Abstract

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most widely used material for thermal plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used to protect gas turbine engine parts in demanding operation environments. The superior material properties of YSZ coatings are related to their internal porosity level. By quantifying the porosity level, tighter control on the spraying process can be achieved to produce reliable coatings. Currently, destructive measurement methods are widely used to measure the porosity level. In this paper, we describe a novel nondestructive approach that is applicable to classify the porosity level of plasma sprayed YSZ TBCs via Mueller matrix polarimetry. A rotating retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter was used to measure the polarization properties of the plasma sprayed YSZ coatings with different porosity levels. From these measurements, it was determined that a sample’s measured depolarization ratio is dependent on the sample’s surface roughness and porosity level. To this end, we correlate the depolarization ratio with the samples’ surface roughness, as measured by a contact profilometer, as well as the total porosity level, in percentage measured using a micrograph and stereological analysis. With the use of this technique, a full-field and rapid measurement of porosity level can be achieved.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (1)

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Sobhanverdi and A. Akbari, “Porosity and microstructural features of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings,” Ceram. Int. 41, 14517–14528 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. A. Gan and C. C. Berndt, “Quantification and taxonomy of pores in thermal spray coatings by image analysis and stereology approach,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 44, 4844–4858 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

S. Sampath, U. Schulz, M. O. Jarligo, and S. Kuroda, “Processing science of advanced thermal-barrier systems,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 903–910 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. R. Clarke, M. Oechsner, and N. P. Padture, “Thermal-barrier coatings for more efficient gas-turbine engines,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 891–898 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 110801 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. von Bradke, F. Gitzhofer, and R. Henne, “Porosity determination of ceramic materials by digital image analysis--a critical evaluation,” Scanning 27, 132–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang and V. Desai, “Evaluation of thickness, porosity and pore shape of plasma sprayed TBC by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 190, 98–109 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. A. Boukamp, “Impedance spectroscopy, strength and limitations (Impedanzspektroskopie, Stärken und Grenzen),” tm-Technisches Messen/Sensoren, Geräte, Systeme 71, 454–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Deshpande, A. Kulkarni, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Application of image analysis for characterization of porosity in thermal spray coatings and correlation with small angle neutron scattering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 187, 6–16 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Kulkarni, A. Vaidya, A. Goland, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Processing effects on porosity-property correlations in plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359, 100–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

N. P. Padture, M. Gell, and E. H. Jordan, “Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications,” Science 296, 280–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. H. Smith, “Optimization of a dual-rotating-retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2488–2493 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Andreola, C. Leonelli, M. Romagnoli, and P. Miselli, “Techniques used to determine porosity,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 79(7), 49–52 (2000).

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S.-H. Leigh and C. C. Berndt, “Quantitative evaluation of void distributions within a plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 17–21 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Ilavsky, C. C. Berndt, and J. Karthikeyan, “Mercury intrusion porosimetry of plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 32, 3925–3932 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1992 (2)

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 1746, 231–246 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. H. Goldstein, “Mueller matrix dual-rotating retarder polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6676–6683 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1987 (2)

E. R. Mendez and K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. A. Miller, “Current status of thermal barrier coatings — An overview,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 30, 1–11 (1987).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

1967 (1)

G. Valenzuela, “Depolarization of EM waves by slightly rough surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 15, 552–557 (1967).
[Crossref]

Akbari, A.

R. Sobhanverdi and A. Akbari, “Porosity and microstructural features of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings,” Ceram. Int. 41, 14517–14528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alexander, P.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Allen, A. J.

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

Anandan, P.

J. R. Bergen, P. Anandan, K. J. Hanna, and R. Hingorani, “Hierarchical model-based motion estimation,” in 2nd European Conference on Computer Vision (1992), pp. 237–252.

Andreola, F.

F. Andreola, C. Leonelli, M. Romagnoli, and P. Miselli, “Techniques used to determine porosity,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 79(7), 49–52 (2000).

