronic imaging of cortical blood flow using Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 798–808 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, Z.

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

Poh, C. L.

Ponticorvo, A.

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, “Efficient processing of laser speckle contrast images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(12), 1728–1738 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Putt, M. E.

Ralston, J.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riva, C.

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, “Laser doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11(11), 936–944 (1972).
[PubMed]

Ross, B.

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, “Laser doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11(11), 936–944 (1972).
[PubMed]

Saha, S. P.

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawosz, P.

Schultz, S.

Sehgal, C. M.

Seong, M.

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shang, Y.

L. Dong, L. He, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(2), 361–368 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Song, C.

C. Yeo, H. C. Park, K. Lee, and C. Song, “Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 93–98 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, N. E.

S. M. S. Kazmi, A. B. Parthasarthy, N. E. Song, T. A. Jones, and A. K. Dunn, “Chronic imaging of cortical blood flow using Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 798–808 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

Steenbergen, W.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stevens, S. D.

Stromberg, T.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subash, A. A.

Sun, S.

Svaasand, L. O.

Symons, T. B.

Tchou, J. C.

Thompson, O. B.

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tom, W. J.

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, “Efficient processing of laser speckle contrast images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(12), 1728–1738 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

Tosi, A.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T.-T.

Valdes, C. P.

Varma, H. M.

Villa, F.

Wabnitz, H.

Wang, J.

Webster, S.

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weigel, U.

Wolf, R. L.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeo, C.

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yeo, H. C. Park, K. Lee, and C. Song, “Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 93–98 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, “Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(1), 192–215 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, “Scattering and imaging with diffusing temporal field correlations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75(9), 1855–1858 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

L. Dong, L. He, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(2), 361–368 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 010901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, S.

Zaccanti, G.

Zappa, F.

Zeng, S.

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. J.

Zhao, Y.

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2915–2917 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Zolek, N.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (11)

S. M. S. Kazmi, S. Balial, and A. K. Dunn, “Optimization of camera exposure durations for multi-exposure speckle imaging of the microcirculation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2157–2171 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Dragojević, D. Bronzi, H. M. Varma, C. P. Valdes, C. Castellvi, F. Villa, A. Tosi, C. Justicia, F. Zappa, and T. Durduran, “High-speed multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging with a single-photon counting camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2865–2876 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, M. Botwicz, N. Zolek, M. Kacprzak, D. Milej, P. Sawosz, A. Liebert, U. Weigel, T. Durduran, F. Foschum, A. Kienle, F. Baribeau, S. Leclair, J.-P. Bouchard, I. Noiseux, P. Gallant, O. Mermut, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, H.-C. Ho, M. Mazurenka, H. Wabnitz, K. Klauenberg, O. Bodnar, C. Elster, M. Bénazech-Lavoué, Y. Bérubé-Lauzière, F. Lesage, D. Khoptyar, A. A. Subash, S. Andersson-Engels, P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Determination of reference values for optical properties of liquid phantoms based on Intralipid and India ink,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(7), 2037–2053 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Baker, A. B. Parthasarathy, D. R. Busch, R. C. Mesquita, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, “Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(11), 4053–4075 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yeo, H. C. Park, K. Lee, and C. Song, “Avian embryo monitoring during incubation using multi-channel diffuse speckle contrast analysis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 93–98 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shang, T. B. Symons, T. Durduran, A. G. Yodh, and G. Yu, “Effects of muscle fiber motion on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements during exercise,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 500–511 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Valdes, H. M. Varma, A. K. Kristoffersen, T. Dragojevic, J. P. Culver, and T. Durduran, “Speckle contrast optical spectroscopy, a non-invasive, diffuse optical method for measuring microvascular blood flow in tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(8), 2769–2784 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Varma, C. P. Valdes, A. K. Kristoffersen, J. P. Culver, and T. Durduran, “Speckle contrast optical tomography: A new method for deep tissue three-dimensional tomography of blood flow,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(4), 1275–1289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Irwin, L. Dong, Y. Shang, R. Cheng, M. Kudrimoti, S. D. Stevens, and G. Yu, “Influences of tissue absorption and scattering on diffuse correlation spectroscopy blood flow measurements,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(7), 1969–1985 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, S. M. S. Kazmi, and A. K. Dunn, “Quantitative imaging of ischemic stroke through thinned skull in mice with Multi Exposure Speckle Imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 246–259 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. S. Kazmi, E. Faraji, M. A. Davis, Y.-Y. Huang, X. J. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Flux or speed? Examining speckle contrast imaging of vascular flows,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2588–2608 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

