Abstract

Macular pigment is a yellowish pigment of purely dietary origin, which is thought to have a protective role in the retina. Recently, it was linked to age-related macular degeneration and improved visual function. In this work, we present a method and a corresponding optical instrument for the rapid measurement of its optical density. The method is based on fundus reflectometry and features a photodetector for the measurement of reflectance at different wavelengths and retinal locations. The method has been tested against a commercially available instrument on a group of healthy volunteers and has shown good correlation. The proposed instrument can serve as a rapid, non-midriatic, low-cost tool for the measurement of macular pigment optical density.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “Macular Pigment II. Spatial Distribution in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).
  2. E. Loane, C. Kelliher, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy,” The Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 1163–1168 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Nolan and S. Beatty, “The role of macular pigment in the defence against AMD,” Optom. Today 27, 39–41 (2003).
  6. B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment: Influences on visual acuity and visibility,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 225–240 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).
  12. L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 137–142 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. D. Moreland, “Macular pigment assessment by motion photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 143–148 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. O’Brien, C. Leahy, and C. Dainty, “Imaging system to assess objectively the optical density of the macular pigment in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 52, 6201–6212 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Christaras, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Effect of intraocular scattering in macular pigment optical density measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23, 1 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. P. G. Davey, S. D. Alvarez, and J. Y. Lee, “Macular pigment optical density: Repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1671–1678 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. Artal, “Optics of the eye and its impact in vision: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 340–367 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis. 123, 20 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. Christaras, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Spatial properties of fundus reflectance and red - green relative spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 1723–1728 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3996–4006 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Scattering contribution to the double-pass PSF using Monte Carlo simulations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 37, 342–346 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. Christaras, “Light scattering phenomena in vision and in imaging,” Ph.D. thesis, Universidad de Murcia (2016).
  31. H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3036 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  33. B. R. Hammond and K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).
  34. J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145–152 (1986).
  35. S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1063–1067 (1986).
  36. R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. Van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomedical Optics 11, 064031 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  38. F. C. Delori, “Autofluorescence method to measure macular pigment optical densities fluorometry and autofluorescence imaging,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 156–162 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  41. M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  42. M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  43. I. Ctori and B. Huntjens, “The association between foveal morphology and macular pigment spatial distribution: An ethnicity study,” PLoS ONE 12, 1–13 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Effect of intraocular scattering in macular pigment optical density measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23, 1 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Scattering contribution to the double-pass PSF using Monte Carlo simulations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 37, 342–346 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Ctori and B. Huntjens, “The association between foveal morphology and macular pigment spatial distribution: An ethnicity study,” PLoS ONE 12, 1–13 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3996–4006 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Davey, S. D. Alvarez, and J. Y. Lee, “Macular pigment optical density: Repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1671–1678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

H. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis. 123, 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

E. Loane, C. Kelliher, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy,” The Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 1163–1168 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. Van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomedical Optics 11, 064031 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (5)

F. C. Delori, “Autofluorescence method to measure macular pigment optical densities fluorometry and autofluorescence imaging,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 156–162 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 137–142 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Moreland, “Macular pigment assessment by motion photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Nolan and S. Beatty, “The role of macular pigment in the defence against AMD,” Optom. Today 27, 39–41 (2003).

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment: Influences on visual acuity and visibility,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 225–240 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (2)

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

B. R. Hammond and K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).

1989 (1)

G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145–152 (1986).

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

1984 (1)

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “Macular Pigment II. Spatial Distribution in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Akkali, M. C.

J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alexander, K. R.

G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, S. D.

P. G. Davey, S. D. Alvarez, and J. Y. Lee, “Macular pigment optical density: Repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1671–1678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

D. Christaras, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Effect of intraocular scattering in macular pigment optical density measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23, 1 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Scattering contribution to the double-pass PSF using Monte Carlo simulations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 37, 342–346 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3996–4006 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Spatial properties of fundus reflectance and red - green relative spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Artal, “Optics of the eye and its impact in vision: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 340–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis. 123, 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[Crossref]

Auran, J. D.

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “Macular Pigment II. Spatial Distribution in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Beatty, S.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Loane, C. Kelliher, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy,” The Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 1163–1168 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nolan and S. Beatty, “The role of macular pigment in the defence against AMD,” Optom. Today 27, 39–41 (2003).

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T.

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T. T. J. M.

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. Van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomedical Optics 11, 064031 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernstein, P. S.

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bescós, J.

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bird, A. C.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bone, R. A.

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 137–142 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boulton, M.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bueno, J. M.

H. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis. 123, 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Burns, S. A.

Carden, D.

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charbel Issa, P.

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christaras, D.