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bergen, J. R.

J. R. Bergen, P. Anandan, K. J. Hanna, and R. Hingorani, “Hierarchical model-based motion estimation,” in 2nd European Conference on Computer Vision (1992), pp. 237–252.

Berndt, C. C.

J. A. Gan and C. C. Berndt, “Quantification and taxonomy of pores in thermal spray coatings by image analysis and stereology approach,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 44, 4844–4858 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Leigh and C. C. Berndt, “Quantitative evaluation of void distributions within a plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 17–21 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Ilavsky, C. C. Berndt, and J. Karthikeyan, “Mercury intrusion porosimetry of plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 32, 3925–3932 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, H. L.

H. L. Bernstein, “High temperature coatings for industrial gas turbine users,” in 28th Turbomachinery Symposium (1999), pp. 179–188.

Blumer, R. V.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (CUP Archive, 1999).

Boukamp, B. A.

B. A. Boukamp, “Impedance spectroscopy, strength and limitations (Impedanzspektroskopie, Stärken und Grenzen),” tm-Technisches Messen/Sensoren, Geräte, Systeme 71, 454–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boulos, M. I.

K. Mailot, F. Gitzhofer, and M. I. Boulos, “Absolute coating porosity measurement using image analysis,” in 15th International Thermal Spray Conference (1998), Vol. 1, pp. 917–922.

Broch, L.

Chenault, D. B.

Chipman, R. A.

Clarke, D. R.

D. R. Clarke, M. Oechsner, and N. P. Padture, “Thermal-barrier coatings for more efficient gas-turbine engines,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 891–898 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cockell, C. S.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cotell, C. M.

C. M. Cotell, J. A. Sprague, and F. A. Smidt, ASM Handbook: Surface Engineering (ASM International, 1994), Vol. 5.

Darlington, R. B.

R. B. Darlington and A. F. Hayes, Regression Analysis and Linear Models: Concepts, Applications, and Implementation (Guilford Publications, 2016).

Desai, V.

J. Zhang and V. Desai, “Evaluation of thickness, porosity and pore shape of plasma sprayed TBC by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 190, 98–109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, S.

S. Deshpande, A. Kulkarni, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Application of image analysis for characterization of porosity in thermal spray coatings and correlation with small angle neutron scattering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 187, 6–16 (2004).
[Crossref]

Diebold, A. C.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dixit, D. J.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gan, J. A.

J. A. Gan and C. C. Berndt, “Quantification and taxonomy of pores in thermal spray coatings by image analysis and stereology approach,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 44, 4844–4858 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gell, M.

N. P. Padture, M. Gell, and E. H. Jordan, “Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications,” Science 296, 280–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

Germer, T. A.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, N.

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 110801 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gitzhofer, F.

M. von Bradke, F. Gitzhofer, and R. Henne, “Porosity determination of ceramic materials by digital image analysis--a critical evaluation,” Scanning 27, 132–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Mailot, F. Gitzhofer, and M. I. Boulos, “Absolute coating porosity measurement using image analysis,” in 15th International Thermal Spray Conference (1998), Vol. 1, pp. 917–922.

Goland, A.

A. Kulkarni, A. Vaidya, A. Goland, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Processing effects on porosity-property correlations in plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359, 100–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, D. H.

Goldstein, D. L.

Goto, Y.

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guyot, S.

Hanna, K. J.

J. R. Bergen, P. Anandan, K. J. Hanna, and R. Hingorani, “Hierarchical model-based motion estimation,” in 2nd European Conference on Computer Vision (1992), pp. 237–252.

Hayes, A. F.

R. B. Darlington and A. F. Hayes, Regression Analysis and Linear Models: Concepts, Applications, and Implementation (Guilford Publications, 2016).

Henne, R.

M. von Bradke, F. Gitzhofer, and R. Henne, “Porosity determination of ceramic materials by digital image analysis--a critical evaluation,” Scanning 27, 132–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

Herman, H.

