Abstract

Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) lumen-based computational flow dynamics (CFD) enables physiologic evaluations such as of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) and wall sheer stress. In this study, we developed an accurate, time-efficient method for extracting lumen contours of the coronary artery. The contours of cross-sectional images containing wide intimal discontinuities due to guide wire shadowing and large bifurcations were delineated by utilizing the natural longitudinal lumen continuity of the arteries. Our algorithm was applied to 5931 pre-intervention OCT images acquired from 40 patients. For a quantitative comparison, the images were also processed through manual segmentation (the reference standard) and automated ones utilizing cross-sectional and longitudinal continuities. The results showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms other schemes, exhibiting a strong correlation (R = 0.988) and overlapping and non-overlapping area ratios of 0.931 and 0.101, respectively. To examine the accuracy of the OCT-derived FFR calculated using the proposed scheme, a CFD simulation of a three-dimensional coronary geometry was performed. The strong correlation with a manual lumen-derived FFR (R = 0.978) further demonstrated the reliability and accuracy of our algorithm with potential applications in clinical settings.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. L. Olender, L. S. Athanasiou, J. M. de la Torre Hernández, E. Ben-Assa, F. R. Nezami, and E. R. Edelman, “A mechanical approach for smooth surface fitting to delineate vessel walls in optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(6), 1384–1397 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, B. He, Z. Ding, K. Tao, T. Lai, H. Kuang, R. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Zheng, J. Zheng, and T. Liu, “Automatic Lumen Segmentation in Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Using Morphological Features,” IEEE Access 7, 88859–88869 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

L. Athanasiou, F. R. Nezami, M. Z. Galon, A. C. Lopes, P. A. Lemos, J. M. de la Torre Hernandez, E. Ben-Assa, and E. R. Edelman, “Optimized computer-aided segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction using intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 22(4), 1168–1176 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

C. Chiastra, E. Montin, M. Bologna, S. Migliori, C. Aurigemma, F. Burzotta, S. Celi, G. Dubini, F. Migliavacca, and L. Mainardi, “Reconstruction of stented coronary arteries from optical coherence tomography images: Feasibility, validation, and repeatability of a segmentation method,” PLoS One 12(6), e0177495 (2017).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Jang, J.-M. Ahn, B. Kim, J.-M. Gu, H. J. Sung, S.-J. Park, and W.-Y. Oh, “Comparison of accuracy of one-use methods for calculating fractional flow reserve by intravascular optical coherence tomography to that determined by the pressure-wire method,” Am. J. Cardiol. 120(11), 1920–1925 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Seike, T. Uetani, K. Nishimura, H. Kawakami, H. Higashi, J. Aono, T. Nagai, K. Inoue, J. Suzuki, H. Kawakami, T. Okura, K. Yasuda, J. Higaki, and S. Ikeda, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography-derived virtual fractional flow reserve for the assessment of coronary artery disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 120(10), 1772–1779 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

J. Ha, J. S. Kim, J. Lim, G. Kim, S. Lee, J. S. Lee, D. H. Shin, B. K. Kim, Y. G. Ko, D. Choi, Y. Jang, and M. Hong, “Assessing computational fractional flow reserve from optical coherence tomography in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis in the left anterior descending artery,” Circ.: Cardiovasc. Interventions 9(8), e003613 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. N. Chaudhury and S. D. Dabhade, “Fast and provably accurate bilateral filtering,” IEEE Trans. on Image Process. 25(6), 2519–2528 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. M. G. de Macedo, C. K. Takimura, P. A. Lemos, M. A. Gutierrez, M. M. G. de Macedo, C. K. Takimura, P. A. Lemos, and M. A. Gutierrez, “A robust fully automatic lumen segmentation method for in vivo intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Res. Biomed. Eng. 32(1), 35–43 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. S. Nam, C.-S. Kim, J. J. Lee, J. W. Song, J. W. Kim, and H. Yoo, “Automated detection of vessel lumen and stent struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography to evaluate stent apposition and neointimal coverage,” Med. Phys. 43(4), 1662–1675 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. G. Roy, S. Conjeti, S. G. Carlier, P. K. Dutta, A. Kastrati, A. F. Laine, N. Navab, A. Katouzian, and D. Sheet, “Lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography using backscattering tracked and Initialized Random Walks,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 20(2), 606–614 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Han, K. Kim, S.-J. Jang, H. S. Cho, B. E. Bouma, W.-Y. Oh, and S. Ryu, “GPU-accelerated framework for intracoronary optical coherence tomography imaging at the push of a button,” PLoS One 10(4), e0124192 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. C. Moraes, D. A. C. Cardenas, and S. S. Furuie, “Automatic lumen segmentation in IVOCT images using binary morphological reconstruction,” BioMed Eng OnLine 12(1), 78 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Narula, M. Nakano, R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, R. Petersen, R. Newcomb, S. Malik, V. Fuster, and A. V. Finn, “Histopathologic characteristics of atherosclerotic coronary disease and implications of the findings for the invasive and noninvasive detection of vulnerable plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 61(10), 1041–1051 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

