Abstract

A series of controlled grinding experiments, utilizing loose or fixed abrasives of either alumina or diamond at various particle sizes, were performed on a wide range of optical workpiece materials [single crystals of Al2O3 (sapphire), SiC, Y3Al5O12 (YAG), CaF2, and LiB3O5 (LBO); a SiO2Al2O3P2O5Li2O glass ceramic (Zerodur); and glasses of SiO2:TiO2 (ULE), SiO2 (fused silica), and P2O5Al2O3K2OBaO (phosphate)]. The material removal rate, surface roughness, and morphology of surface fractures were measured. Separately, Vickers indentation was performed on the workpieces, and the depths of various crack types as a function of applied load was measured. Single pass grinding experiments showed distinct differences in the spatial pattern of surface fracturing between the loose alumina abrasive (isolated indent-type lateral cracking) and the loose or fixed diamond abrasive (scratch-type elongated lateral cracking). Each of the grinding methods had a removal rate and roughness that scaled with the lateral crack slope, s (i.e., the rate of increase in lateral crack depth with the applied load) of the workpiece material. A grinding model (based on the volumetric removal of lateral cracks accounting for neighboring lateral crack removal efficiency and the fraction of abrasive particles leading to fracture initiation) and a roughness model (based on the depth of lateral cracks or the interface gap between the workpiece and lap) are shown to quantitatively describe the material removal rate and roughness as a function of workpiece material, abrasive size, applied pressure, and relative velocity. This broad, multiprocess variable grinding model can serve as a predictive tool for estimating grinding rates and surface roughness for various grinding processes on different workpiece materials.

© 2019 Optical Society of America

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