S. Deshpande, A. Kulkarni, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Application of image analysis for characterization of porosity in thermal spray coatings and correlation with small angle neutron scattering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 187, 6–16 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Kulkarni, A. Vaidya, A. Goland, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Processing effects on porosity-property correlations in plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359, 100–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hesse, E.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hingorani, R.

J. R. Bergen, P. Anandan, K. J. Hanna, and R. Hingorani, “Hierarchical model-based motion estimation,” in 2nd European Conference on Computer Vision (1992), pp. 237–252.

Hosler, E. R.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hough, J. H.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Howe, J. D.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ilavsky, J.

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Ilavsky, C. C. Berndt, and J. Karthikeyan, “Mercury intrusion porosimetry of plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 32, 3925–3932 (1997).
[Crossref]

Inagaki, H.

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ivan, K.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jarkko, K.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jarligo, M. O.

S. Sampath, U. Schulz, M. O. Jarligo, and S. Kuroda, “Processing science of advanced thermal-barrier systems,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 903–910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johann, L.

Jordan, E. H.

N. P. Padture, M. Gell, and E. H. Jordan, “Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications,” Science 296, 280–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kai-Erik, P.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kamineni, V.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karthikeyan, J.

J. Ilavsky, C. C. Berndt, and J. Karthikeyan, “Mercury intrusion porosimetry of plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 32, 3925–3932 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kaye, P. H.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krishnan, S.

Kulkarni, A.

S. Deshpande, A. Kulkarni, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Application of image analysis for characterization of porosity in thermal spray coatings and correlation with small angle neutron scattering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 187, 6–16 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Kulkarni, A. Vaidya, A. Goland, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Processing effects on porosity-property correlations in plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359, 100–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, S.

S. Sampath, U. Schulz, M. O. Jarligo, and S. Kuroda, “Processing science of advanced thermal-barrier systems,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 903–910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref]

Leigh, S.-H.

S.-H. Leigh and C. C. Berndt, “Quantitative evaluation of void distributions within a plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 17–21 (1999).
[Crossref]

Leonelli, C.

F. Andreola, C. Leonelli, M. Romagnoli, and P. Miselli, “Techniques used to determine porosity,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 79(7), 49–52 (2000).

Long, G. G.

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.-Y.

Mailot, K.

K. Mailot, F. Gitzhofer, and M. I. Boulos, “Absolute coating porosity measurement using image analysis,” in 15th International Thermal Spray Conference (1998), Vol. 1, pp. 917–922.

Martin, W. E.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martino, A. D.

Mendez, E. R.

E. R. Mendez and K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[Crossref]

Miller, M. A.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Miller, R. A.

R. A. Miller, “Current status of thermal barrier coatings — An overview,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 30, 1–11 (1987).
[Crossref]

Miselli, P.

F. Andreola, C. Leonelli, M. Romagnoli, and P. Miselli, “Techniques used to determine porosity,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 79(7), 49–52 (2000).

Naciri, A. E.

Nordine, P. C.

O’Donnell, K. A.

E. R. Mendez and K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[Crossref]

Oechsner, M.

D. R. Clarke, M. Oechsner, and N. P. Padture, “Thermal-barrier coatings for more efficient gas-turbine engines,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 891–898 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ossikovski, R.

Padture, N. P.

D. R. Clarke, M. Oechsner, and N. P. Padture, “Thermal-barrier coatings for more efficient gas-turbine engines,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 891–898 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. P. Padture, M. Gell, and E. H. Jordan, “Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications,” Science 296, 280–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pertti, S.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peterson, B.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petty, T. E.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pezzaniti, J. L.

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 1746, 231–246 (1992).
[Crossref]

Preil, M.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Race, J.

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

F. Andreola, C. Leonelli, M. Romagnoli, and P. Miselli, “Techniques used to determine porosity,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 79(7), 49–52 (2000).

Sampath, S.

