Abstract

We propose a spectral-domain interferometric technique, termed spectral modulation interferometry (SMI), and present its application to high-sensitivity, high-speed, and speckle-free quantitative phase imaging. In SMI, one-dimensional complex field of an object is interferometrically modulated onto a broadband spectrum. Full-field phase and intensity images are obtained by scanning along the orthogonal direction. SMI integrates the high sensitivity of spectral-domain interferometry with the high speed of spectral modulation to quantify fast phase dynamics, and its dispersive and confocal nature eliminates laser speckles. The principle and implementation of SMI are discussed. Its performance is evaluated using static and dynamic objects.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

2013 (2)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Fourier phase microscopy with white light,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(8), 1434–1441 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

Y. Zhu, N. T. Shaked, L. L. Satterwhite, and A. Wax, “Spectral-domain differential interference contrast microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 430–432 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. F. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 127–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

1988 (1)

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two‐dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

1955 (1)

G. Nomarski, “Differential microinterferometer with polarized waves,” J. Phys. Radium 16(9), 9S–11S (1955).

1942 (1)

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9(10), 974–986 (1942).
[Crossref]

Aherrahrou, R.

Akkin, T.

Ansari, R.

Auth, T.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

Barbastathis, G.

Barty, A.

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Best, C. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

Bhaduri, B.

Bon, P.

Boss, D.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bursac, N.

Cense, B.

Choma, M. A.

Chu, K. K.

Creath, K.

Creazzo, T. L.

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

de Boer, J. F.

Deflores, L. P.

Depeursinge, C.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 127–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, H. F.

Ellerbee, A. K.

Erdmann, J.

Faulkner, H. M. L.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2503–2505 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, T. N.

Froehly, L.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 127–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gillette, M. U.

Golan, L.

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, G.

Goldstein, R. M.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two‐dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gov, N. S.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horstmeyer, R.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hüttmann, G.

Iwai, H.

Izatt, J. A.

Jaedicke, V.

Joo, C.

Jourdain, P.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemper, B.

Kim, M. K.

Lang, F.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 127–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lasser, T.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 127–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lo, C. M.

Magistretti, P. J.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mann, C. J.

Marquet, P.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, S. N.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, “Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle,” Opt. Commun. 222(1-6), 127–136 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maucort, G.

Mertz, J.

Millet, L.

Minai, L.

Mir, M.

Monneret, S.

Moratal, C.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

Myrtus, C.

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, “Differential microinterferometer with polarized waves,” J. Phys. Radium 16(9), 9S–11S (1955).

Nugent, K. A.

Paganin, D.

Park, B. H.

Park, Y.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parthasarathy, A. B.

Pavillon, N.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, H.

Popescu, G.

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rappaz, B.

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rinehart, M. T.

Roberts, A.

Rodenburg, J. M.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

Safran, S. A.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Satterwhite, L. L.

Schweikard, A.

Shaked, N. T.

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

Y. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. S. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(4), 1289–1294 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tangella, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Tian, L.

Unarunotai, S.

Vaughan, J. C.

von Bally, G.

Waller, L.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. F. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wattellier, B.

Wax, A.

Webb, R. H.

Werner, C. L.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two‐dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

White, W. M.

Yang, C.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Yeheskely-Hayon, D.

Yelin, D.

Yu, L. F.

Yun, S. H.

Zebker, H. A.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two‐dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9(10), 974–986 (1942).
[Crossref]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

J. Neurosci. (1)

P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, C. Moratal, D. Boss, B. Rappaz, C. Depeursinge, P. Marquet, and P. J. Magistretti, “Determination of Transmembrane Water Fluxes in Neurons Elicited by Glutamate Ionotropic Receptors and by the Cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1: A Digital Holographic Microscopy Study,” J. Neurosci. 31(33), 11846–11854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Radium (1)

G. Nomarski, “Differential microinterferometer with polarized waves,” J. Phys. Radium 16(9), 9S–11S (1955).

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Zheng, R. Horstmeyer, and C. Yang, “Wide-field, high-resolution Fourier ptychographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 739–745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (40833 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (3727 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (6267 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of spectral modulation interferometry system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SMI-based quantitative phase imaging of resolution target. (a) 2D interferogram; (inset) magnified view of local interference; (b) 2D FFT of (a) with the circle indicating filtered signal; (c) Demodulated thickness distribution; (d) Demodulated Intensity distribution; (e) Cross-sectional profiles at marked positions in (c) and (d); upper panel also includes measurements by AFM as well as by SMI using Ag-coated resolution target; (f) Spatial sensitivity measurement of a 120.6Hz image; (insets) OPL histogram of full field and selected area; (g) Temporal sensitivity measurement at three scanning rates; (h) Temporal sensitivity for full field of view at 120.6 Hz. Scale bars represent 10 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Quantitative phase imaging of fast Peranema dynamics. (a),(b) 2D OPL images from video in (c) (Media 1, 120 fps). (d) Slow motion video of flagellum dynamics (Media 2, 30 fps). (e), (f) Another Peranema sample (Media 3, 30 fps). Scale bars represent 10µm.

Equations (1)

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I tot (x,y)= | E r | 2 + | E s (x,y) | 2 +2 E r E s (x,y)cos(2 k 0 L 0 +2α L 0 y+2 ϕ s (x,y))

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