Abstract

A fiber-coupled near-infrared diode-laser sensor for stand-off measurements of gas temperature, pressure, and composition is presented. This sensor utilizes a fiber bundle with six multimode catch fibers surrounding one single-mode pitch fiber to transmit and receive backscattered laser light in a handheld transmitter/receiver. Scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with 1f-normalized 2f-detection and fast (80–200 kHz) wavelength modulation were used to provide calibration-free measurements and reduce the influence of spurious cavity noise formed by the overlapping transmitted and reflected laser light. Demonstrations include two-color measurements of temperature, pressure, and H2O near 1.4 μm in a propane flame at 2 kHz (SNR=200) and measurements of CH4 near 1.65 μm (SNR=20 to 1500) at stand-off distances of 15 cm and 10 m, respectively. The fraction of photons collected ranged from 104 to 1 parts per million at stand-off distances from 10 cm to 10 m, respectively, and is similar for aluminum and paper reflectors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. INTRODUCTION

Tunable diode-laser-absorption spectroscopy sensors can provide nonintrusive, in situ, species-specific measurements of gas properties in a wide range of practical environments (e.g., engines, power plants) [16]. During operation, the wavelength-specific transmission of laser light through an absorbing gas is measured and the absorption is compared with spectroscopic models to infer gas properties. In most applications, laser light is pitched across a line of sight with a laser or pitch fiber (i.e., the transmitter) on one end and a photodetector (i.e., receiver) on the other end. While this approach enables high-optical throughputs and, thus, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it is not applicable to many systems with limited optical access and prohibits stand-off gas monitoring.

To address this issue, several researchers have developed absorption spectroscopy sensors that operate by detecting laser light that is backscattered off native surfaces [79] or surfaces embedded into probes [3,1012]. Dubinsky et al. [7] first showed that reliable frequency-modulation spectroscopy (FMS) spectra could be obtained when collecting backscattered laser light and demonstrated this with measurements of iodine vapor. Later, Wainner et al. [8] developed a battery-powered, handheld FMS sensor for stand-off detection of methane at up to 30 m and with a sensitivity up to 4ppm-m/Hz. Most recently, Wang and Sanders [9] demonstrated the use of an off-axis (i.e., pitch and catch are not coaxial) wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) sensor for detecting H2O near 1350 nm and found that WMS-2f/1f spectra with high SNR (400) could be obtained off rough surfaces with low light collection [500 parts per million (ppm)].

Unique to our sensor is: (1) the use of a handheld, fiber-coupled transmitter and receiver that is (2) packaged in a coaxial fiber bundle with a single detached lens, and (3) the use of two-color scanned-WMS-2f/1f to enable (4) calibration-free stand-off measurements of gas temperature, pressure, and composition at (5) 200 to 2000 times greater bandwidth compared to past work. In our opinion, the primary advantage of our design, compared to past work, is that use of a fiber-coupled transmitter and receiver enables the laser, detector, and associated electronics to be detached, thereby reducing the weight and size of the light delivery and collection units, which (1) enables more practical utilization as a hand-held or wearable sensor, and (2) could facilitate the integration of such a sensor into a real-world system with limited optical access (e.g., an engine). Here we present the design and initial demonstration of this sensor with measurements of temperature, pressure, and composition in a flame at a stand-off distance of 15 cm and measurements of CH4 at a stand-off distance of 10 m. By using scanned-WMS-2f/1f with fast-wavelength modulation (100kHz)) we show that the influence of cavity noise (inherent to our coaxial pitch–catch arrangement) is reduced to acceptable levels, enabling measurements of absorption transition integrated areas and collisional widths with uncertainties of 1.5% and 3%, respectively, in both turbulent and quiescent gases.

2. SCANNED-WMS-2f/1f

In scanned-WMS-2f/1f, the nominal wavelength of a laser is injection-current scanned across an absorption transition while the instantaneous wavelength is rapidly (compared to the scan) sinusoidally modulated. WMS-2f/1f spectra are extracted from the detector signal during postprocessing using a digital lock-in filter [13]. By using 1f-normalization, the WMS spectra are independent of the detector gain and DC light intensity reaching the detector [14]. This attribute is vital to the operation of this sensor since the backscattered light intensity reaching the detector can vary widely during operation.