S. Sampath, U. Schulz, M. O. Jarligo, and S. Kuroda, “Processing science of advanced thermal-barrier systems,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 903–910 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Deshpande, A. Kulkarni, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Application of image analysis for characterization of porosity in thermal spray coatings and correlation with small angle neutron scattering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 187, 6–16 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Kulkarni, A. Vaidya, A. Goland, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Processing effects on porosity-property correlations in plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359, 100–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schulz, U.

S. Sampath, U. Schulz, M. O. Jarligo, and S. Kuroda, “Processing science of advanced thermal-barrier systems,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 903–910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sergey, S.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shaw, J. A.

Smidt, F. A.

C. M. Cotell, J. A. Sprague, and F. A. Smidt, ASM Handbook: Surface Engineering (ASM International, 1994), Vol. 5.

Smith, M. H.

M. H. Smith, “Optimization of a dual-rotating-retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2488–2493 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sobhanverdi, R.

R. Sobhanverdi and A. Akbari, “Porosity and microstructural features of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings,” Ceram. Int. 41, 14517–14528 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sparks, W. B.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sprague, J. A.

C. M. Cotell, J. A. Sprague, and F. A. Smidt, ASM Handbook: Surface Engineering (ASM International, 1994), Vol. 5.

Stevens, M. A.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995), Vol. 2.

Suenaga, S.

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takeda, H.

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

Teale, D. M.

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tuomas, E.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Twietmeyer, K. M.

Tyo, J. S.

Ulanowski, Z.

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vaidya, A.

A. Kulkarni, A. Vaidya, A. Goland, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Processing effects on porosity-property correlations in plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359, 100–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Valenzuela, G.

G. Valenzuela, “Depolarization of EM waves by slightly rough surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 15, 552–557 (1967).
[Crossref]

Vitkin, I. A.

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 110801 (2011).
[Crossref]

von Bradke, M.

M. von Bradke, F. Gitzhofer, and R. Henne, “Porosity determination of ceramic materials by digital image analysis--a critical evaluation,” Scanning 27, 132–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wallace, J. S.

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (CUP Archive, 1999).

Yasuda, K.

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yevagen, O.

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and V. Desai, “Evaluation of thickness, porosity and pore shape of plasma sprayed TBC by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 190, 98–109 (2005).
[Crossref]

Acta Mater. (1)

A. J. Allen, J. Ilavsky, G. G. Long, J. S. Wallace, C. C. Berndt, and H. Herman, “Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering,” Acta Mater. 49, 1661–1675 (2001).
[Crossref]

Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. (1)

F. Andreola, C. Leonelli, M. Romagnoli, and P. Miselli, “Techniques used to determine porosity,” Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 79(7), 49–52 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Ceram. Int. (1)

R. Sobhanverdi and A. Akbari, “Porosity and microstructural features of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings,” Ceram. Int. 41, 14517–14528 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

G. Valenzuela, “Depolarization of EM waves by slightly rough surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 15, 552–557 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S.-H. Leigh and C. C. Berndt, “Quantitative evaluation of void distributions within a plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82, 17–21 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt 7, 329–340 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

N. Ghosh and I. A. Vitkin, “Tissue polarimetry: concepts, challenges, applications, and outlook,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 110801 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. (1)

S. Sergey, P. Alexander, O. Yevagen, K. Ivan, S. Pertti, E. Tuomas, K. Jarkko, and P. Kai-Erik, “Characterization of porous media based on the polarimetric matrix models,” J. Biomed. Photon. Eng. 3, 010306 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (2)

K. Yasuda, S. Suenaga, H. Inagaki, Y. Goto, H. Takeda, and K. Wada, “Relationship between microstructure of plasma-sprayed 8YZ coatings and thermal fatigue life of thermal barrier coatings,” J. Mater. Sci. 35, 317–321 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Ilavsky, C. C. Berndt, and J. Karthikeyan, “Mercury intrusion porosimetry of plasma-sprayed ceramic,” J. Mater. Sci. 32, 3925–3932 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS (1)