D. Christaras, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Effect of intraocular scattering in macular pigment optical density measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23, 1 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Scattering contribution to the double-pass PSF using Monte Carlo simulations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 37, 342–346 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3996–4006 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Spatial properties of fundus reflectance and red - green relative spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Christaras, “Light scattering phenomena in vision and in imaging,” Ph.D. thesis, Universidad de Murcia (2016).

Connolly, E. E.

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ctori, I.

I. Ctori and B. Huntjens, “The association between foveal morphology and macular pigment spatial distribution: An ethnicity study,” PLoS ONE 12, 1–13 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dainty, C.

Davey, P. G.

P. G. Davey, S. D. Alvarez, and J. Y. Lee, “Macular pigment optical density: Repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1671–1678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davison, P. A.

J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Kinkelder, R.

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Delori, F. C.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. C. Delori, “Autofluorescence method to measure macular pigment optical densities fluorometry and autofluorescence imaging,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 156–162 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145–152 (1986).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “Macular Pigment II. Spatial Distribution in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Donnelly, S. K.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ermakov, I. V.

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faber, D. J.

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fishman, G. A.

G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fishman, M.

G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fitch, K. A.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145–152 (1986).

Fitzke, F. W.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fuld, K.

B. R. Hammond and K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).

Galea, M.

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gellermann, W.

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ginis, H.

D. Christaras, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Effect of intraocular scattering in macular pigment optical density measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23, 1 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Scattering contribution to the double-pass PSF using Monte Carlo simulations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 37, 342–346 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3996–4006 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Spatial properties of fundus reflectance and red - green relative spectral sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 32, 1723–1728 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis. 123, 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goger, D. G.

Hammond, B. R.

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment: Influences on visual acuity and visibility,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 225–240 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

B. R. Hammond and K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).

Heeren, T. F.

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hendrikse, F.

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henson, D.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herrmann, P.

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holder, G. E.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holz, F. G.

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huntjens, B.

I. Ctori and B. Huntjens, “The association between foveal morphology and macular pigment spatial distribution: An ethnicity study,” PLoS ONE 12, 1–13 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ishida, S.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Izumi-Nagai, K.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jägle, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kelliher, C.

E. Loane, C. Kelliher, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy,” The Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 1163–1168 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kilbride, P. E.

G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kirby, M. L.

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kliegl, R.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Knau, H.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Koh, H.-H.

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Land, R. I.

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

Landrum, J. T.

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 137–142 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leahy, C.

Lee, J. Y.

P. G. Davey, S. D. Alvarez, and J. Y. Lee, “Macular pigment optical density: Repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1671–1678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loane, E.

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Loane, C. Kelliher, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy,” The Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 1163–1168 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loughman, J.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
[Crossref]

Makridaki, M.

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreland, J. D.

J. D. Moreland, “Macular pigment assessment by motion photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morrissey, T.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, S.

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murray, I. J.

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagai, N.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nolan, J.

J. Nolan and S. Beatty, “The role of macular pigment in the defence against AMD,” Optom. Today 27, 39–41 (2003).

Nolan, J. M.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Loane, C. Kelliher, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy,” The Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 1163–1168 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, A.

O’Dwyer, V.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ohgami, K.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ohno, S.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oike, Y.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ozawa, Y.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pauleikhoff, D.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peisch, R. D.

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

Pennos, A.

D. Christaras, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Effect of intraocular scattering in macular pigment optical density measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23, 1 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Scattering contribution to the double-pass PSF using Monte Carlo simulations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 37, 342–346 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Intraocular scattering compensation in retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7, 3996–4006 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ginis, O. Sahin, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Compact optical integration instrument to measure intraocular straylight,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3036 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pérez, G. M.

H. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis. 123, 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Robson, A. G.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahin, O.

Santamaría, J.

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[Crossref]

Satofuka, S.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scanlon, G.

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S. Y.

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

Scholl, H. P.

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharifzadeh, M.

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharpe, L. T.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sliney, D. H.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Snodderly, D. M.

F. C. Delori, D. G. Goger, B. R. Hammond, D. M. Snodderly, and S. A. Burns, “Macular pigment density measured by autofluorescence spectrometry: comparison with reflectometry and heterochromatic flicker photometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1212–1230 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “Macular Pigment II. Spatial Distribution in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

Stack, J.

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stijfs, A.

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, A.

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thiele, S.

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsubota, K.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Umezawa, K.

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Valen, S.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. Van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomedical Optics 11, 064031 (2006).
[Crossref]

van de Kraats, J.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. Van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomedical Optics 11, 064031 (2006).
[Crossref]

van der Veen, R. L.

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Der Veen, R. L. P.

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Kuijk, F. J. G. M.

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van Norren, D.