The scanned-WMS-2f/1f spectral fitting routine developed by Goldenstein et al. [15] (built off the simulation strategy of Sun et al. [16]) was used to provide calibration-free measurements of temperature, pressure, and composition. In this method, the time-varying transmitted light intensity, It(t), impinging on the detector is simulated according to Eq. (1),

It(t)=Io(t)exp[α(ν(t))]=Io(t)exp[jSj(T)PχAbsϕj(ν(t),νo,ΔνD,Δνc)L],
where Io(t) and ν(t) are the time-varying incident light intensity and optical frequency, respectively, of the sinusoidally scanned and modulated laser; α is the spectral absorbance; S(T) is the transition linestrength at temperature T; P is the gas pressure; χAbs is the absorbing species mole fraction; ϕ is the transition lineshape function (modeled as a Voigt profile); L is the path length through the absorbing gas; and j indicates a specific transition. For improved accuracy, measured time-histories of Io(t) were used in the simulation routine as recommended and described in [15]. It is important to note that changes in the DC light intensity during experimental measurements do not affect the accuracy of the spectral fitting routine. WMS signals are then extracted from the simulated It(t) using digital lock-in filters. Simulated signals are least-squares fit to measured WMS-2f/1f spectra with the transition integrated area (A=S(T)PχAbsL), collisional width (Δνc), and linecenter frequency (νo) as free parameters and the Doppler width (ΔνD) fixed to the value given by the two-color temperature. The best-fit parameters are used to calculate gas properties as done in [15].

3. SENSOR DESIGN

A. Hardware

Schematics of the fiber bundle (Neptec OS) and experimental setups are shown in Fig. 1. The bundle consists of one single-mode fiber (Corning SMF-28) for transmitting laser light and six multimode fibers (105 μm, NA=0.22) equally spaced around the perimeter for receiving the backscattered laser light. These parameters were dictated by the availability of the fiber bundle and, as a result, were not selected as an optimized design. On the transmitting/receiving end, all fibers are enclosed in a single FC-PC termination. On the opposite end, the six multimode fibers are split off into a single arm that directs the collected laser light to an InGaAs detector (Thorlabs PDA10CS) and the SMF-28 fiber is connected to the diode laser(s) directly or via a fiber combiner. The fiber bundle was mounted inside a lens tube with a single anti-reflection-coated plano–convex lens (d=25.4mm, f=60mm or d=50.8mm, f=125mm) for a lightweight (0.15kg), handheld transmitter/receiver. No laser light was detected in the absence of external (i.e., outside the lens tube) backscattering media. For a given stand-off distance, the fiber bundle was positioned at a distance outside the focal length of the lens to focus the laser beam onto the target (i.e., reflector). This was done to maximize the collection efficiency at a given stand-off distance. This adjustment was performed manually by visually monitoring the spot size of a multiplexed visible beam. Figure 2 shows the fraction of light collected as a function of stand-off distance for matte aluminum and paper reflectors. The fraction of photons collected was determined using the known wavelength and measured values of incident (i.e., exiting the pitch fiber) and collected (i.e., exiting the catch fibers) optical powers (measured with a commercially available fiber-coupled power meter). Collection efficiencies were largest using diffuse reflectors (e.g., matte metal, paper, wood, drywall) and smallest for specular reflectors (e.g., polished metal). For both reflectors, the fraction collected decreases with increasing stand-off distance with a slope near 2 (on a log-log scale), consistent with a 1/L2 dependence. However, some nonlinear trends were observed, perhaps due to the spot size of the focused beam (1–10 mm in diameter) also varying with stand-off distance. Interestingly, the 50.8 mm diameter lens did not systematically outperform the 25.4 mm lens, but this is likely due to the fact that the longer focal length 50.8 mm lens produced a considerably (34×) larger spot size on the target.

 

Fig. 1. Experimental setup for backscattered WMS-2f/1f measurements of temperature, pressure, and H2O in a flame (left) and CH4 concentration (right).

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Fig. 2. Fraction of incident photons collected as a function of stand-off distance.