L. Dong, L. He, Y. Lin, Y. Shang, and G. Yu, “Simultaneously extracting multiple parameters via fitting one single autocorrelation function curve in diffuse correlation spectroscopy,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(2), 361–368 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

W. J. Tom, A. Ponticorvo, and A. K. Dunn, “Efficient processing of laser speckle contrast images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(12), 1728–1738 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. Riva, B. Ross, and G. B. Benedek, “Laser doppler measurements of blood flow in capillary tubes and retinal arteries,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 11(11), 936–944 (1972).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (10)

M. Seong, Z. Phillips, P. M. Mai, C. Yeo, C. Song, K. Lee, and J. G. Kim, “Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2), 027001 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, Y. Shang, Y. Zhao, R. Cheng, L. Dong, and S. P. Saha, “Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 027004 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, Q. Luo, S. Zeng, S. Chen, J. Cen, and H. Gong, “Modified laser speckle imaging method with improved spatial resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 559–564 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers and S. Webster, “Laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA): a nonscanning, full-field technique for monitoring capillary blood flow,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 174–179 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas and A. K. Dunn, “Laser speckle contrast imaging in biomedical optics,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011109 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Briers, D. D. Duncan, E. Hirst, S. J. Kirkpatrick, M. Larsson, W. Steenbergen, T. Stromberg, and O. B. Thompson, “Laser speckle contrast imaging: theoretical and practical limitations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(6), 066018 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Farzam and T. Durduran, “Multidistance diffuse correlation spectroscopy for simultaneous estimation of blood flow index and optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(5), 055001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, H. Zhang, J. Lu, X. Ni, and Z. Shen, “Quantitative model of diffuse speckle contrast analysis for flow measurement,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(7), 076016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, “Near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy in cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(1), 010901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

S. M. S. Kazmi, A. B. Parthasarthy, N. E. Song, T. A. Jones, and A. K. Dunn, “Chronic imaging of cortical blood flow using Multi-Exposure Speckle Imaging,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(6), 798–808 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Neurocrit. Care (2)

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, B. L. Edlow, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, R. C. Mesquita, J. M. Levine, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and J. A. Detre, “Continuous optical monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics during head-of-bed manipulation in brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 20(3), 443–453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