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. Van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomedical Optics 11, 064031 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verbaak, F. D.

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Webb, R. H.

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weiter, J. J.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145–152 (1986).

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wing, G. L.

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145–152 (1986).

Wooten, B. R.

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment: Influences on visual acuity and visibility,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 225–240 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

Zhao, D. Y.

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Loughman, G. Scanlon, J. M. Nolan, V. O’Dwyer, and S. Beatty, “An evaluation of a novel instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density: the MPS 9000,” Acta Ophthalmol. 90, 90–97 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

P. Artal, “Optics of the eye and its impact in vision: a tutorial,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 6, 340–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Müller, P. Charbel Issa, T. F. Heeren, S. Thiele, F. G. Holz, and P. Herrmann, “Macular Pigment Distribution as Prognostic Marker for Disease Progression in Macular Telangiectasia Type 2,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 194, 163–169 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (5)

R. A. Bone and J. T. Landrum, “Heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 137–142 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Moreland, “Macular pigment assessment by motion photometry,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 143–148 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Objective determination of the macular pigment optical density using fundus reflectance spectroscopy,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 149–155 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. S. Bernstein, D. Y. Zhao, M. Sharifzadeh, I. V. Ermakov, and W. Gellermann, “Resonance Raman measurement of macular carotenoids in the living human eye,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 163–169 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. C. Delori, “Autofluorescence method to measure macular pigment optical densities fluorometry and autofluorescence imaging,” Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 430, 156–162 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1)

K. Izumi-Nagai, N. Nagai, K. Ohgami, S. Satofuka, Y. Ozawa, K. Tsubota, K. Umezawa, S. Ohno, Y. Oike, and S. Ishida, “Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization,” Arter. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27, 2555–2562 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

S. Beatty, M. Boulton, D. Henson, H.-H. Koh, and I. J. Murray, “Macular pigment and age related macular degeneration,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 867–877 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Ophthalmol. (1)

P. G. Davey, S. D. Alvarez, and J. Y. Lee, “Macular pigment optical density: Repeatability, intereye correlation, and effect of ocular dominance,” Clin. Ophthalmol. 10, 1671–1678 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

P. Charbel Issa, R. L. van der Veen, A. Stijfs, F. G. Holz, H. P. Scholl, and T. T. Berendschot, “Quantification of reduced macular pigment optical density in the central retina in macular telangiectasia type 2,” Exp. Eye Res. 89, 25–31 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eye (1)

R. De Kinkelder, R. L. P. Van Der Veen, F. D. Verbaak, D. J. Faber, T. G. van Leeuwen, and T. T. J. M. Berendschot, “Macular pigment optical density measurements: evaluation of a device using heterochromatic flicker photometry,” Eye 25, 105–112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

B. R. Hammond and K. Fuld, “Interocular differences in macular pigment density,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33, 350–355 (1992).

J. J. Weiter, F. C. Delori, G. L. Wing, and K. A. Fitch, “Retinal pigment epithelial lipofuscin and melanin and choroidal melanin in human eyes,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 145–152 (1986).

M. L. Kirby, M. Galea, E. Loane, J. Stack, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “Foveal anatomic associations with the secondary peak and the slope of the macular pigment spatial profile,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50, 1383–1391 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. L. Kirby, S. Beatty, E. Loane, M. C. Akkali, E. E. Connolly, J. Stack, and J. M. Nolan, “A central dip in the macular pigment spatial profile is associated with age and smoking,” Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51,6722–6728 (2010).
[Crossref]

Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. (4)

T. T. J. M. Berendschot and D. Van Norren, “Macular pigment shows ringlike structures,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47, 709–714 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Schmidt and R. D. Peisch, “Melanin concentration in normal human retinal pigment epithelium. Regional variation and age-related reduction,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 27, 1063–1067 (1986).

D. M. Snodderly, J. D. Auran, and F. C. Delori, “Macular Pigment II. Spatial Distribution in Primate Retinas,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 25, 674–685 (1984).

B. R. Wooten, B. R. Hammond, R. I. Land, and D. M. Snodderly, “A practical method for measuring macular pigment optical density,” Investig. Opthalmol. Vis. Sci. 40, 2481–2489 (1999).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Christaras, A. Pennos, H. Ginis, and P. Artal, “Effect of intraocular scattering in macular pigment optical density measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23, 1 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomedical Optics (1)

J. van de Kraats, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, S. Valen, and D. Van Norren, “Fast assessment of the central macular pigment density with natural pupil using the macular pigment reflectometer,” J. Biomedical Optics 11, 064031 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. (1)

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, and J. Bescós, “Determination of the point-spread function of human eyes using a hybrid optical-digital method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. 4, 1109–1114 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. Vis. (1)