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Distributed-feedback diode lasers (NEL America) producing 20mW near 1391.7, 1343.3, and 1651.0 nm were used to measure temperature, H2O, and CH4. Tables 1 and 2 present the most relevant spectroscopic parameters of the transitions of interest. During temperature and H2O measurements, the lasers near 1391.7 and 1343.3 nm were injection-current scanned across their respective H2O transitions with a 1 kHz sine wave (yielding measurements at 2 kHz due to the up-scan and down-scan) and were frequency-multiplexed with modulation frequencies (fm) of 160 and 200 kHz and modulation depths (am) of 0.09 and 0.06cm1, respectively. Approximately 20 μW (1000 ppm after coupling losses) per laser was collected and the detector gain was set to 30 dB (775 kHz bandwidth). During CH4 measurements, the laser near 1651 nm was scanned across the four blended CH4 transitions near 6057.09cm1 [17] with a 100 Hz sine wave and modulated at 80 kHz with am=0.145cm1. The detector gain was set to 40 dB (320 kHz bandwidth) and 100nW (5 ppm) was collected. During all experiments, a 16 bit data acquisition system (National Instruments) was used to generate and collect all signals at a sampling rate of 2 MHz. 0.6 and 20 kHz Butterworth filters were used to extract WMS-2f/1f spectra for CH4 and H2O transitions, respectively. All modulation depths were chosen to maximize 2f signals.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Frequency, Strength, and Lower-State Energy of the Absorption Transitions Useda

Tables Icon

Table 2. Collisional-Broadening Parameters of the H2O Transition Near 7185.59cm1a

B. Selection of Modulation Frequency

In this sensor the transmitted and reflected light rays overlap each other, which can lead to cavity noise analogous to that seen in cavity-enhanced absorption experiments [20]. Figure 3 (left) shows the raw detector signal using the experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 (left) with a scan frequency of fs=100Hz and fm=10kHz or 160 kHz and equal modulation depths (am=0.09cm1). For fm=10kHz, large amplitude noise indicative of cavity-like resonances is obvious throughout the modulation period and reaches a maximum near the top and bottom of the modulation envelope [see arrows in Fig. 3 (left)] due to dν/dt approaching zero. Figure 3 (right) shows that this cavity noise propagates into the WMS-2f/1f spectra obtained using a 3 kHz digital lock-in filter, leading to highly distorted WMS-2f/1f spectra. In contrast, with fm=160kHz, the cavity-like noise is heavily reduced due to the 16× larger dν/dt and is now only obvious near the top and bottom of the modulation envelope. Similarly, the cavity noise is nearly unobservable in the WMS-2f/1f spectra with fm=160kHz. This reduction in cavity noise via fast wavelength scanning has been noted by others in off-axis-ICOS experiments [20]. Undistorted WMS-2f/1f spectra were observed with fm>100kHz, complementing the recent findings of Wang and Sanders [9] who showed that WMS with fm>100kHz substantially reduces speckle noise. It should be noted that the observed cavity noise can be reduced in the 2f/1f signal by using narrower lock-in filters. However, this is not always a viable option for rejecting noise since using narrower filters reduces the sensor’s bandwidth (in the case of fixed WMS) and relatively wide filters (e.g., 20 kHz passband for the 1 kHz scanning here) are needed to pass entire scanned-WMS signals [6]. As a result, the preferred method to reject this cavity noise is fast wavelength modulation.

 

Fig. 3. Raw detector signal for backscattered WMS-2f/1f experiment at nonresonant wavelengths (left) and WMS-2f/1f absorption spectra (right) with fm=10 and 160 kHz.

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4. SHORT-PATH DEMONSTRATION: T, P, and H2O SENSING

Measurements of temperature, pressure, and H2O were acquired in an unsteady propane flame (see Fig. 4) to demonstrate the potential for high-bandwidth single-ended monitoring of practical combustion systems. A rigorous discussion regarding the influence of line-of-sight nonuniformities and design considerations for mitigating their impact can be found in [21]. With the flame on, recorded emission levels reached 0.3 V (10% of the total signal) and varied at frequencies fm. High-fidelity WMS-2f/1f spectra were acquired for both transitions throughout the flame with SNRs typically near 200 enabling best-fit WMS-2f/1f spectra within 2.5% of the peak signal near the linecenter. The 95% confidence interval (calculated using Matlab’s nlinfit function) of the best-fit integrated areas and collisional widths (used to calculate gas properties) were less than 1.5% and 3%, respectively. For calculating the H2O mole fraction in the flame, the path length was estimated to be 2.5 cm (single pass) from the span of visible flame emission. The ambient H2O absorption was accounted for in the scanned-WMS model as described in [15]. The transmitted intensity of each scanned and modulated laser was recorded with only ambient absorption present (i.e., the flame off) and was then defined as the laser-specific Io(t) in the scanned-WMS model used to simulate scanned-WMS signals acquired in the flame. In this case, this method will incorrectly remove the contribution of ambient absorption, across the 2.5 cm portion of the beam path, from the integrated area measured once the flame is ignited. As a result, this portion of the integrated area (calculated using known ambient H2O and temperature) was added back to integrated areas measured with the flame on before calculating gas properties.