R. Bi, J. Dong, and K. Lee, “Multi-channel deep tissue flowmetry based on temporal diffuse speckle contrast analysis,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22854–22861 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Buckley, N. M. Cook, T. Durduran, M. N. Kim, C. Zhou, R. Choe, G. Yu, S. Schultz, C. M. Sehgal, D. J. Licht, P. H. Arger, M. E. Putt, H. H. Hurt, and A. G. Yodh, “Cerebral hemodynamics in preterm infants during positional intervention measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler ultrasound,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12571–12581 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Hajjarian and S. K. Nadkarni, “Correction of optical absorption and scattering variations in laser speckle rheology measurements,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6349–6361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. B. Parthasarathy, W. J. Tom, A. Gopal, X. Zhang, and A. K. Dunn, “Robust flow measurement with multi-exposure speckle imaging,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1975–1989 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, H. Zhang, Z. Shen, J. Lu, and X. Ni, “Quantitatively assessing flow velocity by the slope of the inverse square of the contrast values versus camera exposure time,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19327–19336 (2014).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Theoretical calculation of 1/K2 as a function of dynamic parameter αDB over a broad range. Here μa = 0.03cm−1, μ s = 8cm−1, β = 0.5, r = 2cm, T = 0.2ms and λ = 785nm were used.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the experimental setup using the phantom.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Contour plots of the differences between the reference (a) ME-DSCA or (b) MDME-DSCA measurements and testing speckle contrast measurements generated by varying the values of paired parameters. The reference speckle contrast measurements were generated by the given parameters μa = 0.1cm−1, μ s = 10cm−1, αDB = 2 × 10−8cm2/s and β = 0.124. χ2 and δ2 were obtained by varying the values of 0≤μa≤0.25cm−1, 5≤ μ s ≤15cm−1, 1.5 × 10−8cm2/s≤αDB≤2.5 × 10−8cm2/s and 0≤β≤0.25. The reference values of paired parameters are marked at the cross where the differences χ2 and δ2 achieve the minimum values.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fitted parameters μa, μ s, αDB and β from noise-free data for 125 media by (a) ME-DSCA and (b) MDME-DSCA. The noise-free data for ME-DSCA or MDME-DSCA was generated at the SD separation r = 0.65cm with exposure time T from 0.1 to 1ms with a step of 0.01ms, or at nine SD separations (r from 0.25 to 1.05cm with a step of 0.1cm) with 10 exposures (T from 0.1 to 1ms with a step of 0.1ms). Each marker represents one μa, i.e. square: μa = 0.04cm−1, circle: μa = 0.07cm−1, triangle: μa = 0.10cm−1, diamond: μa = 0.13cm−1, and cross: μa = 0.16cm−1. Each color represents one μ s, i.e. black: μ s = 4cm−1, red: μ s = 7cm−1, blue: μ s = 10cm−1, dark cyan: μ s = 13cm−1, and magenta: μ s = 16cm−1. The same marker with different colors means the same μa with various μ s values. The same color with different markers means the same μ s with various μa values. For better observing the fitted parameters, we move the points slightly across the x-axis and αDB increases from left to right for each μa or μ s.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Performance of MDME-DSCA in the noise-added simulated data. (a) Fitted parameters μa, μ s, αDB and β, and (b) percentage error of fitted parameters. Each color and marker in (a) represent the same as Fig. 4. The same marker with different colors means the same μa with various μ s values. The same color with different markers means the same μ s with various μa values. The linear fitting between fitted parameters and expected parameters is displayed in (a). The percentage error in (b) is defined as [(Fitted-Expected)/Expected] × 100%. The standard deviations of the errors are shown with blue error bars and the centers of the crosses represent the mean values of the errors.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Speckle contrast measurements from phantom experiments in which μ s was varied, i.e. (a) μ s = 4cm−1, (b) μ s = 7cm−1, (c) μ s = 10cm−1, (d) μ s = 13cm−1, and (e) μ s = 16cm−1, and other parameters were constant. The solid lines are the fitting results calculated by Eq. (4). Some speckle contrast measurements in (d) and (e) are not available due to the low CCD SNR.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fitted parameters (a) μa, (b) μ s, (c) αDB and (d) β versus the varied μ s in the liquid phantoms. The dash line in (b) represents an ideal linear relation with the slope equal to one and intercept equal to zero.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Variations in μ s, αDB and μa at different SD separations and exposure time result in corresponding change in speckle contrast. T = 0.6ms was used for the calculation in (a) and (b). r = 0.65 was used in (c) and (d).

Equations (8)

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K 2 ( T )= 2β T 0 T ( 1τ/T ) [ g 1 ( r,τ ) ] 2 dτ,
( 1 3 μ s 2 + μ a + 1 3 α μ s k 0 2 Δ r 2 ( τ ) ) G 1 ( r,τ )=S( r ),
G 1 ( r,τ )= 3 μ s 4π [ exp( K( τ ) r 1 ) r 1 exp( K( τ ) r 2 ) r 2 ],
K 2 ( r,T )= 8β ( FT ) 2 G 0 2 i=1 2 j=1 2 ( 1 ) i+j r i r j ( r i + r j ) 4 [ X ij ( T ) X ij ( 0 )+ Y ij FT ], X ij ( T )=[ ( r i + r j ) 2 ( K 0 2 +FT )+3( r i + r j ) K 0 2 +FT +3 ]× e ( r i + r j ) K 0 2 +FT , Y ij = 1 2 ( r i + r j ) 2 [ 1+ K 0 ( r i + r j ) ]× e K 0 ( r i + r j ) ,
χ 2 = i=1 N r j=1 N T [ K measured ( r i , T j ) K theory ( r i , T j ) ] 2 ,
δ 2 = j=1 N r × N T [ K measured ( r, T j ) K theory ( r, T j ) ] 2 ,
σ K = K K 2 +0.5 N ,
α D B = k B T 3π D Z η ,

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