F. C. Delori, R. H. Webb, and D. H. Sliney, “Maximum permissible exposures for ocular safety (ANSI 2000), with emphasis on ophthalmic devices,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, Opt. Image Sci. Vis. 24, 1250–1265 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Optom. (1)

J. Loughman, P. A. Davison, J. M. Nolan, M. C. Akkali, and S. Beatty, “Macular pigment and its contribution to visual performance and experience,” J. Optom. 3, 74–90 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (1)

H. Ginis, G. M. Pérez, J. M. Bueno, and P. Artal, “The wide-angle point spread function of the human eye reconstructed by a new optical method,” J. Vis. 123, 20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (2)

D. Christaras, H. Ginis, A. Pennos, and P. Artal, “Scattering contribution to the double-pass PSF using Monte Carlo simulations,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 37, 342–346 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. P. Van Der Veen, T. T. J. M. Berendschot, F. Hendrikse, D. Carden, M. Makridaki, and I. J. Murray, “A new desktop instrument for measuring macular pigment optical density based on a novel technique for setting flicker thresholds,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 29, 127–137 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optom. Today (1)

J. Nolan and S. Beatty, “The role of macular pigment in the defence against AMD,” Optom. Today 27, 39–41 (2003).

PLoS ONE (1)

I. Ctori and B. Huntjens, “The association between foveal morphology and macular pigment spatial distribution: An ethnicity study,” PLoS ONE 12, 1–13 (2017).
[Crossref]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

B. R. Wooten and B. R. Hammond, “Macular pigment: Influences on visual acuity and visibility,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 21, 225–240 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

The Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Loane, C. Kelliher, S. Beatty, and J. M. Nolan, “The rationale and evidence base for a protective role of macular pigment in age-related maculopathy,” The Br. J. Ophthalmol. 92, 1163–1168 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vis. Res. (4)

L. T. Sharpe, A. Stockman, H. Knau, and H. Jägle, “Macular pigment densities derived from central and peripheral spectral sensitivity differences,” Vis. Res. 38, 3233–3239 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. S. Werner, S. K. Donnelly, and R. Kliegl, “Aging and human macular pigment density,” Vis. Res. 27, 257–268 (1987).
[Crossref]

G. A. Fishman, P. E. Kilbride, K. R. Alexander, M. Fishman, and G. A. Fishman, “Macular Pigment Assessed By Imaging Fundus Reflectometry,” Vis. Res. 29, 663–674 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. G. Robson, J. D. Moreland, D. Pauleikhoff, T. Morrissey, G. E. Holder, F. W. Fitzke, A. C. Bird, and F. J. G. M. Van Kuijk, “Macular pigment density and distribution: Comparison of fundus autofluorescence with minimum motion photometry,” Vis. Res. 43, 1765–1775 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Christaras, “Light scattering phenomena in vision and in imaging,” Ph.D. thesis, Universidad de Murcia (2016).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the Optical system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a)An example of a signal, captured by the photodetector (b) its Fourier Transform showing the four distinct peaks, corresponding to the four different frequencies.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fundus image at green (left) and at blue (right) using the instrument’s CMOS monochrome camera. The colouring of the images was at post processing to highlight the difference.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spatial reconstruction of MPOD for two subjects.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 MPOD value for right and right eye for each of the thirteen subjects. The depicted value is the mean from three consecutive measurements and the error is given by the standard deviation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Bland-Altman plot for first and second measurement for the 13 volunteers (26 eyes), showing the repeatability of the proposed instrument. (b) Bland-Altman plot for right and left eye showing the agreement between right and left eye.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) MPOD value for a total of 19 eyes using the psychophysical MPS II instrument. The value is the mean of three consecutive valid measurements and the error is given by the standard deviation. (b) Bland-Altman plot for first and second measurement for the 10 volunteers (19 eyes), showing the repeatability of the psychophysical MPS II instrument.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) MPOD using our proposed optical method vs MPOD using the commercial psychophysical device MPS II for a total of 10 volunteers (19 eyes). The value in both cases is the mean of three consecutive measurements.(b) Bland-Altman plot, investigating the agreement between the two methods.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M P O D ( r , θ , 460 ) = 0.5 K M P B K M P G { log 10 R P B R P G l o g 10 R F G ( r , θ ) R F B ( r , θ ) } .
M P O D ( 460 ) = 0.5 K M P B K M P G { log 10 R P B R P G l o g 10 r = 0 o 1.75 o θ = 0 2 π R F G ( r , θ ) r = 0 o 1.75 o θ = 0 2 π R F B ( r , θ )   } .
M P O D * ( θ x , θ y ) = l o g 10 R F G ( θ x , θ y ) R F B ( θ x , θ y ) .

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