 

Fig. 4. Example measured and best-fit WMS-2f/1f spectra for H2O transitions (corresponding to t=0.1s) (left) and time-resolved temperature and H2O mole fraction acquired in a turbulent propane flame using the experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 (left).

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The average steady-state flame temperature was 1470 K, which agrees relatively well with that of uncorrected thermocouple measurements, 1250–1540 K, acquired along the measurement path. The high-bandwidth WMS temperature measurements indicate that the flame temperature oscillates ±175K at near 10 Hz and ±35K at higher frequencies; some of the latter may be attributed to sensor noise. The H2O mole fraction oscillates in phase with temperature (see Fig. 4 zoom inset) indicating that these fluctuations result from variations in local combustion efficiency. For comparison, adiabatic flame temperatures for propane-air flames were calculated for equivalence ratios of 0.45 to 0.70 (chosen to produce the measured span of χH2O0.07 to 0.11) using constant enthalpy-pressure equilibrium calculations. The corresponding change in adiabatic flame temperature between these two cases was 472 K, which is similar, given the many embedded approximations, to the corresponding measured temperature oscillation of 350K (i.e., ±175K). It is worth noting that the temperature sensitivity, defined as the unit change in two-color ratio per unit change in temperature, for this sensor varies from 3.65 to 0.65 as the temperature is increased from 298 to 1700 K. If increased temperature sensitivity is desired (e.g., for cases with lower SNR than here), the transition near 7185.59cm1 could be paired with that near 6806.03cm1 (E=3291cm1) for larger temperature sensitivity, as done in [22].

With the torch at quasi-steady state (0 to 0.75 s), the best-fit collisional width of the transition near 1391.7 nm combined with empirical models for temperature-dependent H2O-, CO2-, and N2-broadening coefficients (see Table 2) recovered the known pressure (1 atm) to within 1.8% with a 2σ precision of ±7%. We assumed χCO2=0.75χH2O when calculating the collisional-broadening coefficient of the mixture.

Near 0.75 s, the flame was turned off to produce a known transient and near 1.2 s the flame briefly reignited. With the flame off, the sensor recovered the ambient temperature, pressure, and H2O concentration within 3(±1)K, 1(±0.75)%, and 1.5(±0.3)%, respectively (the known concentration of ambient H2O was measured using direct absorption spectroscopy). The larger scatter associated with the pressure measurement in the flame results from the combined uncertainty in temperature, composition, and collisional-broadening coefficients.

5. LONG-PATH DEMONSTRATION: CH4 SENSING

Measurements of methane in the ambient at a stand-off distance of 10 m were acquired to demonstrate the utility of this sensor at long distances. Figure 5 shows time-resolved methane concentration during the formation of a simulated CH4 leak. Initially, measurements were conducted with a 1 Hz bandwidth (100 raw scans were averaged before lock-in filtering) and a detection limit of 5ppm-m/Hz was obtained. The sensor bandwidth was increased to 100 Hz (i.e., no scan averaging) 4 s into the test to resolve the evolution of a CH4 plume formed by opening a balloon filled with methane. After opening the balloon, path-averaged concentrations of CH4 as high as 2×103ppm (i.e., 2×104ppm-m) were measured. The SNR of the WMS-2f/1f signal near the linecenter ranged from 21 (with 100 ppm-m of CH4) to 1500 (with 2×104ppm-m); the noise level was taken from the WMS-2f/1f signal at nonresonant wavelengths. The CH4 concentration was calculated using the line strengths of the four CH4 lines given in the HITRAN2012 database [17] (see Table 1).

 

Fig. 5. Time-resolved CH4 concentration during a simulated CH4 leak.

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6. CONCLUSIONS

A single-ended, fiber-coupled laser-absorption sensor with a portable, handheld transmitter/receiver has been presented. This sensor operates by collecting wavelength-modulated laser light that has been backscattered off native surfaces located 10 cm to 10 m away while collecting 10,000 to 1 ppm of the incident photons, respectively. Calibration-free measurements of temperature, pressure, and composition in an unsteady propane flame and time-resolved CH4 monitoring were presented. By using scanned-WMS-2f/1f spectral fitting with modulation frequencies near 100 kHz and above, the influence of cavity-like noise was mitigated, enabling the determination of integrated absorbance areas and collisional widths with uncertainties of 1.5% and 3%, respectively.