D. J. Dixit, V. Kamineni, R. Farrell, E. R. Hosler, M. Preil, J. Race, B. Peterson, and A. C. Diebold, “Metrology for block copolymer directed self-assembly structures using Mueller matrix-based scatterometry,” J. Micro Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 14, 021102 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

W. E. Martin, E. Hesse, J. H. Hough, W. B. Sparks, C. S. Cockell, Z. Ulanowski, T. A. Germer, and P. H. Kaye, “Polarized optical scattering signatures from biological materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2444–2459 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

A. Kulkarni, A. Vaidya, A. Goland, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Processing effects on porosity-property correlations in plasma sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 359, 100–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Metall. Mater. Trans. A (1)

J. A. Gan and C. C. Berndt, “Quantification and taxonomy of pores in thermal spray coatings by image analysis and stereology approach,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A 44, 4844–4858 (2013).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (2)

S. Sampath, U. Schulz, M. O. Jarligo, and S. Kuroda, “Processing science of advanced thermal-barrier systems,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 903–910 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. R. Clarke, M. Oechsner, and N. P. Padture, “Thermal-barrier coatings for more efficient gas-turbine engines,” MRS Bull. 37(10), 891–898 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. R. Mendez and K. A. O’Donnell, “Observation of depolarization and backscattering enhancement in light scattering from Gaussian random surfaces,” Opt. Commun. 61, 91–95 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. B. Chenault, J. L. Pezzaniti, and R. A. Chipman, “Mueller matrix algorithms,” Proc. SPIE 1746, 231–246 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. D. Howe, M. A. Miller, R. V. Blumer, T. E. Petty, M. A. Stevens, D. M. Teale, and M. H. Smith, “Polarization sensing for target acquisition and mine detection,” Proc. SPIE 4133, 202–213 (2000).
[Crossref]

Scanning (1)

M. von Bradke, F. Gitzhofer, and R. Henne, “Porosity determination of ceramic materials by digital image analysis--a critical evaluation,” Scanning 27, 132–135 (2005).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

N. P. Padture, M. Gell, and E. H. Jordan, “Thermal barrier coatings for gas-turbine engine applications,” Science 296, 280–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (3)

R. A. Miller, “Current status of thermal barrier coatings — An overview,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 30, 1–11 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. Deshpande, A. Kulkarni, S. Sampath, and H. Herman, “Application of image analysis for characterization of porosity in thermal spray coatings and correlation with small angle neutron scattering,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 187, 6–16 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang and V. Desai, “Evaluation of thickness, porosity and pore shape of plasma sprayed TBC by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 190, 98–109 (2005).
[Crossref]

tm-Technisches Messen/Sensoren, Geräte, Systeme (1)

B. A. Boukamp, “Impedance spectroscopy, strength and limitations (Impedanzspektroskopie, Stärken und Grenzen),” tm-Technisches Messen/Sensoren, Geräte, Systeme 71, 454–459 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

K. Mailot, F. Gitzhofer, and M. I. Boulos, “Absolute coating porosity measurement using image analysis,” in 15th International Thermal Spray Conference (1998), Vol. 1, pp. 917–922.

H. L. Bernstein, “High temperature coatings for industrial gas turbine users,” in 28th Turbomachinery Symposium (1999), pp. 179–188.

C. M. Cotell, J. A. Sprague, and F. A. Smidt, ASM Handbook: Surface Engineering (ASM International, 1994), Vol. 5.

J. R. Bergen, P. Anandan, K. J. Hanna, and R. Hingorani, “Hierarchical model-based motion estimation,” in 2nd European Conference on Computer Vision (1992), pp. 237–252.

D. H. Goldstein, Polarized Light (CRC Press, 2016).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (CUP Archive, 1999).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (SPIE, 1995), Vol. 2.