A. Karanasos, J. Ligthart, K. Witberg, G. van Soest, N. Bruining, and E. Regar, “Optical coherence tomography: Potential clinical applications,” Curr. Cardiovasc. Imaging Rep. 5(4), 206–220 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Fedele, G. Biondi-Zoccai, P. Kwiatkowski, L. Di Vito, M. Occhipinti, A. Cremonesi, M. Albertucci, L. Materia, G. Paoletti, and F. Prati, “Reproducibility of coronary optical coherence tomography for lumen and length measurements in humans (The CLI-VAR [Centro per la Lotta contro l’Infarto-VARiability] study),” Am. J. Cardiol. 110(8), 1106–1112 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. Chamie, H. G. Bezerra, H. Yamamoto, J. Kanovsky, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Volumetric quantification of fibrous caps using intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1413–1426 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Fully automatic three-dimensional visualization of intravascular optical coherence tomography images: methods and feasibility in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3291–3303 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Tsantis, G. C. Kagadis, K. Katsanos, D. Karnabatidis, G. Bourantas, and G. C. Nikiforidis, “Automatic vessel lumen segmentation and stent strut detection in intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Med. Phys. 39(1), 503–513 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. C. Moraes and S. S. Furuie, “Automatic coronary wall segmentation in intravascular ultrasound images using binary morphological reconstruction,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 37(9), 1486–1499 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Sihan, C. Botha, F. Post, S. de Winter, N. Gonzalo, E. Regar, P. J. W. C. Serruys, R. Hamers, and N. Bruining, “Fully automatic three-dimensional quantitative analysis of intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 74(7), 1058–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Virmani, A. P. Burke, A. Farb, and F. D. Kolodgie, “Pathology of the vulnerable plaque,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 47(8), C13–C18 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adriaenssens, T.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Fully automatic three-dimensional visualization of intravascular optical coherence tomography images: methods and feasibility in vivo,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(12), 3291–3303 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-M.

S.-J. Jang, J.-M. Ahn, B. Kim, J.-M. Gu, H. J. Sung, S.-J. Park, and W.-Y. Oh, “Comparison of accuracy of one-use methods for calculating fractional flow reserve by intravascular optical coherence tomography to that determined by the pressure-wire method,” Am. J. Cardiol. 120(11), 1920–1925 (2017).
[Crossref]

Albertucci, M.

S. Fedele, G. Biondi-Zoccai, P. Kwiatkowski, L. Di Vito, M. Occhipinti, A. Cremonesi, M. Albertucci, L. Materia, G. Paoletti, and F. Prati, “Reproducibility of coronary optical coherence tomography for lumen and length measurements in humans (The CLI-VAR [Centro per la Lotta contro l’Infarto-VARiability] study),” Am. J. Cardiol. 110(8), 1106–1112 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alonso, A.

E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
[Crossref]

Alraies, C.

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aono, J.

F. Seike, T. Uetani, K. Nishimura, H. Kawakami, H. Higashi, J. Aono, T. Nagai, K. Inoue, J. Suzuki, H. Kawakami, T. Okura, K. Yasuda, J. Higaki, and S. Ikeda, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography-derived virtual fractional flow reserve for the assessment of coronary artery disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 120(10), 1772–1779 (2017).
[Crossref]

Athanasiou, L.

L. Athanasiou, F. R. Nezami, M. Z. Galon, A. C. Lopes, P. A. Lemos, J. M. de la Torre Hernandez, E. Ben-Assa, and E. R. Edelman, “Optimized computer-aided segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction using intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 22(4), 1168–1176 (2018).
[Crossref]

Athanasiou, L. S.

M. L. Olender, L. S. Athanasiou, J. M. de la Torre Hernández, E. Ben-Assa, F. R. Nezami, and E. R. Edelman, “A mechanical approach for smooth surface fitting to delineate vessel walls in optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(6), 1384–1397 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. S. Athanasiou, F. Rikhtegar, M. Z. Galon, A. C. Lopes, P. A. Lemos, and E. R. Edelman, “Fully automated lumen segmentation of intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” in Medical Imaging 2017: Image Processing (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2017), Vol. 10133, p. 101332I.