Funding

Office of Naval Research (ONR); Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank Bryan Paolini of Neptec OS for many insightful discussions regarding the fiber bundle. This work was supported by ONR with Dr. Knox Millsaps as technical monitor and by AFOSR with Dr. Chiping Li as technical monitor.

REFERENCES

1. R. K. Hanson, “Applications of quantitative laser sensors to kinetics, propulsion and practical energy systems,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2011), Vol. 33, pp. 1–40.

2. M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998). [CrossRef]  

3. G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

4. A. W. Caswell, S. Roy, X. An, S. T. Sanders, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2893–2904 (2013). [CrossRef]  

5. O. Witzel, A. Klein, C. Meffert, S. Wagner, S. Kaiser, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “VCSEL-based, high-speed, in situ TDLAS for in-cylinder water vapor measurements in IC engines,” Opt. Express 21, 19951–19965 (2013). [CrossRef]  

6. C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

7. I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998). [CrossRef]  

8. R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002). [CrossRef]  

9. Z. Wang and S. T. Sanders, “Toward single-ended absorption spectroscopy probes based on backscattering from rough surfaces: H2O vapor measurements near 1350  nm,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 187–192 (2015).

10. K. D. Rein and S. T. Sanders, “Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in reciprocating engines,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4728–4734 (2010). [CrossRef]  

11. J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010). [CrossRef]  

12. C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

13. G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009). [CrossRef]  

14. D. Cassidy and J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982). [CrossRef]  

15. C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014). [CrossRef]  

16. K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

17. L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013). [CrossRef]  

18. C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015). [CrossRef]  

19. K. Sun, “Utilization of multiple harmonics of wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy for practical gas sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2013).

20. E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008). [CrossRef]  

21. C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013). [CrossRef]  

22. C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

References

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  1. R. K. Hanson, “Applications of quantitative laser sensors to kinetics, propulsion and practical energy systems,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2011), Vol. 33, pp. 1–40.
  2. M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.
  4. A. W. Caswell, S. Roy, X. An, S. T. Sanders, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2893–2904 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. O. Witzel, A. Klein, C. Meffert, S. Wagner, S. Kaiser, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “VCSEL-based, high-speed, in situ TDLAS for in-cylinder water vapor measurements in IC engines,” Opt. Express 21, 19951–19965 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).
  7. I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  9. Z. Wang and S. T. Sanders, “Toward single-ended absorption spectroscopy probes based on backscattering from rough surfaces: H2O vapor measurements near 1350  nm,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 187–192 (2015).
  10. K. D. Rein and S. T. Sanders, “Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in reciprocating engines,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4728–4734 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).
  13. G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. Cassidy and J. Reid, “Atmospheric pressure monitoring of trace gases using tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1185–1190 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).
  17. L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Sun, “Utilization of multiple harmonics of wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy for practical gas sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2013).
  20. E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

2015 (2)

Z. Wang and S. T. Sanders, “Toward single-ended absorption spectroscopy probes based on backscattering from rough surfaces: H2O vapor measurements near 1350  nm,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 187–192 (2015).

C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

2013 (5)

A. W. Caswell, S. Roy, X. An, S. T. Sanders, F. R. Schauer, and J. R. Gord, “Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Opt. 52, 2893–2904 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, C. Meffert, S. Wagner, S. Kaiser, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “VCSEL-based, high-speed, in situ TDLAS for in-cylinder water vapor measurements in IC engines,” Opt. Express 21, 19951–19965 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. D. Rein and S. T. Sanders, “Fourier-transform absorption spectroscopy in reciprocating engines,” Appl. Opt. 49, 4728–4734 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Allen, M. G.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Allen, N.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Almodovar, C. A.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

Amann, M.-C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

An, X.

Anderson, J. G.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cassidy, D.

Caswell, A. W.

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chao, X.

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cohen, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Drouin, B.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dubinsky, I.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ebert, V.

Engel, G.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Field, R. W.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goldenstein, C. S.

C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gord, J. R.

Gordon, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Green, B.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hangauer, A.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R. K.

C. S. Goldenstein and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser measurements of linestrength and temperature-dependent lineshape parameters for H2O transitions near 1.4  μm using Voigt, Rautian, Galatry, and speed-dependent Voigt profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 152, 127–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. K. Hanson, “Applications of quantitative laser sensors to kinetics, propulsion and practical energy systems,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2011), Vol. 33, pp. 1–40.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Harrison, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeffries, J. B.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

C. S. Goldenstein, C. A. Almodovar, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “High-bandwidth scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy sensors for temperature and H2O in a rotating detonation engine,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 105104 (2014).