R. B. Darlington and A. F. Hayes, Regression Analysis and Linear Models: Concepts, Applications, and Implementation (Guilford Publications, 2016).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the automated RRMM polarimeter architecture.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic configuration for an empty polarimeter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental layout for the RRMM polarimeter verification by using the (a) BK7-GB and (b) BK7-RP.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Images of the intensity measurement with QWP1 at 0° and the calculated polarization images of Δ , D , and R from one of the measured YSZ least porosity sample’s Mueller matrix.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) 3D scatter plot for the mean of Δ versus D versus R , as well as the 2D scatter plot for the mean of (b)  Δ versus D , Δ versus R , and D versus R .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Image of the scanning lines on the TBC coupons. (a) Photo of the coupon and the scan lines; (b) direct measurement from one vertical scan of the profilometer—curvature is present; (c) measurement with the curvature in (b) removed.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Scatter plot of porosity versus R q .
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Scatter plots with error bars for the mean and STD of (a)  Δ , (b)  D , and (c)  R versus R q , respectively.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Scatter plots with error bars for the mean and STD of (a)  Δ , (b)  D , and (c)  R versus porosity, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Classification for All the 18 Samples Based on the Expected Porosity Levela

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M = M Δ M R M D ,
M = [ m 11 m 12 m 13 m 14 m 21 m 22 m 23 m 24 m 31 m 32 m 33 m 34 m 41 m 42 m 43 m 44 ] .
M D = [ 1 D T D m D ] ,
M Δ = [ 1 0 P Δ m Δ ] ,
M R = [ 1 0 0 m R ] ,
D = | D | = 1 m 11 m 12 2 + m 13 2 + m 14 2 .
Δ = 1 | tr ( m Δ ) | 3 ,
R = cos 1 [ tr ( m R ) 1 2 ] ,
S out = AM sample PS in T ,
P = M QWP 1 M LP 1
A = M LP 2 M QWP 2 ,
I ( θ ) = [ 1 0 0 0 ] · M LP 2 ( 0 ° ) · M QWP 2 ( 5 θ ) · M sample · M QWP 1 ( θ ) · M LP 1 ( 0 ° ) · S in T .
I ( θ ) = [ 1 , 0 , 0 , 0 ] · M LP 2 ( ϵ 4 ) · M QWP 2 ( ϕ 2 , 5 θ + ϵ 3 ) · M air · M QWP 1 ( ϕ 1 , θ + ϵ 2 ) · M LP 1 ( ϵ 1 ) · S in T ,
M air = [ 1.0000 0.0042 0.0007 0.0021 0.0043 1.0001 0.0020 0.0031 0.0010 0.0004 1.0091 0.0006 0.0023 0.0130 0.0009 1.0014 ] .
M 12 = 1 2 ( tan ( θ ) sin ( θ + ) ) 2 · [ p p 2 + p s 2 p p 2 p s 2 0 0 p p 2 p s 2 p p 2 + p s 2 0 0 0 0 2 p p p s 0 0 0 0 2 p p p s ] ,
M t = [ 1.0000 0.8255 ± 0.0133 0 0 0.8255 ± 0.0133 1.0000 0 0 0 0 0.5644 ± 0.0195 0 0 0 0 0.5644 ± 0.0195 ] .
M m = [ 1.0000 0.8285 0.0187 0.0023 0.8293 0.9919 0.0346 0.0034 0.0045 0.0260 0.5759 0.0110 0.0093 0.0106 0.0126 0.5416 ] .
M 21 = [ 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 cos ( δ ) sin ( δ ) 0 0 sin ( δ ) cos ( δ ) ] ,
M t = [ 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.7735 ± 0.0170 0.6338 ± 0.0208 0 0 0.6338 ± 0.0208 0.7735 ± 0.0170 ] .
M m = [ 1.0000 0.0006 0.0069 0.0092 0.0002 0.9973 0.0142 0.0492 0.0036 0.0430 0.7724 0.6557 0.0021 0.0415 0.6465 0.7570 ] .
y o = a + b e c x o ,
S = n = 1 N ( y a ( n ) y t ( n ) ) 2 N P ,

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