Aurigemma, C.

C. Chiastra, E. Montin, M. Bologna, S. Migliori, C. Aurigemma, F. Burzotta, S. Celi, G. Dubini, F. Migliavacca, and L. Mainardi, “Reconstruction of stented coronary arteries from optical coherence tomography images: Feasibility, validation, and repeatability of a segmentation method,” PLoS One 12(6), e0177495 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ben-Assa, E.

M. L. Olender, L. S. Athanasiou, J. M. de la Torre Hernández, E. Ben-Assa, F. R. Nezami, and E. R. Edelman, “A mechanical approach for smooth surface fitting to delineate vessel walls in optical coherence tomography images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(6), 1384–1397 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Athanasiou, F. R. Nezami, M. Z. Galon, A. C. Lopes, P. A. Lemos, J. M. de la Torre Hernandez, E. Ben-Assa, and E. R. Edelman, “Optimized computer-aided segmentation and three-dimensional reconstruction using intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 22(4), 1168–1176 (2018).
[Crossref]

Benjamin, E. J.

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E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
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A. G. Roy, S. Conjeti, S. G. Carlier, P. K. Dutta, A. Kastrati, A. F. Laine, N. Navab, A. Katouzian, and D. Sheet, “Lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography using backscattering tracked and Initialized Random Walks,” IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inform. 20(2), 606–614 (2016).
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E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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Petersen, R.

J. Narula, M. Nakano, R. Virmani, F. D. Kolodgie, R. Petersen, R. Newcomb, S. Malik, V. Fuster, and A. V. Finn, “Histopathologic characteristics of atherosclerotic coronary disease and implications of the findings for the invasive and noninvasive detection of vulnerable plaques,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 61(10), 1041–1051 (2013).
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S. Fedele, G. Biondi-Zoccai, P. Kwiatkowski, L. Di Vito, M. Occhipinti, A. Cremonesi, M. Albertucci, L. Materia, G. Paoletti, and F. Prati, “Reproducibility of coronary optical coherence tomography for lumen and length measurements in humans (The CLI-VAR [Centro per la Lotta contro l’Infarto-VARiability] study),” Am. J. Cardiol. 110(8), 1106–1112 (2012).
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Z. Wang, D. Chamie, H. G. Bezerra, H. Yamamoto, J. Kanovsky, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Volumetric quantification of fibrous caps using intravascular optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1413–1426 (2012).
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Rosamond, W. D.

E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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Roth, G. A.

E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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M. Han, K. Kim, S.-J. Jang, H. S. Cho, B. E. Bouma, W.-Y. Oh, and S. Ryu, “GPU-accelerated framework for intracoronary optical coherence tomography imaging at the push of a button,” PLoS One 10(4), e0124192 (2015).
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E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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Schmitt, J. M.

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
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Schroeder, E. B.

E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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F. Seike, T. Uetani, K. Nishimura, H. Kawakami, H. Higashi, J. Aono, T. Nagai, K. Inoue, J. Suzuki, H. Kawakami, T. Okura, K. Yasuda, J. Higaki, and S. Ikeda, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography-derived virtual fractional flow reserve for the assessment of coronary artery disease,” Am. J. Cardiol. 120(10), 1772–1779 (2017).
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Serruys, P. J. W. C.

K. Sihan, C. Botha, F. Post, S. de Winter, N. Gonzalo, E. Regar, P. J. W. C. Serruys, R. Hamers, and N. Bruining, “Fully automatic three-dimensional quantitative analysis of intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 74(7), 1058–1065 (2009).
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Shah, S. H.

E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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Sheet, D.

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Shin, D. H.

J. Ha, J. S. Kim, J. Lim, G. Kim, S. Lee, J. S. Lee, D. H. Shin, B. K. Kim, Y. G. Ko, D. Choi, Y. Jang, and M. Hong, “Assessing computational fractional flow reserve from optical coherence tomography in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis in the left anterior descending artery,” Circ.: Cardiovasc. Interventions 9(8), e003613 (2016).
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Sihan, K.