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

C. S. Goldenstein, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Two-color absorption spectroscopy strategy for measuring the column density and path average temperature of the absorbing species in nonuniform gases,” Appl. Opt. 52, 7950–7962 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, S.

Kakuho, A.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Keutsch, F.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kindle, H.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Klein, A.

Kroll, J.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Liu, J. T. C.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Liu, X.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Long, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyulin, O.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Massie, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matsuura, T.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Meffert, C.

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moyer, E.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mulhall, P.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Müller, H.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naper, R.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Polovtseva, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reid, J.

Rein, K. D.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

Rybak, K.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sanders, S. T.

Sayres, D.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schauer, F. R.

Schultz, I. A.

Schulz, C.

Sholes, K. R.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Smith, C. H.

C. H. Smith, C. S. Goldenstein, and R. K. Hanson, “A scanned-wavelength-modulation absorption-spectroscopy sensor for temperature and H2O in low-pressure flames,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 115501 (2014).

Smith, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spearrin, R. M.

C. S. Goldenstein, R. M. Spearrin, I. A. Schultz, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4  μm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-temperature and pressure gases,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 25, 055101 (2014).

St.Clair, J.

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stafford-Evans, J.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Steinfeld, J. I.

I. Dubinsky, K. Rybak, J. I. Steinfeld, and R. W. Field, “Frequency-modulation-enhanced remote sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 481–492 (1998).
[Crossref]

Strand, C. L.

Strzoda, R.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “Laser spectroscopic oxygen sensor using diffuse reflector based optical cell and advanced signal processing,” Appl. Phys. B 100, 417–425 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, K.

C. S. Goldenstein, C. L. Strand, I. A. Schultz, K. Sun, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Fitting of calibration-free scanned-wavelength-modulation spectroscopy spectra for determination of gas properties and absorption lineshapes,” Appl. Opt. 53, 356–367 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

K. Sun, “Utilization of multiple harmonics of wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy for practical gas sensing,” Ph.D. thesis (Stanford University, 2013).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sur, R.

K. Sun, X. Chao, R. Sur, C. S. Goldenstein, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Analysis of calibration-free wavelength-scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy for practical gas sensing using tunable diode lasers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24, 125203 (2013).

Takatani, S.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toon, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. Cohen, L. Coudert, V. Devi, B. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. Le Roy, G. Li, D. Long, O. Lyulin, C. Mackie, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. Müller, O. Naumenko, A. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, S.

Wainner, R.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and S. T. Sanders, “Toward single-ended absorption spectroscopy probes based on backscattering from rough surfaces: H2O vapor measurements near 1350  nm,” Appl. Phys. B 121, 187–192 (2015).

Wehe, S. D.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. Mulhall, H. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” in Proceedings of the Combustion Institute (Elsevier, 2007), Vol. 31, pp. 3041–3049.

White, M.

R. Wainner, B. Green, M. G. Allen, M. White, J. Stafford-Evans, and R. Naper, “Handheld, battery-powered near-IR TDL sensor for stand-off detection of gas and vapor plumes,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 249–254 (2002).
[Crossref]

Witzel, O.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (5)

E. Moyer, D. Sayres, G. Engel, J. St.Clair, F. Keutsch, N. Allen, J. Kroll, and J. G. Anderson, “Design considerations in high-sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 467–474 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup for backscattered WMS - 2 f / 1 f measurements of temperature, pressure, and H 2 O in a flame (left) and CH 4 concentration (right).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Fraction of incident photons collected as a function of stand-off distance.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Raw detector signal for backscattered WMS - 2 f / 1 f experiment at nonresonant wavelengths (left) and WMS - 2 f / 1 f absorption spectra (right) with f m = 10 and 160 kHz.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Example measured and best-fit WMS - 2 f / 1 f spectra for H 2 O transitions (corresponding to t = 0.1 s ) (left) and time-resolved temperature and H 2 O mole fraction acquired in a turbulent propane flame using the experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 (left).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Time-resolved CH 4 concentration during a simulated CH 4 leak.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Frequency, Strength, and Lower-State Energy of the Absorption Transitions Used a

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Table 2. Collisional-Broadening Parameters of the H 2 O Transition Near 7185.59 cm 1 a

Equations (1)

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I t ( t ) = I o ( t ) exp [ α ( ν ( t ) ) ] = I o ( t ) exp [ j S j ( T ) P χ A b s ϕ j ( ν ( t ) , ν o , Δ ν D , Δ ν c ) L ] ,

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