K. Sihan, C. Botha, F. Post, S. de Winter, N. Gonzalo, E. Regar, P. J. W. C. Serruys, R. Hamers, and N. Bruining, “Fully automatic three-dimensional quantitative analysis of intracoronary optical coherence tomography,” Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 74(7), 1058–1065 (2009).
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Sinnaeve, P.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, K. Onsea, P. Kayaert, C. Dubois, P. Sinnaeve, M. Coosemans, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automatic segmentation of in-vivo intra-coronary optical coherence tomography images to assess stent strut apposition and coverage,” Int. J. Cardiovasc Imaging 28(2), 229–241 (2012).
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Song, J. W.

H. S. Nam, C.-S. Kim, J. J. Lee, J. W. Song, J. W. Kim, and H. Yoo, “Automated detection of vessel lumen and stent struts in intravascular optical coherence tomography to evaluate stent apposition and neointimal coverage,” Med. Phys. 43(4), 1662–1675 (2016).
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Spartano, N. L.

E. J. Benjamin, P. Muntner, A. Alonso, M. S. Bittencourt, C. W. Callaway, A. P. Carson, A. M. Chamberlain, A. R. Chang, S. Cheng, S. R. Das, F. N. Delling, L. Djousse, M. S. V. Elkind, J. F. Ferguson, M. Fornage, L. C. Jordan, S. S. Khan, B. M. Kissela, K. L. Knutson, T. W. Kwan, D. T. Lackland, T. T. Lewis, J. H. Lichtman, C. T. Longenecker, M. S. Loop, P. L. Lutsey, S. S. Martin, K. Matsushita, A. E. Moran, M. E. Mussolino, M. O’Flaherty, A. Pandey, A. M. Perak, W. D. Rosamond, G. A. Roth, U. K. A. Sampson, G. M. Satou, E. B. Schroeder, S. H. Shah, N. L. Spartano, A. Stokes, D. L. Tirschwell, C. W. Tsao, M. P. Turakhia, L. B. VanWagner, J. T. Wilkins, S. S. Wong, and S. S. Virani, and on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee, “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2019 update: A report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation 139(10), e56–e528 (2019).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Workflow of the proposed methodology.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) OCT C-mode frame in Cartesian coordinates with a catheter ring and guide wire shadow, (b) Polar-transformed C-mode image with the catheter ring removed, and (c) Binarized polar cross-section showing intimal discontinuity originating from the guide wire shadow.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Frame marked as having a wide intimal discontinuity, (b) Angle of the A-line bisecting the discontinuity is identified, (c) L-mode image is generated by collating the corresponding A-lines of a sequence of frames, (d) L-mode interpolation, (e) Lumen point derived via L-mode interpolation is superimposed on a marked C-mode polar image, (f) C-mode interpolation, and (g) Extracted lumen contour.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) L-mode view showing narrow discontinuity, (b) Interpolation between endpoints leading to interpolant overshoot, (c) Derived point overshoot results in (d) overshoot of lumen contour; (e) Interpolation between points spaced five pixels away from the endpoint, resulting in improved interpolant, (f) Improved derived lumen point from L-mode interpolant, and (g) Improved lumen contour.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. CFD model and FFR simulation: (a) Coronary angiography of the left circumflex artery (b) Stacking of the OCT-derived lumens extracted using the proposed scheme, (c) 3D geometry after mesh generation, and (d) CFD computation for FFR calculation.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Exemplar segmentations showing (a) Reference manual contour, (b) C-mode only contour, (c) L-mode only contour, (d) Contour delineated using the proposed methodology, and (e) Contours from schemes superimposed for comparison.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Correlation graphs with manual segmentation as the gold standard, illustrating the segmentation accuracy with the proposed methodology versus that with C-mode only interpolants for (a) All frames of IVOCT pullback and (b) Frames containing wide intimal discontinuities.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) Correlation graphs with manual lumen-derived FFR as the gold standard, indicating the accuracy of the proposed scheme FFR over the C-mode FFR; (b) Illustrative example of CFD simulation of manual lumen-derived FFR, C-mode FFR, and proposed scheme FFR. Similar features of blood pressure can be seen in the manual lumen-derived CFD and proposed scheme CFD simulations; these are missing in the C-mode CFD simulation (circled).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Comparison of Lumen Contours Extracted using the Proposed Scheme with those Extracted using C-mode Interpolation only, L-mode Interpolation only, and Position Correction. For Comparison, the Evaluation Parameters R, Rover, Rnon-over, and Runtime (in s) are included. The Values inside the Brackets are those Obtained Considering Wide Discontinuity.

Equations (1)

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R o v e r = T P T P + F N , R n o n o v e r = F N + F P T P + F N

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